Enjoy a different kind of life in your American inspired dream home as Avida takes the best of contemporary American architecture and brings it to your doorstep. Avida Residences San Fernando echoes a time when life was more relaxed, informal, and leisurely-paced. Step outside Avida and enjoy endless shopping choices with SM Malls, Robinson's, and Clark just a few minutes away. Avida uses nothing but the best and most advanced building technology in creating its communities.
Since its legendary development of a vast tract of swamp land that is now the bustling city of Makati, the name Ayala had become indelibly etched in the minds of people as a visionary developer of land, pioneering the future to improve the quality of life. Yet it was only in 1988 when Ayala Corporation spun off its real estate division into a separate company, giving birth to Ayala Land, Inc. Since then, however, both the parent company, now simply known as Ayala, and Ayala Land, Inc. By offering thoughtfully planned, secure, and easily accessible communities at affordable prices, Avida indeed provides homeowners occasions to celebrate life. Avida focuses on enriching the lives of the hardworking middle class by offering their families a home to be proud of one that is nestled in a peaceful and safe community, accessible to public transportation, beautifully and practically designed, and one that will prove reliable performance over time. Avida develops and maintains residential communities that set the standard in the industry. Avida understands how important it is for a homeowner to feel secure - both physically and psychologically. Each of the units that you buy from us is covered by a title that will eventually be transferred to your name. Once you have fully paid your loan or Avida has an undertaking from your financing institution to fully pay your purchase, depending on the financing package you chose, we can now effect title transfer from Avida to your name.
Once all taxes due to the government are paid and the necessary clearances are secured, all the documents needed to effect title transfer are forwarded to the Register of Deeds.
Its real estate interests are consolidated under its full-owned subsidiary, Ayala Land, Inc.
The particulars and visuals shown herein are intended to give a general idea of the project and as such are not to be relied upon as statements of fact.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Get your quality homework help now and stand out.Our professional writers are committed to excellence. A professional essay writing services can alleviate your stress in writing a successful paper and take the pressure off you to hand it in on time. As publishers of desktop Project KickStart and online Webplanner, we are pleased to provide free, high quality project management templates and tools based on project management best practices. Bring your marketing strategy into the 21st century using social media, blogs, news releases, and viral marketing. Inspired by the cold winter weather at the end of 2010, this template will help plan your next ski trip, so you don't forget anything. Water is a key driver of economic and social development while it also has a basic function in maintaining the integrity of the natural environment. Managers, whether in the government or private sectors, have to make difficult decisions on water allocation.
This is the rationale for the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach that has now been accepted internationally as the way forward for efficient, equitable and sustainable development and management of the world's limited water resources and for coping with conflicting demands.
There are great differences in water availability from region to region - from the extremes of deserts to tropical forests. In many regions the availability of water in both quantity and quality is being severely affected by climate variability and climate change, with more or less precipitation in different regions and more extreme weather events.
IWRM is an empirical concept which was built up from the on-the-ground experience of practitioners. UN-Water Task Force on Indicators, Monitoring and Reporting (2008-2010) In 2006 a Task Force on IWRM was created by UN-Water, with members drawn from UN-Water agencies and from partner organizations.
This publication gives an overview of implementation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) principles and water sector reforms in the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. This report looks at the development of River Basin Organisations (RBOs) in terms of availability of data, logical demarcation, adequate organisational design, clear mandates, stakeholder participation and transparent decision-making, integrated planning systems and capacity building amongst others.
UN-Water Status Report on the Application of Integrated Approaches to the Development, Management and Use of Water Resources 2012 UN-Water. Integrated Water Resources Management - Reader[ - 147 KB] UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC). World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), DHI Water Policy, UNEP-DHI Centre for Water and Environment.
