As digital technology becomes more and more of a fixture in Americans’ daily lives, it has infiltrated all sorts of domains, including how people meet, communicate with their romantic partners and manage their lives together. The focus of this report is on couples who are in an existing marriage or other type of committed relationship. Throughout this report, when we refer to “couples,” or to people who are in a “marriage or committed relationship,” we are referring to the 66% of the American public that falls into one of the three categories listed above. The remainder of this report, with the exception of the discussion of sexting, examines the role of these technologies in the lives of Americans who are married or in a committed relationship. While most American couples tend to operate their online accounts independently, a subset of couples utilizes email, social media and other digital tools together as a unit. 27% of internet users who are married or in a committed relationship share an email account. 11% of couples who use social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter say that they share a social networking profile.
Although fully “joint accounts” are relatively uncommon when it comes to online communication platforms, many more couples share passwords with their spouse or significant other. Among internet users who are married or are in a committed relationship, some 27% share an email account with their partner.
11% of internet users who are in a couple share an online calendar with their spouse or partner. Sharing online calendars is less common than sharing email accounts—11% of internet users in a couple say that they share an online calendar with their spouse or partner.
Middle aged couples – 16% of 25-34 year olds, and 12% of those ages 35-44, share an online calendar with their partner. Those who are employed full-time – 12% of those who are employed full-time share an online calendar with their spouse or partner. Individuals who own a smartphone, or who use social networking sites, are also more likely to share a calendar with a partner or spouse compared with non-adopters of these technologies.
11% of social network site users in a marriage or committed partnership share a social media profile with their spouse or partner.
Sharing of online passwords between partners is much more common than creating joint accounts. Couples who share an email address also share other online tools and materials – one quarter of email sharers also co-own a social media profile, 16% share an online calendar and 87% share passwords with their partner. Long-term couples are more likely to approach their online accounts as a joint undertaking.
Couples who have been together for a longer period of time—and therefore may have first encountered many of these technologies as a couple, rather than as single individuals—tend to have higher rates of account sharing compared with couples who have been together for a shorter period of time. Among the married and partnered, there are big differences between those in relationships of long duration and the more newly partnered: the longer partners in a couple have been together, the more likely they are to share an email address. Couples who have been together for more than ten years are more likely than those who have shared their lives for shorter periods to say they share a social media profile. Couples who have been married or partnered for 6 years or more are also more likely to have shared a password with their partner than those married less than 6 years (59% vs 71%). Sharing calendars is the only activity where the length of the relationship does not seem to have an impact. Most couples say that the internet has had no real impact one way or the other on their relationship—but for those who say it has had an impact, that impact is overwhelmingly positive. For a substantial majority of couples, the internet plays a modest role in their relationships. Although most couples believe that the internet’s impact on their relationship has been minimal, the proportion saying it does have some impact has increased since we first asked this question in 2005. Among the adult internet users who report that the internet had an impact on their marriage or partnership, the majority of them say the impact was positive, with three quarters of adult internet users reporting a positive impact. Overall, just 27% of internet users in couples say that the internet has had some impact on their relationship—but this varies substantially by age.
Relationship duration shows a similar pattern – internet users who have been married or partnered ten years or less are substantially more likely to say the internet has had an impact on their relationship than those in longer partnerships. As the earlier Online Dating and Relationships report shows, adults in partnerships or marriages of ten years or less look quite similar to single and dating adults in their use of the internet and social media for the work of meeting, flirting and checking up on people they are about to date or have dated in the past.
Adults with a wider range of technology assets – for instance, those who use social media sites or own smartphones—are also more likely to say that the internet has had an impact on their relationship. In addition, parents are more likely than non-parents to say that the internet has had an impact on their relationship, and urban dwellers (and to a lesser extent, suburbanites) are more likely than those living in rural areas to say that the internet has had an impact on their relationship. Among adults in couples who say that the internet has an impact on their relationship, a majority say the impact is positive.
Among internet users in couples who report that the internet has at least a minor impact on their marriage or partnership, a substantial majority—74%–say that the internet has a positive impact. As the proportion of online couples who say that the internet has had some impact on their relationship has increased over time, the proportion saying that its impact on their relationship is negative has also increased.
