Graduate students often think that the thesis happens in two distinct phases: doing the research, and writing the thesis. It also helps to start writing at a coarse granularity and successively refine your thesis. When writing a thesis, or any paper, realize that your audience is almost guaranteed to be less familiar with your subject than you are.Explain your motivations, goals, and methodology clearly. An overall plan for the thesis should be compiled as early as possible and discussed with your supervisor. Managers of extension programmes are painfully aware of the need for revision and development of the new skill sets held by today's high performers.
More formally defined, management is the process by which people, technology, job tasks, and other resources are combined and coordinated so as to effectively achieve organizational objectives.
Planning is the process of determining organizational aims, developing premises about the current environment, selecting the course of action, initiating activities required to transform plans into action, and evaluating the outcome. Long-range planning is vitally important in that it focuses attention on crucial future issues which are vitally important to the organization. Strategic planning has been defined as that which has to do with determining the basic objectives of an organization and allocating resources to their accomplishment. Changes are essential to better position the extension organization and focus on client needs and moving forward in rural development and sustainability programmes. Closely related to both strategic and managerial planning is the process of decision making. Managers have to vary their approach to decision making, depending on the particular situation and person or people involved. One of the most difficult steps in the decision-making process is to develop the various alternatives. Once strategic planning and management planning are implemented, organizing to get the job done is next.
Working productively and developing feelings of cooperation and effectiveness are related to having the right people doing the right jobs.
Once an organization starts delegating authority, then there is automatically a chain of command, "the formal channel which specifies the authority, responsibility and communication relationships from top to bottom in an organization" (Ivancevich, Donnelly, & Gibson, 1980). Centralized organizations are those in which the key authority and decision-making role is focused on one or a very few individuals.
A key aspect of managing an adult and extension enterprise is to find the right people for the right jobs.
The process of staff selection involves evaluating candidates through application forms, curriculum vitae, and interviews and choosing the best candidate for the specific job responsibility.
As a means of giving some structure and design to the staffing process, the following guidelines are useful (dark, 1973).
This is the process of formally introducing the selected individual to the particular unit, to colleagues, and to the organization. At one time there was a management emphasis on "directing" in the directorial (autocratic) sense, but in recent times, the concept of directing has become more congruent with leading than with pushing. McGregor (1960) proposed that managers might assume that employees are motivated in one of two ways. There are two forms of coordination: (1) vertical reporting to your supervisor(s) and to your staff, and (2) horizontal reporting to your colleagues and your management team. In recent years, formal systems of community coordination of adult and extension education activities have been developed.
This function, closely related to the coordinating function, consists of keeping those to whom you are responsible informed as to what is going on.
This management function includes fiscal planning, accounting and revenue, and expense controls. Structure is the basis for many modern business organizations because we live in a structured society, although the concept of structural rigidity and hierarchy is now being challenged by a more educated, creative, and intrinsically motivated workforce. Modern management is characterized by two approaches, the systems and the contingency approach. Survival and prosperity also depend on the efficiency of the transformation process used by the organization to produce its goods and services, on worker motivation, and on cooperation. Theories that explain management effectiveness in terms of situational moderator variables are called contingency theories.
The basic idea is that since people closest to the work are likely to know the most about solving problems in their areas, they should be involved in the decisions concerning those areas. There is still considerable discussion as to whether management is an art or a science, a philosophy or a skill.
To carry out their responsibilities, managers need to obtain recent, relevant information that exists in books, journals, and people's heads who are widely scattered within and outside the organization. After seeing how cruel Effie is when Lily and her cousin Hannah first come to Pennsylvania, we are looking forward to Book 3 where Lily "turns the tables on Effie."  Thankfully, July is just around the corner, but I'm not sure how we'll manage until next year to read the finale! I'm Meg, a city girl from Philadelphia transplanted to a 19-acre farm in the Garden State of New Jersey.
This may be the case for some students, but more often, these phases overlap and interact with one another. A problem that many graduate students face is that their only goal seems to be “finish the thesis? Be repetitive without being boring, by presenting your ideas at several levels of abstraction,and by using examples to convey the ideas in a different way.
A plan should not be binding, but should be discussed and modified where necessary as research and analysis proceed.
Even starting with very rough notes for paragraphs or chapters can give a good early psychological boost. Waldron is a Professor of Rural Extension Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada; J. Being accountable to staff, the larger enterprise, and to the community at large (Waldron, 1994b). It is the process of determining in advance what should be accomplished, when, by whom, how, and at what cost. The types of planning that managers engage in will depend on their level in the organization and on the size and type of the organization.
