We will be provided with an authorization token (please note: passwords are not shared with us) and will sync your accounts for you. The pattern of epileptic seizures is often considered unpredictable and the interval between events without correlation. Epilepsy is a common and serious neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Identification of a power law in epileptic inter-event times has received considerable interest (7).
A long-memory process (or long-range-dependent process) is another type of dynamic behavior that can be identified by the existence of a power law in the higher order statistics of a system.
Recognizing and understanding any long-term dynamic processes underlying epilepsy would have significant implications for its management; however, the data required for the estimation of this have not previously been available. We present here a study of the dynamics of epileptic seizure generation using intracranial, ambulatory, human EEG data with continuous records up to 2 years duration. Data acquired for a clinical feasibility study of a seizure prediction device involving long-term implantation of iEEG recording electrodes were used. Seventeen subjects were enrolled from the three tertiary referral epilepsy centers comprising the Melbourne University Epilepsy Group.
The major components of the implanted seizure prediction system are: (1) the implantable lead assemblies, (2) the implantable telemetry unit, (3) the external hand-held personal advisory device, and (4) the external charging accessory. The clinical study algorithm utilized a layered structure consisting of a filtering layer, a feature extraction layer, and a classification layer.
The filtering and feature extraction layers were used to implement a form of spectral analysis. The classifier design was intended to create a computationally efficient implementation that was functionally similar to a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier. Post processing was applied to the iEEG data to determine the time and the length of both clinical and sub-clinical seizures (defined as electroencephalographic events with no clinically relevant manifestation). To estimate the Hurst exponent (H) of a long-memory process, a power law must be identified in the second order statistics (such as the variance) of the dataset. Recent research has shown that a reliable and robust estimate of H is possible with the use of wavelets (15–17), designed to isolate activity at different frequencies and timescales (14, 15). Example estimates of H for both random and long-memory processes are shown in Figures 2A,B.
In Figure 3A, it is the probability density function (PDF, or normalized histogram) of the inter-seizure times of each of the eight viable datasets. The existence of long-memory processes was evaluated for the eight subjects, and the resulting scalograms shown in Figure 4.
To compute the Hurst exponent, regions of alignment were defined as any four or more scales within the stationary regions over which a straight line could be drawn (15). 1 user rated this ebook - write a review of Brain Power: How to Improve Your Memory and Speed Reading Techniques Faster and More Efficiently.
Brain Power: How to Improve Your Memory and Speed Reading Techniques Faster and More Efficiently ePub (Adobe DRM) can be read on any device that can open ePub (Adobe DRM) files. Monele LeStrat, Linden Baker, Kennie Benoit, Hollie Anne Kornik, Eva Kwok, Logan Russell, Gary Martin, Ania Marson, John R. In May 2015, an extraordinary conversation took place in the White House as President Barack Obama interviewed Sir David Attenborough. As their surrounding community has taken a turn for the worse, the crew at Calvin's Barbershop come together to bring some much needed change to their neighborhood. Tagline: The X-Men send Wolverine to the past in a desperate effort to change history and prevent an event that results in doom for both humans and mutants. As Sir David Attenborough turns 90, this intimate film presents new interviews, eye-opening behind-the-scenes footage and extraordinary clips from some of his most recent films. The doc, which was made for the occasion of Attenborough\'s 90th birthday, was shot over seven years and follows him as he travels to Borneo, Morocco and the Galapagos to shoot wildlife specials. Tara Wadia (Farah Karimaee), a singer and girlfriend of a gangster Raghu (Himesh Reshammiya) lives with her mother (Shernaz Patel). Clara Randall (Tatyana Ali) is living in a waking nightmare, haunted by psychic visions of a kidnapped girl. Local cameraman Hugo Kitching knows this only too well, but he is determined to follow the mother and calf through the four seasons.
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A number of studies have examined the possibility that seizure activity respects a power-law relationship, both in terms of event magnitude and inter-event intervals. Though cycles of seizure activity associated with biological rhythms (circadian and menstrual) have long been recognized, Poisson processes have been felt to describe the pattern of seizure occurrence, with departures perhaps explained by external factors (1). Power laws describe a relationship between quantities, where the frequency of an event varies as a power of another feature of the event, such as size.
This describes a situation where the decay of dependence of system dynamics on past events is slower than exponential, and correlation of events extends far beyond immediate values. Two of these elected to pursue other treatment options prior to implantation, and so are not included in any further results.