The number of respondents who answered this question (n=328) is too small to conduct a detailed analysis of demographic subgroups. For younger adults and those in relatively new relationships, technology can be a source of frustration and distraction—even as it offers new sources of intimacy.
Some 8% of online adults in a marriage or partnership have argued with their partner about the amount of time one of them was spending online, and 4% have been upset by something they found out their partner was doing online. Those who have been with their partner for ten years or less were significantly more likely than those in longer relationships to have encountered these negative experiences.
Beyond these general annoyances, cell phones seem to have a particularly distracting effect on relationships. But even as it introduces new sources of annoyance and frustration, technology can also add a level of emotional intimacy to one’s communications that many couples find helpful in their relationships. Even as they are more likely to experience some negative consequences of technology in the form of distraction and arguments with their partners, young people (those ages 18-29) are also particularly likely to experience more positive outcomes with respect to technology and relationship communication. People – whether in couples or not – are also using technology to share some of the most intimate aspects of their relationship. Across all age groups, the proportion of cell owners that says they send and receive sexts has increased since the last time we asked in 2012. The rise in sexting also correlates with the growing popularity of smartphones, which make it easy to take and share pictures and videos.
Among those in relationships, cell owners who have been partnered for ten years or less are significantly more likely than those who have been in a relationship for more than ten years to sext. This data point is an estimate based on the sample for this survey and is slightly different from the Census estimates published in other Pew Research Center surveys. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. DATING can be difficult enough, but what about if you have a sexually transmitted infection? The virus, also known as oral herpes, usually causes cold sores around the mouth.But another 417million people aged between 15 and 49 have the second type (HSV-2) which is best known as genital herpes. THERE’S one move you should stop making before having sex because it has a very bad consequence.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school. The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842. In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man.
10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think. HIV-positive men react to the unkind messages, such as above, that have been sent to real men on GrindrThe responses to the mean messages, which varied from abusive to absurd, were incredibly honest, educational and surprisingly funny.There was also a clear warning that messages like this add 'yet another brick to the viral closet'.
The film begins with 'Are you clean?' a question often posed on gay dating apps that is a direct allusion to HIV.A The models, including Thomas, 43, reply. A Each time someone sends a message like this to an HIV guy it adds a brick to the viral closet. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Just as you shouldn’t hold yourself back, you don’t want to rush into a relationship just because you think it will be the fix you are looking for. Your status does not define who you are, nor does it dictate the kind of person who you should be with.
HIV Equal is an international social media campaign & online magazine that promotes HIV testing and aims to end the stigma associated with the virus. Additional demographic details about these groups can be found in the appendix at the end of the online dating report.


The sexting analysis focuses more broadly on all adult cell phone owners, both single and those in couples.
Sharing email accounts between couples is relatively prevalent—although far from a majority activity. Some 67% of internet users in a marriage or committed relationship say that they have shared an online password with their spouse or current partner. The likelihood of sharing an email account becomes steadily greater with age – just 12% of married or committed adults ages 18-29 share an email address with their partner, compared with 47% among adults ages 65 and older.
Sharing online calendars is not especially prevalent for any demographic subset of committed couples, but is most common among couples at a stage in life in which logistical scheduling can be challenging.
Calendar sharing also increases at retirement age, as 11% of those 65 and older share an online calendar with a partner.
Among adults in a couple who use social networking sites, just 11% say that they share a profile with their spouse or partner. Fully 67% of internet users in a marriage or committed relationship have shared an online password with their partner or spouse. Among adults who share a calendar with their spouse or significant other, more than 2 in 5 also share an email account, 18% share a social media profile and nine in ten share passwords with their partner. Fourteen percent of the long-married or internet users in couples who have been together for more than ten years share a profile, while just 8% of those married or partnered for less than a decade do so. Just 10% of internet users in couples say that the internet has had a “major impact” on their relationship, while 17% say that it has had a “minor impact.” On the other hand, fully 72% of married or committed online adults said the internet has “no real impact at all” on their partnership.
Some 45% of internet users in couples ages 18-29 say that the internet has some impact on their relationship (21% say it has had a “major” impact, and 24% say it has had a “minor” impact).