World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), UNESCO-International Hydrological Programme (IHP). This Report aims to illustrate progress made on meeting the target to "Develop integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans by 2005, with support to developing countries, through actions at all levels" agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002, through the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. Within the framework of IWRM, the intention of this manual is to provide the necessary general information and specific tools in a user-friendly way so that any water resource stakeholder may be able to resolve existing or head-off impending disputes in a way agreeable to all parties. This training material is intended for a 3-4 day course on how to achieve a water resources management plan that brings in the principles of IWRM. This background document provides a brief overview of the development of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management.
These Guidelines provide information to help practitioners implement IWRM in line with their own set of circumstances. UNESCO-International Hydrological Programme (IHP), World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), Network of Asian River Basin Organizations (NARBO).
Part 1 of the Guidelines provides basic principles of IWRM and explains the benefits of IWRM at river basin level and the need to promote it at the policy level. The 'Invitation to IWRM for Irrigation Practitioners' is intended for IWRM practitioners tackling irrigation planning.
The purpose of this training material is to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the application of integrated water resources management (IWRM) for sustainable management and development of water resources. This manual is an introduction to the principles underlying the integrated water resources management concept: the focus is on the approaches and management tools that facilitate its application, taking into account the size of the territory, whether it is national and international basins or sub-basins of local interest. These case studies are intended to recognize some of the most common problems experienced in IWRM planning and developing options for overcoming them. National Workshop on Participatory Irrigation Management and Integrated Water Resource Management. This report summarizes the themes, issues, and learning that emerged during the 'National Workshop on Participatory Irrigation Management and Integrated Water Resources Management' that was held in Bhubaneshwar, Orissa, India, on 8 and 9 of May 2007. This study provides ESCWA member countries with guidelines on how to implement Integrated Water Resources Management national strategies, with particular focus on institutional and legal dimensions. This overview report introduces the process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) to senior policy and decision makers with the aim of mobilizing political and decision support to implement IWRM at the basin, national and regional levels.
The purpose of this report is to assess the climate change impacts on water resources in Romania from an integrated, multi-sectoral perspective, and to recommend priority actions for addressing the identified risks and opportunities. The UN Water Library provides access to water and sanitation related publications produced by the United Nations system. Engineering planning, design and construction of dams, barrages, pumping stations, etc., is normally carried out with a high degree of efficiency.
It has been increasingly recognized that one of the major difficulties encountered in the implementation of aquaculture development programmes in developing countries is proper project preparation.
Project preparation is usually considered to include all those activities short of a final decision to implement.
During each stage, a number of activities and analyses must be carried out and the findings used to meet the requirements of the subsequent phase, until the project is finally completed.2. This should contain the most important information on the project proposal including a description of the site, soil characteristics determined by the reconnaissance soil survey, source of water and the results of the water analysis, meteorological features used for planning, operation plan with the necessary production calculations, planning considerations, arrangement of the layout plan for the ponds and the location of the hatchery and the other buildings with the approach road to the project, arrangement for water supply and drainage of the ponds and the hatchery, the pond facilities, abstract of costs for capital, operational and production costs, economic analysis for benefits, and the proposed construction programme.
All the typical cross-sections of the dikes and channels showing their measurements and slopes required for the cost estimate must be provided.
A list of the proposed buildings with their plinth areas and the equipment needed for running the project should be given for the cost estimate.
Soil test laboratory results of the samples taken from the test pits for engineering and production purposes should be provided in tables which are used for planning dikes, etc. Estimates of base (civil works) cost must be calculated using unit rates judged to be applicable for the region of the project site and major quantities of each item shall be calculated from the drawings in just sufficient detail to serve the needs of proper estimating. Based on the results of the reconnaissance investigations and quantity calculations a bar-chart for the various activities required to complete the detailed plans and tender documents and procure the land for construction should be prepared.3. The topographic survey which has to be carried out at the site selected for a project should be based on a convenient datum marked with a temporary bench mark (TBM) at the site. Methods (i) and (ii) are ideal on relatively flat land, while methods (iii) and (iv) may also be used but are best suited to hilly terrain or use in a narrow, long valley. During topographic surveying the boundary lines of the selected area for the project should be fixed by stones or concrete blocks. Contour maps used in design of the facilities of the project must show the contour lines and all the establishments found at the proposed site such as roads, electric and telephonic lines, rivers and drains or other channels, buildings, underground oil, gas or water supply pipelines, borrow pits, boundary lines, including the location of the PBRs and the TBMs, the north direction as well as the scale used for mapping. The contour lines should be plotted on the map at 10 cm intervals for flat land and 20 to 25 cm intervals for hilly or valley terrain. If a project is established in an area where there are fish ponds, drains and other channels, etc., their cross and longitudinal sections are often required for designing of the new fish ponds or the renovation of the old ones, etc.