In addition to these components, a cluster-computing system and associated software was used to configure algorithms for each individual subject.
Two silicone implantable lead assemblies, each with eight platinum iridium contacts distributed across two electrode arrays (16 electrodes in total), were used to collect iEEG on the cortical surface. Each layer could be configured using a number of subject-specific parameters that were created as part of an algorithm training process.
Input signals were filtered by a collection of octave-wide digital filters covering the range from 2 to 128 Hz.
This was accomplished through use of a partitioning approach that reduced the need to search through long lists of training data points.
The main function of this new cluster computer was to train subject-specific algorithms to generate the required algorithm configuration parameters.
Study investigators annotated the iEEG acquired and events were detected by a validated seizure detection algorithm based on an unsupervised learning approach that identifies statistically significant outliers in iEEG features associated with seizures (12). Recursively applying a wavelet transform with dyadic sampling to a dataset yields wavelet coefficients dm(n) at each time scale m. Figures 2C–E show that wavelet estimation tools are robust in the presence of smooth non-stationarity, accurate even when a large number of events are removed, and not affected by the resolution of the records.
It is evident that a power law likely exists in all datasets, although the variability in the number of events used to derive individual PDFs would make an estimate of each slope error-prone. The order of this wavelet transform dictates the level of non-stationarity tolerated in the data. Together, they candidly discuss the future of the planet, their passion for nature and what can be done to protect the environment. Spring is in full swing, but this far north winter is never far away and, with hungry bears and wolves for neighbours, many challenges lie ahead.
What unfolds is a very intimate story, and when Hugo finds a second moose calf born late in the year, things take an unexpected and dramatic turn.


Such relationships are found in a variety of natural and man-made systems, such as earthquakes or Internet traffic, and describe the relationship between the magnitude of an event and the number of events.
Many authors have noted more variability in seizure frequency than would be expected if their distribution followed a simple Poisson model, with overdispersion in series of seizure counts (2–6).
In such a relationship, small events occur very more frequently than large events, although the probability of the large events is non-trivial. This contrasts with short memory processes in which the system dynamics can be described using a short and finite memory. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) improves localization, but such limited duration (~1 week) records are obtained during pre-resection assessment of hospitalized patients, under artificial circumstances of sleep and medication withdrawal, and show different seizure dynamics to those observed in ambulatory recordings.
To our knowledge, this is the first time data of this nature has been available for the study of epilepsy. The algorithm was then evaluated against minimum performance criteria and if satisfactory, the subject entered the Advisory Phase.
A wide band filter complemented these filters and optional notch filters designed to eliminate interference from AC-mains sources. The classifier output was filtered, thresholded, and then passed to the user interface state machine used to control the three likelihood indicators. The system could also apply hold-out or cross validation quasi-prospective methods to provide an estimate of algorithm performance needed to inform the decision to proceed into the Advisory Phase of the study.
Accumulated iEEG was annotated by clinical staff and verified by study investigators utilizing subject diaries, hand-held audio recordings, and a seizure detection algorithm (12). This estimate is highly susceptible to errors when the dataset is not ideal, such as brevity, non-stationarity, or inaccurate records. The larger the m, the lower the frequency that dm(n) describe, with the highest frequency occurring at m = 0, that is, at the sampling frequency. So as to obtain a better estimate, the events of all eight subjects were grouped together to derive a combined PDF, shown in Figure 3B. A power law is evident, but the gradient for each subject varies, and estimates of the scaling exponent β may be influenced by insufficient data in some subjects. In addition to the conventions used in Figure 1, the orange shaded background denotes scales over which the data were stationary and that can be used to estimate H. To select an appropriate number, the wavelet order was systematically increased until the resulting scalograms were approximately constant. Other times it can be trying to remember how to get someplace that you have been, only to get lost. But nestled among the concrete is an urban wilderness - places where crocodiles, monkeys, otters, snakes and hornbills sit right among the skyscrapers and boardwalks.
This intimate film includes behind-the-scenes footage of his latest project on the Great Barrier Reef, and some rarely seen moments from Attenborough\'s career. We postulated that human inter-seizure intervals would follow a power-law relationship, and furthermore that evidence for the existence of a long-memory process could be established in this relationship. The existence of power-law relationships is necessary for certain types of system behavior, such as critical dynamics, to exist.