The planning process begins with the creation of a philosophy that consists of statements describing the values, beliefs, and attitudes of the organization.
It involves studying societal trends and issues, surveying current and anticipated learners' needs, and being aware of long-term research directions and changes in technology. A strategy determines the direction in which an organization needs to move to fulfil its mission. Long-range planning builds on current goals and practices and proposes modifications for the future. The strength and resilience of the traditional rural and farm population and the trend towards a decentralized society with more and more urbanites moving to the country suggest that successful rural communities will depend on people's ability to change, to adapt, and to work toward a better future.
Managerial planning focuses on the activity of a specific unit and involves what needs to be done, by whom, when, and at what cost. Decisions need to be made wisely under varying circumstances with different amounts of knowledge about alternatives and consequences. The above steps are not a fixed procedure, however; they are more a process, a system, or an approach.
For example, if one is involved in planning a workshop, one of the most crucial decisions is the time, format, and location of the workshop. Consequently, the manager must apply principles of democratic decision making since those involved in the decision-making process will feel an interest in the results of the process. Organizing is the process of establishing formal relationships among people and resources in order to reach specific goals and objectives.
Time management is the process of monitoring, analysing, and revising your plan until it works. For example, 80 per cent of the complaining in your department is likely to be done by 20 per cent of your staff. Structure, then, can be defined as a system of interrelated jobs, groups of jobs, and authority. An organization with decentralized authority and very heterogeneous departments will appear very different from one with centralized authority and a very homogeneous product. Thus authority flows from presidents to vice-presidents to divisional managers, from ministers to deputies to directors, from principals to vice-principals to deans, etc.
Where authority is distributed among many managers, then one can see a decentralized structure.
Much of one's success as a manager is related to appropriate human resource planning, regardless of whether it is the hiring of a secretary or an instructor for a particular work-shop. Human resource planning - how many staff resources, with what backgrounds, and at what cost can be considered for objectives implementation? Recruitment - how does one proceed to find the person with the appropriate mix of education, experience, human relations skills, communications skills, and motivation?
The selected person should be aware of the mission and objectives of the unit, the nature of responsibilities and level of authority, the degree of accountability, and the systems and procedures followed to accomplish the tasks associated with the job. It involves coordinating the various job roles and responsibilities of yourself and other staff, of your unit and other units within the same organization, and of your unit with the broader community.
Adult and extension educators are usually involved in very complex organizations such as governments, colleges and universities, and boards of education.
Because effective coordination requires cooperation and communication, the meeting technique is still the most effective format for assuring the interrelationships among the various job responsibilities.
Such councils of continuing education provide more than just a network of workers but in fact lead to discussions of community needs, agency priorities, and an agreement as to who is going to look after what.


It is essential that competent managers keep the information flowing, especially in this age when there is so much information being transmitted in so many forms. Such a report gives you the opportunity to summarize programmes, projects, and activities and to provide statistics as well. Budgeting requires specific planning, a thorough understanding of objectives and future programmes, a sixth sense of economic conditions and realities, and a hunch for predicting the unpredictable. The budget process is not in a vertical something that one does only once a year; it is a continual process of regular review and possible revision.
In this way, one can get a picture of the predominant types of management modes currently being used. The structural approach shows graphically that the organization has a distinct physical shape or form provided by an internal form. A paradigm refers to a method of approaching a problem or situation and the kinds of assumptions, values, and attitudes associated with thinking about the situation (Ottaway & Terjeson, 1986).
Models are useful because various aspects of the structures can be viewed from different positions that can then lead to new perspectives. The systems approach views the organization as a total system comprised of interacting subsystems, all of which are in complex interaction with the relevant external environment (Lerman & Turner, 1992).
Efficiency of the transformation process is increased by finding more rational ways to organize and perform the work and by deciding how to make the best use of available technology, resources, and personnel.