In order to procure the land needed for a project, the required area of the project should be marked by the selected boundary lines on the land map. A number of disturbed and undisturbed samples should be taken from every stratum encountered in the bore holes. In this part, the location of the investigations, methods of boring and samplings, in situ tests conducted at the site, the results of the laboratory tests, the allowable bearing capacity and settlement, the characteristics of the ground water, including whether the water table is perched or normal, its expected fluctuation at the site and quantity of soluble salts or other minerals present as well as foundation and dike construction considerations, should be described in detail.
A log is a written record of the data concerning soils and conditions encountered in individual bore holes. A complete report should be prepared covering the project proposal, investigation, the production including its proposed method, engineering features, execution of construction, summary of costs, etc.
In order to ensure that the detailed plans should be both economical and suitable to the construction, their design must be properly performed. All these calculations based on the local meteorological and soil conditions may be presented using the calculating formulas as shown in Annex 1. Production calculations provided by an Aquaculturist are the most essential parts of the project documents. Both air and water temperature as well as wind velocity must be considered in determining the water depth in the pond. In the tropical region, the daily temperature fluctuations are smaller in deeper ponds than in shallow ponds because of the greater ratio between the water surface and volume. The direction and average velocity of the prevailing winds affect the natural circulation in the ponds which is very important for deeper ponds. When the water source is solely runoff, sometimes it is necessary to increase pond volumes by increasing depth so as to accumulate enough water during the rainy season to suffice for the entire growing season. In order to drain water completely the bottom of the smaller ponds and the bottom of the internal channels in the larger ponds must be sloped towards their outlet points respectively. Measurements and slopes of the dikes should be determined according to the depth of water in the pond, the size of the pond, soil conditions, construction method and the requirements of transport as well as transit on the dike. The side slopes of the dikes depend upon the soil conditions, water depth and size of the pond, as well as the expected wave actions. The exposed parts of the dike (outside slope, crown, inside slope above the water level) should be protected by grass against erosion.
A fish pond should have separate inlet and outlet structures for water supply and drainage as far as possible. For calculation of the discharge of the feeder channel including intake structure or pumping station the peak water demand has to be considered.
The total drainage time of all the ponds can be calculated as 5 to 25 days for 5 to 25 ha ponds. The annual water requirements of fish ponds will depend on the soil conditions found at the project site, environmental factors, cultured species and the chosen technology of fish culture.


For a hatchery, the peak water demand should be determined considering the production target and hatchery technology proposed (Piper, 1982).
To calculate the sizes of the above-mentioned or other hydraulic structures the hydraulic formulas given in Chapter 8 include all the formulas required to determine the sizes of the hydraulic structures. In order to achieve sound hydraulic structures and buildings the structural calculations should be performed. The dikes of fish ponds must be safe and stable during all phases of construction and operation of fish ponds. In order to ensure the accurate marking-out of all the earthworks of the fish farm, a setting out plan must be prepared. Cross-sections of dikes, feeder and drainage channels, inner channels and harvesting pits in the ponds should be given in the detailed plans scaled in 1:100. 2) Cross-sections prepared for a medium or larger project should be generally shown for every 50 m of their longitudinal sections including all the dimensions required for their marking out, as well as their actual height. In addition to the above, the necessary elevations for both the top of the dikes, the FSL in the ponds and the pond or drain bottoms must be indicated in all the cross-sections. 3) Reinforcement plan should give the quality, mark, shape in cm, diameter in mm, number, unit length and total length as well as total weight of bars required for construction of the structure as shown in Figure 8.