A parameter typically used to characterize the length of this dependence is the Hurst exponent (H). The volume and uniqueness of the data make the possibilities for analysis immense, but we restrict our work here to the study of the distribution and correlation of seizure event times. In the Advisory Phase, the algorithm was enabled to provide visual and audible advisories to the subject.
Filter outputs could be analyzed for average energy or line-length over a 5 s analysis window.
The main function of the state machine was to latch a condition in the case where the classifier output was repeatedly alternating across a decision threshold, preventing rapidly changing advisories and possible subject confusion. The system could also be used to calculate algorithm performance using prospective data collected during the Advisory Phase.
Events were categorized as clinically reported, and found in EEG (type 1), events not clinically reported, but found in EEG, and having a similar envelope to type 1 events (type 2), and those not clinically reported, but found in EEG, without evidence of clinical manifestations (type 3). Of the eight subjects, all but two (P2 and P4) showed stationary scales from which a Hurst exponent H could be computed.
We process such huge amounts of information daily, and sometimes things get lost in the shuffle. But along the way, devastating secrets are revealed about the people she loves most in the world.
We performed a post hoc analysis, studying eight patients who had long-term (up to 2 years) ambulatory intracranial EEG data recorded as part of the assessment of a novel seizure prediction device. By itself, the presence of a power law is not a sufficient condition to prove critical system behavior, but its absence is strong evidence against such dynamics. Approval for the study was obtained though the Human Research Ethics Committees of the participating clinical centers. Six subjects had undergone previous epilepsy resective surgery and one had used vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), which was explanted at the time of predictive system implant. Throughout the study, ambulatory iEEG data were analyzed for seizure statistics and other relevant electroencephalographic events.
For those subjects diagnosed with bilateral temporal lobe onset seizures, leads were placed over the hemisphere that generated the most frequent, stereotypical seizures. The gradient β (and therefore H) is not affected by (C) slow non-stationarity, (D) a large number of missing events, or (E) the resolution of the point process. To test for more abrupt non-stationarity that is not tolerated by this method, data were divided into segments of approximately 250–500 events (depending on the total length of the record), and the scalograms for each segment were recomputed. The good news is; you can help increase your odds of not losing information in the shuffle.
All subjects gave written informed consent to participate prior to any study procedures being performed.
The combination of 16 available iEEG input channels and many different filtering options created a list of several 100-candidate features.
A large number of events were necessary for accurate analysis, and so the 8 subjects who had more than 400 recorded events were studied. The range of scales where the gradients coincide across all segments was identified as the stationary scales for each subject. We will go over the basics of helping keep your brain healthy, working and engaged so that you are better prepared to remember what you need to, when you need to.
In five out of the six subjects whose data were sufficiently stationary for analysis, we found evidence of long memory between epileptic events. We have previously demonstrated the existence of long-memory processes in epileptic seizures in animal and limited human datasets (8). The leads were tunneled down the neck and terminated at a subclavicularly placed, titanium encased, hermetically sealed, implantable telemetry unit, which sampled 16 channels of iEEG acquired at 400 Hz and wirelessly transmitted it to an external, hand-held personal advisory device. During algorithm training, the list of candidates was analyzed to find the best 16 features. The inter-event intervals, defined as the time between the onset of one seizure and the onset of the next were used for analysis. Note that to infer stationarity for P7, the data were divided into three segments containing ~1500 events each.


The external, hand-held personal advisory device received the telemetered iEEG and stored iEEG on standard flash memory cards for subsequent analysis. To estimate the Hurst exponent, point processes were generated by quantizing the timescale to 1-min resolution, and the presence or absence of seizure onset at a particular time was represented with the value of 1 or 0, respectively.
Two subjects (P2 and P4) were completely non-stationary and were not included in further analysis. Learn to break those bad habits that hold you back when you read so that you read faster, and more efficiently. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE.
An important component was that it also supported audio recordings, both manually triggered by the subject for diary purposes, and also automatically activated when a seizure was detected by the system to aid in establishing a clinical correlate with iEEG activity. This may imply a sharp dynamic change occurring sometimes during the 1.8 years of recording. This finding may provide evidence of phase-transitions underlying the dynamics of epilepsy. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained.
These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products.
We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem.
Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have.
The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime.
We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.




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