Nielsen (2008) quoted that organization change is complex and even little changes are not easy to undertake.
Developed in the early 80’s by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman (two consultants from the McKinsey & Company consulting firm), the McKinsey 7-S Model remains a popular model to use for change management. Strategy: the plan devised to maintain and build competitive advantage over the competition. Systems: the daily activities and procedures that staff members engage in to get the job done. Shared Values: called "superordinate goals" when the model was first developed, these are the core values of the company that are evidenced in the corporate culture and the general work ethic. The idea behind the model is that all the different elements have to be alignment with each other. For situations like this, you can use the 7S model to analyze your current situation and make a proposed future situation. All parts are interrelated, so all portions must be addressed and focused on (12Manage, 2007).
When one of the parts is changed, all parts change because they are all interrelated (12Manage, 2007).
While this model can give you a complete understanding of the whole organization, the model is also really complex to handle. While it might not look straightforward, the McKinsey 7-S model can be linked to the adaptive cycle in our opinion. Within the Equilibrium phase of the Adaptive Cycle we can argue that the all the elements of the McKinsey 7-S model are aligned with each other, for that reason they are all green-colored. The Lewin model is done through steps and thus can be considered as an efficient model that is used within the field of change management. During the Refreezing phase, many employees are worried that another change is coming, so they are in a change shock. The change management model of Lewin (1947) and the Adaptive Cycle model of Abcouwer et al.
When organizations follow the 8-Step model, they can avoid failure and become adept at change. You need to link the ideas and solutions about change to an overall vision that people can understand and remember easily. It is a top-down model and opportunities can be missed, because not everyone is involved in co-creation of the vision. While you should not skip steps, some steps are not required or useful as stated in literature. Develop and document the objectives that need to be achieved with the change and the means to achieve it.
Establish appropriate organizational structures, roles and responsibilities for the change that engage stakeholders and support the change effort. Ongoing commitment at the top and across the organization to guide organizational behavior. Encourage stakeholder participation and commitment to the change by employ open and consultative communication approaches that will create awareness and understanding of the change throughout the organization. Identify the human impacts of the change and develop plans to align the workforce in order to support the changing organization. The extent to which each of these five factors is exhibited in successful change projects will vary depending on the nature of the change involved.


Each change management model has it’s pros and cons, however none of the models is the "best" in all situations. Common factors to successful change management include planning, committed leadership, aligned workforce, informed stakeholders and defined governance. Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike unless otherwise noted. This lesson details the eight steps involved in Kotter's eight-step change model including: create urgency, form a powerful coalition, create change vision, communicate the vision, remove obstacles, create short-term wins, build on the change, and anchor the change in organizational culture. Add important lessons to your Custom Course, track your progress, and achieve your study goals faster. John Kotter, one of the leading management thinkers and writes has given his answer to this question by providing an eight step model for leading change. In order to make the management of change easier a lot of change management models have been developed that all have their pros and cons. Firstly we will describe the model, than discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model and last but not least, the models we be linked to the Adaptive Cycle of Abcouwer et al.
The ‘hard’ elements consist of strategy, structure and systems while the ‘soft’ elements consist of skills, staff, style and shared values. If there is some type of change like new IT-systems for example, the element ‘Systems’ might not be aligned with the other elements anymore.
This way you can identify how each element is alignment with each other and identify possible gaps or inconsistencies.
By asking yourself all the questions related to the elements you are able to cover all the elements of your organisation. A lot of literature has been written about this model as well which can give more insight in how to successfully adopt the model. There are some ideas that might help us align all the elements (orange-colored) again but there is still some uncertainty so the elements are not green yet. The change management model of Lewin is one of the most commonly applied models within the field of change management. This change shock causes employees to not be as efficient or effective regarding their jobs. John Kotter proved with his research that 70% of all major change efforts in organizations fail. You need to develop a sense of urgency around the need for change in order to help trigger the initial motivation to get things moving. Beside managing change, you also have to lead it and to lead change, you need to bring together a coalition of influential people whose power comes from a variety of sources. You need to communicate the vision frequently, powerfully and embed it within everything you do. The people you need to execute your vision can be empowered when you remove obstacles and help the change forward.
The values behind you vision need to be visible in day-to-day work, that why it’s important to make continuous efforts to ensure that the change is seen in every aspect of your organization.
Replacement of major software for example is often irreversible, and therefore steps 7 and 8 of the model might not be relevant. The 8 steps start at the end of the Crisis phase and end just before entering the Equilibrium phase.
Appelbaum, Sally Habashy, Jean-Luc Malo, Hisham Shafiq, (2012),"Back to the future: revisiting Kotter's 1996 change model", Journal of Management Development, Vol.


It is argued that the main problem with change management models is that no framework works “best” in all situations. The main difference between these types of elements is the way to identify and influence them.
In the Entrepreneurship phase we are looking at how these ideas can be implemented to achieve our ‘alignment’ goal again. They fail because organizations most of the time do not take the holistic approach required to see the change through. You have to give your company a taste of victory early in the change process, because without it critics and negative thinkers might hurt your progress. Step 2 till 5 of Kotter’s model can all be placed in the New combinations phase of the adaptive cycle. If we are able to reach to goal, eventually, all the element will be aligned again and we will be back at the Equilibrium phase. These phases are the Unfreeze phase, the Change or Transition phase and the Freeze or Refreeze phase. The Crisis quadrant of the Adaptive Cycle model refers to that the organization’s equilibrium is disturbed and the organization has difficulties finding new balances again.
New initiatives, project-based working, technology improvements, staying ahead of the competition – these things come together to drive ongoing changes to the way we work. During the Unfreeze phase, the employees within the organization are recognizing that change is becoming necessary. During the Unfreeze phase of the Lewin change model, the organization has recognized the need for change. Soft elements however are more difficult to identify because they are less tangible and often influenced by culture. One may argue that the Crisis quadrant of the Adaptive Cycle model and the Unfreeze phase of the change model of Lewin resemble in this manner. In order to prepare for the change, the organization is creating the environment to change and the necessary steps are taken to inform and involve the employees with the change plans. The New Combinations quadrant and the Entrepreneurship quadrant of the Adaptive Cycle Model can be compared to the Change phase of Lewin’s change model. During the Change phase or sometimes referred to as the Transition phase, the organization is in the process of changing to a new way of being. The characteristics of the New Combinations quadrant and the Entrepreneurship quadrant of the Adaptive Cycle Model are similar compared to the Change phase of Lewin’s change model.
The reason is that learning to behave differently or to change is usually associated with resistance, which is based on fear. The Equilibrium quadrant of the Adaptive Cycle Model and the Refreeze phase of the Lewin change model have similar characteristics as well, since it is all about accepting the new changes and establishing stability.
The employees have then the opportunity and the time to learn and understand the changes that are made within the organization. During the Freeze phase or sometimes referred to as the Refreeze phase the organization is starting to establish stability.
The changes have been implemented, accepted and have become the new standard within the organization.



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