The additional detailed plans of the screen, the stoplogs or the installation plans of the pumps for the pumping station, must be prepared in a similar format and detail. 2) Plumbing plan should include all the pipelines of both water and air supply to the incubation and rearing facilities showing the materials and size of each pipe including fittings as well as the designed drainage facilities. This is a complete estimate of the quantities of materials or items that may be required to accomplish the project concerned.
Based on the results of the quantity estimate, this includes the cost estimate of everything required for satisfactory completion of work, and should be the best and most reliable estimate that can be made. This includes the name of the project, the date of preparation and the cost of different main sub-headings, including engineering cost of civil works, cost of equipment and land, etc. The estimated cost of each and every individual item of work is calculated by multiplying the quantity by the specified rate in tabular form known as "Abstract form' as shown below, then adding all together to get the actual estimated cost of work. In order to ensure that the detailed estimates can be easily surveyed, sub-headings are usually required. The quantities of various materials required per unit rate for an item are determined by the specifications. This includes the number of labourers, skilled and unskilled, and their respective wages multiplied by the hours required to complete per unit. Wherever possible, the cost of equipment should be allocated to a specific item of rate, i.e.
These include such items as office rent and depreciation of equipment, salaries of office staff, postage, lighting, travel, telephone charges, plans and specifications, etc.
In general, a profit of 10 percent is calculated for ordinary contracts after allocating all charges for equipment, establishment, etc. To facilitate the preparation of estimates and to enable them to be prepared in a uniform manner, a schedule of rates or data for costing each kind of work commonly executed is provided by different departments in each country. As mentioned previously, quantity estimates of items of various works should be prepared to provide an accurate cost estimate for the implementation of a project. Measurement of all structures and buildings should be taken as per the standard specification, or as per the schedule of rate, or as per current practice. The quantity estimates of earthworks, using the plans of cross and longitudinal sections, as well as contour plans if needed, should be prepared. In this formula, the mean depth or height should be calculated first by averaging the depths of two consecutive sections. This method is based on the assumption that the mid area of a pyramid is half the average area of the ends and the end sections are in parallel planes.
If the volume of earth between two successive cross-sections is considered a prismoid, then a more precise formula, the prismoidal formula, may be used. This method can also be used to calculate the volume of water contained in a reservoir, corresponding to a given height. For wide publicity of a major work, the sealed bids concerned are invited by advertising in a minimum of two daily local newspapers. For smaller projects, an invitation for bids is issued by the owner to a selected group of Contractors. Or take the family along for a fun-filled afternoon along the beaches of Zambales and Bataan.
Each of our systems is selected for its high quality, maximal utility, and suitability for every individual project. Used primarily for Santarosa Estates' French-Mediterranean architecture, it is environment-friendly and boasts a 15-year warranty for its structures. Isabel and San Francisco villages, Tex building components are manufactured and assembled at the construction site. With Avida, under the parent company Ayala Land, average-cost yet well-designed homes are now well within the market's reach. The company is committed to provide the highest value for investment by delivering quality and innovative homes that last for a long time. Physically, the property is protected by a perimeter fence and guards that patrol the area round the clock. A Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT) is issued to the new Avida lot owners and house and lot owners while a Condominium Certificate of Title (CCT) is issued for condominium unit owners. While such particulars and details on present plans which have been prepared with utmost care and given in good faith, buyers are invited to verify their factual correctness and subsequent changes, if any. These templates can be used with very little editing, or they can be customized for your organization, depending on your project management needs. Then download a project template below, and begin modifying it to suit your project's needs.