While 15% of more newly partnered people say the internet has had a major impact on their partnership, just 5% of those partnered more than a decade say the same. These adults have already incorporated the technology in the beginnings of their relationship, and now continue to do so as they enter a more stable phase of their romantic lives. Some 13% of smartphone owners in committed relationships say the internet had a “major” impact on their relationship, compared with just 4% of non-smartphone owners, and 3% of those without a cellphone at all. An additional 20% say that the impact of the internet on their relationship is mostly negative, while 4% say that its impact is both good and bad.
When we asked this same question of online couples who felt that the internet had an impact on their relationship in 2005, some 84% said that the internet had a positive impact on their relationship—a figure that has dropped to 74% today. In the last two decades, the options that couples have at their fingertips for communication within or outside of the partnership have diversified tremendously.
Young adults (those ages 18-29 years old) were especially likely to say they had an argument with their partner about the amount of time one of them was spending online (18% have experienced this), and this experience is also relatively common along with those living in households with an annual income under $30,000 (15%). Fully 25% of cell phone owners in a committed relationship have felt that their spouse or partner was distracted by their cell phone when spending time together.  Cell phone distractions are especially common among younger couples—some 42% of 18-29 year olds in marriages or serious relationships have experienced this issue. For example, 21% of internet users or cell phone owners in committed relationships have felt closer to their partner because of exchanges or conversations they had online or by text message. Some 33% of text messaging users in this age group who are in a committed relationship have texted their partner while both are at home, while 41% of young internet users or cell phone owners in relationships have felt closer to their partner due to online or text conversations, and 23% have resolved an argument in the digital sphere that was difficult to resolve in person. Sexting – receiving, sending, or forwarding sexually suggestive photos or videos via cell phones– is on the rise among cell phone owners. Younger adults are more likely than their older counterparts to send, receive, and forward sexts.
But this behavior, too, has also seen increases since 2012 across every age group except those 55 and older. Some 56% of American adults own a smartphone (including 80% of those 18-29), up from 46% in 2012.
Cell phone owners who said they were “single and looking” are significantly more likely than those who are single but not looking to say they send, receive, and forward sexts. Over half (55%) have received a suggestive image, almost a third (31%) have sent one, and 9% have forwarded a sext. Adults in marriages or committed relationships are just as likely to say they have sent sexually suggestive texts as single individuals. A third (32%) of those in shorter relationships have received a sext, more than five times the proportion of those in longer relationships to say so (6%). It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China.
Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre.
Unfortunately, the progress we've made in tackling the stigma associated with an HIV-positive diagnosis has not been as fast,' GMFA CEO Matthew Hodson said.'The all too visible stigmatisation of people living with HIV discourages people from testing, or talking honestly about HIV, their risk and their testing history. Even though you are the same person as you were before – same interests, same likes, and same qualities – you can feel as if a potential love interest might view you differently. A relationship should be based on similar interests, likes, and qualities, not whether the two of you are on the same treatment schedule.
Far too often, people with HIV act as if they should be so lucky to find someone who will look past their HIV status.
If you want a chance at finding a relationship worth something, you must first realize that you are just as valuable as you have always been, maybe more.
Adults earning more than $50,000 in household income are substantially more likely to share an email address with a partner or spouse than those who earn less, with 18% of those earning less than $50,000 a year reporting sharing an email address, while 32% of those couples earning more share an address. There is also relatively little demographic variation when it comes to this behavior—for example, social media users of all ages are equally likely to share a profile with their spouse or partner.
Password sharing does not vary by age, but it is more prevalent in higher-income households.
This rises to 24% for those together for 6 to 10 years and 38% for those married or in a committed relationship for more than ten years.
As with email, the duration of the relationship is a more important factor than the age of the individuals. On the other hand, just 11% of such internet users in couples ages 65 and older say that the internet has an impact on their relationship (and only 1% of these older adults say that the internet has a “major” impact on their marriage or partnership). For more details on married and partnered adults’ use of social media and the internet to manage meeting, flirting, breaking up and checking up, see the Online Dating and Relationships report. Similarly, 13% of coupled social media users say the internet has had a major impact on their relationship, compared with just 4% of internet users who do not use social media. Similarly, at that time 13% of these online couples said that the impact of the internet on their relationship was mostly negative—today 20% of these couples say that the internet has had a negative impact on their relationship overall.