Do your objectives give priority to research, innovation, product development, or product delivery? The contingency or situational approach recognizes that neither the democratic nor the autocratic extreme is effective in all extension management situations. Because change means doing something new and unknown, the natural reaction is to resist it. An added benefit is that they are more motivated if they have some control over their work and over their own destinies. No one sustainable model can holistically encompass all management situations and environments. It is essential that you break this down into manageable stages, both in terms of doing the research and when writing the thesis. First make notes on what you want to cover; then organize these into an outline (which will probably change as you progress in your research and writing). If they're working on their thesis at the same time, so much the better, but the most important thing is that they be willing to give you feedback on rough drafts, meet regularly to chart your progress and give you psychological support, and preferably that they be familiar enough with your field to understand and review your writing. It is a good idea for candidates to have a draft outline plan together with a timetable pinned on a notice board in front of them so that at every moment they are aware of where they are and of their immediate goals. The candidate should ensure that adequate statistical planning for the project is undertaken early in the project. Regardless of whether it is planning long-term program priorities or planning a two-hour meeting, the planning aspect of management is the major contributor to success and productivity.
Generally there are four major types of planning exercises: strategic, tactical, contingency, and managerial. The functions of organizing, leading, staffing, and budgeting are means of carrying out the decisions of planning.
Many extension workers may think that such management is beyond their level of authority, control, or involvement.
A strategic plan acts as a road map for carrying out the strategy and achieving long-term results. Strategic planning, however, considers changes or anticipated changes in the environment that suggest more radical moves away from current practices.
In the 1990s, facilitating farmer participation is a major extension activity (Chambers, 1993).
Decisions are concerned with the future and may be made under conditions of certainty, conditions of risk, or conditions of uncertainty.
They force one to realize that there are usually alternatives and that one should not be pressured into making a quick decision without looking at the implications. In this case, one's experience as well as one's understanding of the clientele group greatly influence the selecting of alternatives. In such a case, the manager becomes more of a coach, knowing the mission, objectives, and the process, but involving those players who must help in actually achieving the goal.
The process, according to Marshall (1992), is based on five organizing principles: unity of command, span of control, delegation of authority, homogeneous assignment, and flexibility. Effective time managers facilitate planning by listing tasks that require their attention, estimating the amount of time each task will take to complete, and prioritizing them - deciding what tasks are most important to do first and numbering them in rank order.
In complex organizations, there may be bridges from one level to another and there will be complex procedures for maintaining the chain of command. As the organization's various roles become more diverse in terms of programme, product, or geographical location, one can see a more decentralized organizational structure with authority being delegated to those who are closest to the action. Even then, successful hiring is often a very intuitive act and involves some degree of risk.
A motivated individual will simply ask for such things as personnel manuals, administrative procedures handbooks, and aims and objectives statements. Leadership in this context means the process whereby a work environment is created in which people can do their best work and feel a proprietary interest in producing a quality product or service.
Theory X relates to traditional management whereby managers assume that they must control, coerce, and threaten in order to motivate employees. Because of the size of the organization, the increasing demands for public accountability, the many government regulations and policies, the increasing competition among providers of adult education opportunities, and the changes in technology, it is essential that the coordinating role be given top priority. The reporting function is more than preparing an annual report, quoting statistics, and informing your staff of current developments. Such a report can be used as a public information document by having it distributed to other adult education agencies in the community, to your senior levels of management, to your own managers, to your colleagues, and to the press.
One should always be checking to see how one is doing compared with how one anticipated doing. While this may be useful in describing what is, it could be even more useful in describing what could be. A competent manager in this system is able to solve problems, to figure out what needs to be done, and then enlist whatever support is needed to get it done. It connotes a pattern or structure that is dynamic, changeable, and responsive to the environment (Waldron, 1994). The goal of modelling is to achieve an accurate yet relatively simple representation of a system, complex entity, or reality usually on a smaller scale.
Organizations are pictured as "input-transformation-output systems" that compete for resources. Top management has primary responsibility for designing an appropriate organizational structure, determining authority relationships, and coordinating operations across specialized subunits of the organization (Yuki, 1994). Extension programme managers must overcome this resistance and adopt innovative and efficient management techniques to remain high performers. In addition, managers need to get cooperation from subordinates, peers, superiors, and people over whom they may have no formal authority.
Tasks that you can finish in a week, a day, or even as little as half an hour are much more realistic goals. Advice may be sought from supervisors or from other academic who are experienced in the statistical difficulties which can arise in many areas.