Use this template to keep your main characters on task and overcoming obstacles in the nick of time. However water is only one of a number of vital natural resources and it is imperative that water issues are not considered in isolation. In addition there is variability of supply through time as a result both of seasonal variation and inter-annual variation. Pollution of water sources is posing major problems for water users as well as for maintaining natural ecosystems. In many regions, too, demand is increasing as a result of population growth and other demographic changes (in particular urbanization) and agricultural and industrial expansion following changes in consumption and production patterns. Although many parts of the concept have been around for several decades - in fact since the first global water conference in Mar del Plata in 1977 - it was not until after Agenda 21 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 1992 in Rio that the concept was made the object of extensive discussions as to what it means in practice. In May 2008, the Task Force on IWRM completed its mandate when it presented the 'Status Report on Integrated Water Resources Management and Water Efficiency Plans' at the sixteenth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. European Union Water Initiative National Policy Dialogues progress report 2013United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
The report is structured in accordance with key IWRM principles and it describes the efforts to create institutional and legal frameworks and implement IWRM principles in these countries.
International experience in development of river basin organisationsUnited Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It contains five central chapters including a background on IWRM, Justification for river Basin Management through River Basin Organisations, Types of River Basin Organisations, Decentralisation and Subsidiarity and Development of River Basin Organisations. 2012Based on a global survey assessing the progress and outcomes of the application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources, this UN-Water report includes lessons learned and recommendations, as well as focus areas for action. 2010This reader is intended for all those interested in getting familiar with Integrated Water Management (IWRM) issues. 2009This paper sets out to explore some of the practical aspects of the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). 2009This publication reviews currently available information on cases related to IWRM and Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) and summarizes these findings with some conclusions and recommendations. The Report is based on a survey covering 104 countries of which 77 are developing or countries in transition and 27 are developed. The emphasis in this manual is on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), in particular, principled negotiation - an approach that seeks to embed outcomes and processes that will serve sustainable, equitable and efficient long-term social needs. 2007This statement has been prepared to support countries in their efforts to improve water management through an IWRM approach, and to stimulate the development of a robust framework for monitoring, evaluating and reporting on the outcomes of such an approach. They consist of the fundamental concepts of IWRM as well as provide insights into the perspectives of various stakeholders with regard to water issues, keys for success for overcoming problems, and good examples where such keys for success were applied.
It also proposes a spiral model of IWRM, which illustrates the evolving and dynamic nature of the IWRM process.
2009'The Guidelines for IWRM Coordination' is intended for practitioners involved in IWRM coordination.
It is intended to be used as introductory guidance for those tackling IWRM for the first time, or as training material for intermediary practitioners and trainers of IWRM. The Invitation consists of three parts: 1) sectoral perspectives, 2) key for success, and 3) IWRM process. This manual is destined first to trainers who, through a national or a regional seminar, would bring the participants to produce a diagnosis of their basin and an action plan.
It draws on the invited presentations by resource persons from around the country and the discussions that ensued. The analysis is presented from an integrated water resources perspective, thereby including all pertinent water-related sectors, viz.
Sometimes, however, the smaller structures, secondary channels, etc., used for aquaculture projects are badly made or omitted entirely from engineering plans. Inadequate and poor preparation of projects has often caused the final construction cost of the project to be much higher than estimated. At this stage, the production target based on a marketing study, the species to be cultured and the systems of culture to be adopted, the availability of a large enough drainable and accessible land area free from flooding and having adequate soil conditions as well as adequate water source, must all be investigated and determined. Additionally, all the statements obtained and required for approval and implementation of the project must be presented usually in a list of annexures to the report. For procurement of land, the cadastral data of the lands including their owner's names, the size and unit price, as well as total amount in local currency of lands, should be prepared as shown in Table 2. The first step in a detailed investigation is a review of the work already done in the previous project stage. The soil samples provide material for an investigation of the soil properties by means of laboratory tests. It also provides the results of the laboratory tests on which all subsequent conclusions are based, such as design of the facilities and method of construction.
