An extremely rare ?1 coin dating back to the start of English Civil War is expected to fetch ?50,000 at auction.
The solid silver 1643 Declaration Pound was struck in Oxford, which was Charles I's seat of power after he withdrew from London.
Charles was beheaded just six years after the coin was created and England, Scotland and Ireland became a republic ruled by Cromwell, but an inscription on the back declares the King's belief that he could not be toppled.
Charles was beheaded just six years after the coin was created, but an inscription on the back declares the King's belief that he could not be toppled. The coin was made as a new mint was set up in the city and was created to launch an official currency for parts of the country under the King's command.
The legend on the back of the coin translates as 'Let God arise and let His enemies be scattered', symbolising the King's belief in the 'absolute monarch'.
The words were a declaration of the King's power, but this belief in an almighty monarchy caused some of the tensions which led to the Civil War between the Royalist Cavaliers and the Parliamentarian Roundheads, which the Roundheads won. The large coin, which is more than two inches across and remains in good condition, was passed down through one family for generations but the current owner did not realise its value.


Timothy Medhurst, a coin specialist and auctioneer at Duke's Auctioneers in Dorchester, Dorset, where the coin will be sold, said it was the type of item he dreams of finding.
Military dictator: Oliver Cromwell was the ruler of the English (including Welsh), Scottish and Irish Republic between 1653 and his death in 1658. The English Civil War (1642-1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliament and King Charles I in the Kingdom of England (a kingdom which included Wales and which became defunct when it unified with the Kingdom of Scotland to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707).
It led to Charles I being beheaded and his son being exiled in 1649 as the monarchy was replaced by a protectorate, led by Oliver Cromwell. After Cromwell's death, his son Richard was unable to maintain the confidence of the New Model Army, causing the protectorate to fall and the monarchy to be restored with Charles II on the throne in 1660. Ruthless charmer Thomas Cromwell maneuvers his way into the confidence of King Henry VIII, becoming the mercurial monarch's most trusted adviser. While he continues to lobby at court on Cardinal Wolsey's behalf, Thomas Cromwell finds his own influence rapidly expanding. After Cardinal Wolsey dies, Cromwell begins his own scheme to arrange Henry's marriage to Anne -- and simultaneously to exact revenge on Harry Percy.


After Cardinal Wolsey dies, Cromwell consolidates his own position by taking bold action to orchestrate Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn. Court intrigue deepens when Anne gives birth to a girl instead of a male heir, and Cromwell uses ruthless means to thwart a conspiracy.
After Cromwell's death, his son Richard took over but was unable to maintain the confidence of the New Model Army, causing the protectorate to fall and the monarchy to be restored in 1660. Includes behind-the-scenes footage and interviews with Damian Lewis (King Henry VIII), Executive Producer Colin Callender, Director Peter Kosminsky and Masterpiece Executive Producer Rebecca Eaton.



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