Arulraj is a Senior Scientist, Agricultural Extension, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, India. They know that a new focus on connecting the heads, hearts, and hands of people in their organization is necessary. Stated simply, "If you don't know where you are going, then you won't know when you have arrived!" Planning is the process of determining the organization's goals and objectives and making the provisions for their achievement. After the philosophy and mission statements have been established, various goals and objectives are defined. They may feel that such management is the prerogative of the director, the deputy minister, or the president. Under conditions of certainty, managers have sufficient or complete information and know exactly what the outcome of their decision will be. This is especially true in the case of nonprogrammed decisions (complex and novel decisions) as contrasted to programmed decisions (those that are repetitive and routine). Often decision trees can help a manager make a series of decisions involving uncertain events. The effective manager thus perceives himself or herself as the controller of the decision-making process rather than as the maker of the organization's or agency's decision.
The organizing process involves five steps: determining the tasks to be accomplished, subdividing major tasks into individual activities, assigning specific activities to individuals, providing necessary resources, and designing the organizational relationships needed.
It is difficult to implement because you have no one but yourself to monitor how effectively you are using your time.
By managing time well, managers are better able to solve problems quickly, make decisions, avoid frustration, keep from getting bogged down in day-to-day tasks, handle crises, work on their goals and priorities, and manage stress.
Some would claim that the lower branches support the upper branches, but as in the tree, the branches are supported by a single trunk, which can be thought of as the organizational mission and objectives.
Adult and extension educators, if working for an organization or agency, will be part of a structure and part of the chain of command.
Centralization refers to authority, whereas centrality refers to the proximity to the organization's stated mandate and objectives.
The description must be exact and specific but sufficiently general to solicit interest among potential candidates.
The use of the interaction as a learning experience in a pleasant and stimulating atmosphere4.


Theory Y, the opposite of theory X, suggests that employees want to do challenging work, that they are interested in accepting responsibility, and that they are basically creative and want to be involved in policy development and objective setting.
The reporting function is almost an evaluation function since it compares how you are doing with what you set out to do. It is also useful in providing some clues as to possible areas of role conflict - the scholarly research model would likely collide with the competent practitioner model (Waldron, 1994a). This approach is favoured by traditional, hierarchical, job-specific, uncreative organizations. The most dramatic illustration of a paradigm shift was the shift from the Ptolemaic theory, which saw the earth as the centre of the universe, to the Copernican theory, which saw the sun as the centre of the universe. One mistake that inexperienced model builders often make is failing to take a broad perspective of the problem. The survival and prosperity of an organization depend on effective adaptation to the environment, which means identifying a good strategy for marketing its outputs (products and services), obtaining necessary resources, and dealing with external threats.
A system can survive only when it delivers an output that can be exchanged for new inputs as well as for maintaining the system. Table 1 describes the major features of five contingency theories and the Vroom and Yetton (1973) normative decision model.
They must improve their personal, team, and cultural management skills if they hope to adapt themselves to a changing world.
Managers typically engage in a large number of discrete activities each day, and the average number of activities appears to increase at lower levels of management. Factors that affect managers include level of management, size of the organizational unit, function of the unit, lateral interdependence, crisis conditions, and stage in the organizational life cycle. Madison: National Agricultural Extension Center for Advanced Study, University of Wisconsin at Madison. Try to come up with a range of tasks, both in terms of duration and difficulty.That way, on days when you feel energetic and enthusiastic, you can sink your teeth into a solid problem, but on days when you're unmotivated, you can at least accomplish and few small tasks and get them off your list.
Do not feel obligated to write it perfectly the first time: if you can't get a paragraph or phrase right, just write something (a rough cut, a note to yourself, a list of bulleted points) and move on. Time spent with these people should lead to a sound experimental design with data capable of being analyzed according to standard statistical procedures.
Goals are usually general statements that project what is to be accomplished in the future. Formal planning, however, distinguishes managers from non-managers, effective managers from ineffective managers.
However, while senior levels of management must be involved, those who implement the objectives resulting from long-range planning should also be involved. By involving those affected by the plan, the manger builds an organization wide understanding and commitment to the strategic plan (Flemming, 1989). Organizations and sub units are being encouraged to put work teams in place to ensure that each sector integrates staff and services into a cohesive, focused business unit.
A decision tree is a device that displays graphically the various actions that a manager can take and shows how those actions will relate to the attainment of future events. As Drucker (1966) has pointed out, "The most common source of mistakes in management decision-making is the emphasis on finding the right answer rather than the right question. There are several aspects to organizing - time, structures, chain of command, degree of centralization, and role specification. One cannot often make major changes in these two elements; it is wise, however, to be very aware of the organizational structure and chain of command if you wish to accomplish things efficiently. One could have a very decentralized organization with each unit being responsible for programmes, staffing, and budget, and yet be very close to the main mission and objectives of the organization.