Where soil profiles are provided in the soil report, the information shown in them is limited to factual data such as the ground surface line and logs of bore holes located in their actual position with respect to the ground surface line.
The following designs depending upon the nature and scale of the project usually have to be prepared for the detailed drawings.
All statements of production calculations should be considered to prepare any detailed plans of the project. This is important because the optimal water temperature required for a higher fish production may be assured with a sufficient water depth. If there is a feeder channel on the top of the dike, its top width should be wide enough for both the feeder channel and a road or a passage way. In ponds with more than about 0,5 ha of water surface, wave protection made of branches, rip-rap, brick lining, bamboo matting, etc. The total filling time of all the ponds can be calculated as 6 to 30 days for 5 to 25 ha ponds.
To avoid any difficulty during the operation period of fish ponds all the factors have to be considered in this calculation.
This can be determined from the number of daily water changes in the raceway and the cross sectional area of the raceway (Leitritz, 1980). Obviously, the peak water demand based on the production calculations should be considered. The amount of water lost through seepage must be controlled so that it does not interfere with planned project functions. The layout plan must show the contour lines if those are not provided on a separate contour map and all the establishments found at the site such as the existing roads, electric and telephonic lines, rivers and drains or other channels, buildings, underground pipelines, boundary lines, including the location of the PBRs and the TBMs with their elevations, the North line and the scale used for planning.


The reference line including the TBMs, all the measurements of the fish ponds and drains, as well as feeder canals, including the location and numbering of the cross sections required to peg out the centre lines of the dikes and the channels must be illustrated on this plan as shown in Figure 4. In this case the cross-sections must show all the measurements including their slopes, etc., except their actual height.
The quantity estimate is one of the most important ones in order to arrive at an accurate cost estimate for the detailed plan. For small jobs 15 percent profit and for large jobs 8 percent profit should be considered as common figures.
Quantity estimates should be prepared separately for both the structures and the earthworks. From the mean depth the area of mid section should be calculated and volume of earthwork computed by multiplying the area of mid section by the distance between the two original sections. This is done by calculating the total volume contained below successive contours and then plotting volume against height to give a curve from which the volume at intermediate levels may be read. Tex buildings can be installed quickly and accurately, and carry a 15-year warranty on structure. Shorts for "Ave" or "celebrate" and "vida" which means "life", this new name is more in tune with Ayala Land's commitment to transform the lives of the hardworking middle class.
Hence, we encourage you to spend time to read through for better understanding of what to expect - our deliverables and your corresponding obligations towards full realization of your expectations.
We still have to pay for the taxes due on the purchase to the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) to secure the necessary documents required by the Register of Deeds from that government agency before effecting actual title transfer. Established in 1834, Ayala Corporation consists of five major subsidiaries and three affiliates that are leading players in the areas of banking, insurance, automotive, real estate, telecommunications, information technology and water utilities.
It is primarily credited for Makati City's metamorphosis from grasslands back in the 1940's into the premiere business district it is today.
The contents herein are subject to change without prior notice and do not constitute part of an offer or contract.
Drivers such as demographic and climatic changes further increase the stress on water resources.
All too often the magnitude of variability and the timing and duration of periods of high and low supply are not predictable; this equates to unreliability of the resource which poses great challenges to water managers in particular and to societies as a whole.
As a result some regions are now in a perpetual state of demand outstripping supply and in many more regions that is the case at critical times of the year or in years of low water availability.
In 2008, UN-Water combined the Task Force on IWRM and the Task Force on Monitoring to establish the Task Force on Indicators, Monitoring and Reporting. It also details the contribution of National Policy Dialogues (NPDs) to this process, and provides conclusions and recommendations for the further development of the NPDs on IWRM.
The report also provides guidance for establishing a regular international monitoring and reporting framework to promote sustainable development and management of water resources.
The reader provides basic references for easy reading and some of the latest and most relevant United Nations publications on IWRM issues.