Voice and text based communication on phones of all kinds, social media postings, instant and email messages, photos, videos and video chatting all have changed how couples can communicate with one another. Both of these groups were also likely to say they found the online activity of their partner upsetting (8% of young adults and 9% of low-income people have experienced this). Other groups of couples who have experienced this at relatively high rates include parents, college graduates, and those with relatively high household incomes. Another 9% have resolved an argument with their partner online or by texting that they had difficulty resolving in person.
Parents were also likely to describe feeling closer to their partner due to technology (26% of internet users or cell owners in relationships) and to text while at home together (30% of texters in relationships). Some 9% of cell phone owners have sent a suggestive picture or video, while 20% have received one. Cell owners ages 18-24 are the most likely to say they receive sexts (44%), while those in their mid-twenties through mid-thirties are more likely than older adults to say they send sexts (22%).
In previous surveys, those in their mid-twenties through mid-thirties were the most likely to both send and receive sexts. Fully 42% of single and looking cell phone owners have received a sext, 23% have sent one, and 10% have forwarded a suggestive picture or video.
They are significantly more likely than cell owners who do not use online dating to perform all three activities. Some 9% of those in a relationship have sent sexts, along with 10% of those not in a relationship. Some 17% of those partnered for ten years or less have sent a sext, compared to just 2% of those in a relationship for more than ten years.
Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre.
As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes. Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases. In the meantime, here are five dating don’ts to follow until you figure it out for yourself. However, that flawed way of thinking could lead you to look past bad chemistry just because he likes you. White adults in committed relationships or marriages are more likely to share a joint email address than similarly married or committed African-American adults (28% vs.


However, those who have only completed high school are a bit more likely to say they share a social media profile compared to those with a college degree (15% vs. Couples who earn more than $50,000 a year in household income are more likely to share passwords with each other than those who earn less (76% vs.
The age of the individual is not as strong a factor in email sharing as how long a couple has been together. And 38% of those in committed relationships who have used online dating sites say the internet has had a major impact on their partnership, compared with 7% of those who have not used online dating sites. And 25% of text messaging users who are in relationships have texted their partner while both were home together. These are both statistically significant increases from the last time we asked about these behaviors in 2012 when 6% of cell owners had sent a sext and 15% had received one. Forwarding sexts is not highly popular among any age group – just 6% of those 18-24 do so along with 5% of those 25-34. For the first time, however, those ages 18-24 are the most likely of any age group to say they receive sexts (44%). Some 27% have received a sext, more than double the 10% of other cell owners who have received one. But when it comes to receiving and forwarding sexts, those not in a relationship are significantly more likely to do both. Another 4% of those in shorter relationships have forwarded a suggestive picture or video, while a slim 1% of those in longer relationships have done so. However, we are reporting our findings throughout this section based on internet users in order to be comparable with our 2005 data, which was asked only of those who use the internet.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. HIV isn’t a bad quality that you possess, and someone worth your time won’t pat himself on the back for being with you. 17%).  Retirees are also substantially more likely to share an email account with their spouse or partner, with 42% of them reporting a shared email address, compared with 24% of those employed full time. Those who have been in relationships for ten years or less were more likely than those in longer relationships to exhibit all three of these behaviors.
Just 3% of cell owners have forwarded a sext, a figure that is unchanged from the percentage who did so in 2012. This represents a significant increase from 2012, when 26% of those 18-24 said they received sexts. A quarter of those not in a relationship say they have received sexts compared to 18% of those not in a relationship.
There are only modest differences in our 2013 data when based on all adults as opposed to internet users, and results for both groups can be found in the “survey questions” section at the end of this report.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
Parents are also a bit more likely to report sharing passwords than those without children at home.
Some 4% of singles say they forward sexts along with 2% of those in a relationship, both relatively low figures.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced.
For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing.
Some 71% of parents share passwords with their partner or spouse as do 65% of those who are not parents. Forwarding sexts is also somewhat more popular among smartphone owners (4%) than other cell owners (1%).
Sexting has been with us since cameras were added to cell phones – so it is possible that partnered (or single) adults could be referring to past sext-sending rather than current activity. The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made.
A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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