The nature of the job, scope, authority, and responsibilities form the core of the job description.
Today, theories X and Y don't really sound very revolutionary; the problem is that management styles and employee motivation do not fit easily into two theoretical labels. A paradigm shift results in a total restructuring in the ways we think about a situation and the kinds of assumptions we make about former observations. They do not take into account other dimensions of reality that a solution may have an impact on. Overwhelmingly, current management wisdom touts the goal of getting decisions made as low down in the organization as possible. You can always come back to the hard parts later; the important thing is to make steady progress. It is common for conclusions and introductions to be written last when candidates have a thorough awareness of the purpose and implications of their research. Quite often they prefer to consider themselves as teachers or communicators rather than managers. Tactical planning is concerned with implementing the strategic plans and involves middle and lower management. Formal planning forces managers to think of the future, to set priorities, to encourage creativity, to articulate clear objectives, and to forecast the future in terms of anticipated problems and political realities. A stronger, more capable and efficient organization can arise by defining how its members can support the overall strategy (Figure 1).
Consultation and participation are believed to be essential for the successful development and implementation of organizational goals and objectives. They may, however, know the probabilities and possible outcomes of their decisions, even though they cannot guarantee which particular outcome will actually occur. It is not enough to find the right answer; more important and more difficult is to make effective the course of action decided upon. By planning ahead, managers can decide what to do and take the time to come up with ideas on how to do it. When all parts work together, the system survives, functions productively, has balance, and is a pleasure to see! Indications of preferred educational background as well as salary range must also be included. It consists of more than course numbers or annual statistics, but relates programme direction, policy changes, refinement in objectives, and changes in structures and priorities. Covey (1992) speaks of paradigm shifts: things, people, and structure can and do change - nothing is constant. To accomplish this broad perspective, the extension manager should adopt a systems approach to model building and should focus not only on the immediate problem, but also on interrelationships that exist within and outside the organization and how these relationships will be affected (Stevenson, 1989). This results in under-utilization of the increasing amount of literature on management theory and practice.
Contingency planning anticipates possible problems or changes that may occur in the future and prepares to deal with them effectively as they arise (Marshall, 1992). Policies are predetermined guides to decision making; they establish boundaries or limits within which action may be taken. Each work team is asked to develop an effective process for discussion of major challenges and opportunities facing the organization, if possible, over the next decade.
In such cases, there is a risk associated with the decision and there is a possibility of an adverse outcome.
To make a decision tree it is necessary to: (1) identify the points of decision and alternatives available at each point, (2) identify the points of uncertainty and the type or range of alternative outcomes at each point, (3) estimate the probabilities of different events or results of action and the costs and gains associated with these actions, and (4) analyse the alternative values to choose the next course of action.
One extension agent joked that he was so busy taking time management courses, he had little time left to manage.
In times of high unemployment, one can always expect several dozen applications for any one opportunity for employment. He shows how almost every significant breakthrough is first a break with tradition, with old patterns, with old ways of thinking, and with old paradigms.
Maintaining a daily "To Do" list with priorities attached and maintaining a daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly diary is helpful.
Senge (1990) states that a "shift of mind" is necessary because "the unhealthiness of our world today is in direct proportion to our inability to see it as a whole." In terms of management, extension managers should view people not as "helpless reactors, but as active participants in shaping their reality - from reacting to the present to creating the future" (p. To examine which model fits the needs of a particular extension manager's programme and his or her criteria, one can create a matrix similar to Figure 2. It helps in combining resources to fulfil the overall objectives of the extension organization. First, they play a crucial role in implementing organizational policies that have been established by higher management. These plans form the framework for focusing organizational resources on the most strategic areas by using a staged approach. Managers should analyse their daily activities to see which are directed toward results and which are simply activities.
By answering questions similar to those presented in Figure 3, one can develop a good understanding of the specific model which would apply to extension programmes. They must decide what goals or opportunities will be pursued, what resources are available, and who will perform designated tasks.
To function effectively, managers have to be able to prioritize and replace less important tasks with more important ones.
They could learn how to manage meetings more effectively since considerable management time seems to be wasted in nondirectional formal meetings.
Procedures outline the series of steps to be followed when carrying out a designed policy or taking a particular course of action. Effective and efficient time management encourages us to achieve and be productive while developing good employee relations.



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