It covers the following aspects: 1) the relevance of IWRM for a number of key development issues, 2) the key characteristics of the concept, 3) the global status of IWRM, 4) practical implementation - the challenges, 5) practical implementation - case studies showing successful applications to problematic management scenarios, and 6) how IWRM programmes are being linked with the Millennium Development Goals and adaptation to climate change by the setting of achievement milestones.
While the material is targeted for national IWRM plans it is readily adaptable for basin level planning and trainers. This first publication serves as an introduction to the Guidelines and outlines the main points contained within them.
It can be used as introductory guidance for those tackling IWRM for the first time, or as training material for intermediary practitioners and trainers of IWRM. For IWRM experts, it can be used as a reference guide to tackle the various issues and problems they face in their IWRM activities. In developing countries engineers have frequently neglected these minor works, particularly those required at the farm level.
The purpose of this lecture is to present in simple form the various steps required in preparation of plans, estimates and tender documents for projects and to describe some of the planning procedures that are used in these processes. There are both ecological and technological as well as economic and social considerations involved in site selection. The production calculations concerned as well as the design should be in sufficient detail so that a reliable cost estimate including both the annual operational and production cost can be established.
The field work in tachiometry is rapid compared with the other methods and it is widely used, therefore, for contouring of any types of areas.
This includes not only a review of the reconnaissance investigations, but also an examination of the reconnaissance design, if any is available, and a determination of whether the objective is still the same.
The Engineer conducting the field exploration work should decide upon the additional number of sample stations. It may form an important part of contract documents and it may be required as basic evidence in court in case of dispute. Whereas, in colder areas, such as Europe, where the problem is how to attain higher water temperatures in the ponds more rapidly, the shallower ponds are recommended to achieve a relatively high fish production (Hepher, 1981). The latter is needed for pond operations and maintenance of inlets and feeder channel (Tapiador, 1977).
It is very important that the inlet be screened to prevent predatory fish and other animals from entering the pond. The best type of outlet for controlling water level in the pond and draining the pond is the monk. In addition, the layout plan must show the designed establishments such as fish ponds with their measurements and area as well as the FSL in the ponds, the location of the feeder and drainage channels, all the structures with their mark and number, the hatchery and other buildings needed, the pumping station or other water sources, i.e.
The elevations of the TBMs and other data needed for setting out the facilities should also be given in this plan.
Using these cross-sections, the earthwork calculations for the bill of quantities can be easily done. The existing ground level including the instructions referring to the topsoil removal from the basement of the dikes, should be noted on the plan. For certain tools and plant it is difficult to allocate their use to an individual item of rate, and it is therefore suggested that this expenditure be included in overheads, i.e.
The areas enclosed by individual contour lines are best taken off the map by means of a planimeter. Using this method, the area marked out on the contour map should be divided up into squares or rectangles.
The advertisement should contain the following information: issuing office, brief description of work, location of project, estimated cost of work, office where plans and specifications can be obtained and charges for them, price of tender form and other tender documents, class of Contractors, earnest money to be deposited, time of completion, date for receipt of bids and time of opening of bids, accepting authority and rights reserved to the Owner.
Emotionally, residents have peace of mind because they have valid land titles, and the quality homes that they own can last generations to come. This process takes about four (4) to six (6) months from date of full payment and submission of all documentary requirements.
To this day, it is the preferred business location of the most prestigious corporate, commercial and residential addresses, site of many international hotel chains and home to exclusive high-end residential areas developed by the Ayala group over the past 50 years.
The traditional fragmented approach is no longer viable and a more holistic approach to water management is essential. Most developed countries have, in large measure, artificially overcome natural variability by supply-side infrastructure to assure reliable supply and reduce risks, albeit at high cost and often with negative impacts on the environment and sometimes on human health and livelihoods.
The first one, of a more conceptual nature, presents a review of several definitions and some of the most pressing issues related to integrated basin-wide management. The recommended priority actions are presented in the context of consideration for possible financing under the operational programs funded by the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) in 2014-2020 planning horizon. To contractors they do not mean much profit and they are dispersed and difficult to supervise. Estimates of cost are given for electricity supply, engineering (design of detailed plan and supervision of construction), equipment, land procurement and physical contingencies.
With reasonable precautions, the results obtained can be of the same order of accuracy as, or better than, those obtainable by other methods.
These may also serve for control of levelling or contouring operations over the site, and for setting out the facilities of the project.
Depending upon the results of the reconnaissance exploration and the size of the project, the requirements for the detailed soil survey must be predetermined. Obviously, all of the information listed in this outline is not necessary for any particular small project, but the greater part of it will be usually required for a larger project (Alien, 1981).
The floor level of the inlet is usually higher by a minimum of 0.10 m than the water level in the pond partly to ensure water aeration and partly to avoid escape of stocked fish. The monk consists of a vertical tower with three pairs of grooves for housing screens and stoplogs and a horizontal conduit passing across the dike at the lowest level of the pond. The TBMs should be established in such positions that they cannot be destroyed by the machines during the construction period.
It is very important that the axis of the dikes and drains, as well as their distances, be illustrated on the drawing.
This includes the market cost of the materials, including loading and unloading costs, 10 percent profit, and transportation costs. Elevations are taken at each of the corner points and by subtracting these from the corresponding formation levels, a series of heights is obtained from which the mean height of a series of vertical truncated prisms of earth can be found.
Many less developed countries, and some developed countries, are now finding that supply-side solutions alone are not adequate to address the ever increasing demands from demographic, economic and climatic pressures; waste-water treatment, water recycling and demand management measures are being introduced to counter the challenges of inadequate supply. The second section of the manual, aimed at training, takes the reader and the trainer through the steps of the management framework. This analysis is based on the available information on the current status of water resources sector in Romania, along with the existing knowledge on the anticipated impacts of climate change in this sector. The boundary map, as shown in Figure 2, must indicate the lengths of the traverse lines for the boundary of the project, locations of the PBRs, the coordinates of the reference meridian, the bearings of the lines, the actual area covered by the traverse lines, the existing roads, buildings, rivers and other property boundaries.
The number and spacing of borings including their exploration depth is dependent upon what is needed to get the data of the soils found in the bore holes at the site. It is advisable to provide a harvesting box at the downstream end of the conduit for harvesting the pond without netting. The characteristic data of the structures such as their mark, size and floor level must be given in a table on the layout plan as shown in Figure 3.
The volume of each prism is given by the plan area multiplied by the mean height of the prism.
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At this point, all titles that will be issued will be in the name of Avida or its joint venture partner.
The list of the coordinates of the PBRs, including the elevation as shown in Table 1, should be attached to the boundary map, and the data should be recorded in the construction site logbook before starting any construction works at the site. By studying the exploration boring logs available general information on the expected conditions can be obtained.
The headings on the log forms provide spaces for supplying identifying information as to project, hole number, elevation, dates started and completed, and the name of the person responsible. The inlet is better located in the centre of the short side of the pond, in order to provide better water circulation (Hora, 1962). This is essential as, if the PBRs are destroyed by any machines during the construction period, they can easily be re-established from the site logbook. From this the additional number of borings including their spacing distance and exploration depths can be determined. The body of the log form is divided into a series of columns covering the depth, thickness and description of strata, the presence or absence of water levels as well as the results of the laboratory tests. The size of inlet and outlet should be calculated on the basis of the time needed for filling or draining the pond respectively (Wheaton, 1977). The tender paper will be sold during the office working days up to 9-12-82 and will be received on 10-12-82 at 2 p.m. Certified copy of the Sales Tax and Income Tax clearance certificates are also to be attached and the original to be shown at the time of opening.
The authority reserves the right to cancel any or all the tenders without assigning any reason thereof.



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