Does the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (“CFAA”) prohibit hacking–improperly gaining entrance into a computer system–or simply prohibit improper use of a computer system? The defendant in Nosal allegedly persuaded employees of his former employer to log in to the employer’s computer system and forward confidential information to him. The CFAA provides that an individual who “knowingly and with intent to defraud, accesses a protected computer without authorization, or exceeds authorized access” is guilty of a crime. After the Ninth Circuit’s en banc decision was issued, affirming the district court’s dismissal of the indictment’s CFAA counts, a superseding indictment was returned. Proposed legislation to expand the scope of the CFAA is currently being circulated among the House Judiciary Comittee.
The attorneys of the Trade Secrets, Computer Fraud, & Non-Competes practice group of Seyfarth Shaw LLP protect and defend clients against those who improperly handle proprietary information, violate non-compete agreements, improperly solicit customers or remove electronic data from businesses, and raid employees. Trade Secrets and Confidentiality Lawyers & Attorneys, the Trade Secrets, Computer Fraud, & Non-Competes practice group of Seyfarth Shaw LLP, offering services relating to corporate espionage, electronic information protection, non-compete agreements, non-disclosure, proprietary information, restrictive covenants, audits, protection policies, trade secrets litigation, with offices in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Houston, Sacramento, San Francisco.
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Our topics include the formation of the New World Order and the New Age Agenda, popular conspiracy theories. NASA is the agency responsible for the space trips and discoveries we hear about on the news. Another skeleton excavated by an explorer which appears to be bigger than the normal human skeleton.
A submarine probes the deep blue and stumbles upon an infrastructure made of rock, bricks, and stone. Hard to make out but if you look closely, this heavily filtered in green photo shows us an infrastructure located in the middle of a mountainous terrain.
It’s never a coincidence when you find several holes symmetrical in appearance on the side of a cliff. This photo contains the same blue and red lights but this time taken as if it was watermarked against a new photo, triangular structures and a couple of surrounding dotted structures smaller than the triangular ones.
Photo taken in outer space of satellite looming over a cloud formation on the Earth’s surface. Having looked at the site in question myself I can say that the information on it would appear to consist of some quite comprehensive credit reports through which the phone numbers and addresses of many of those who’ve allegedly been hacked can easily be found.
If A Hacker’s Attack Causes Financial Loss, Death Or Injury What Should Happen To Them?
Microsoft Get Alleged Australian Xbox 720 Hacker With Possible FBI Help With Sony announcing their new PlayStation 4 yesterday it is perhaps unsurprising that Microsoft will not be too far behind with a competitor - the Xbox 720. About Lee MunsonLee's non-technical background allows him to write about internet security in a clear way that is understandable to both IT professionals and people just like you who need simple answers to your security questions. I am an InfoSec Professional, a writer for Comparitech and the Social Media Manager for Brian Honan's Security Watch. I am the winner of both the Best UK & the Best EU Personal Security Blog at the European Security Blogger Awards 2015. Metasploit’s flagship product, the Meterpreter, is very powerful and an all-purpose payload. NOTE – This is a follow-up post of my previous post, in which I showed you how to do this using a very simple yet effective Ruby script.
We will also need some libraries and tools in the following steps, so I think it’s better if you install them right now. And to get the latest version of ApkTool, head over to this site and follow the installation instructions. Since this tutorial is a little bit long, I’m giving a brief overview of what we are going to do here.
Replace [IP_Address] by the IP address to which the payload is going to connect back to, i.e the IP address of the attacker’s system.
If you are going to perform this attack over the Internet, you have to use your public IP address, and configure your router properly (set up port forwarding) so that your system is accessible from the Internet. So run the command using replacing the keywords with appropriate values and MSFVenom will generate a payload “meterpreter.apk” in the root directory.
In the previous step, we just copied the payload codes inside the original apk, so that when the original apk is recompiled, it will contain the payload.
For this, firstly we have to find out which activity [to put it simply, activities are sections of code, it’s similar to frames in windows programming] is run when the app is launched. Those two lines we searched for signifies that this is the activity which is going to start when we launch the app from the launcher icon, and also this is a MAIN activity [similar to the ‘main’ function in traditional programming]. Now that we have the name of the activity we want to inject the hook into, let’s get to it! Replace the [Activity_Path] with the activity’s “android:name”, but instead of the dots, type slash. What we are doing here is, inserting a code which starts the payload alongside the existing code which is executed when the activity starts.
Additional finer-grained security features are provided through a “permission” mechanism that enforces restrictions on the specific operations that a particular process can perform.
If we do not mention all the additional permissions that our payload is going to need, it cannot function properly.
This is also a very important step, as in most of the cases, an unsigned apk cannot be installed.
Android requires that all apps be digitally signed with a certificate before they can be installed. Be sure to replace the [apk_path]  in the above command with the path to your backdoored apk file. Now if you can get the victim to install and run this very legit-looking app in his phone, you can get a working meterpreter session on his phone! The Metasploit Project is a computer security project that provides information about security vulnerabilities and aids in penetration testing and IDS signature development.
Its best-known sub-project is the open source Metasploit Framework, a tool for developing and executing exploit code against a remote target machine.


In a more informal language, it’s a tool which we can use to perform various kinds of hacks against a machine.
But since the payload app doesn’t look very legit, takes up only a few kBs, and doesn’t show anything when clicked on, the victim will probably uninstall it right away, or worse, wouldn’t install it at all. Just to be clear,  In this tutorial the operating system used is Kali Linux, which is a de facto standard OS for Penetration Testing (Read, hacking). Download the Ruby script from this link and save it in the same folder as that of the original apk.
NOTE – If you are going to conduct this attack over the internet, be sure to put your public IP, not your local IP, in the LHOST option.
Once you run the command, if you are lucky, the script will do everything by itself and complete the whole process.
At the prompt of the Ruby script, enter the number corresponding to the Activity name you had noted previously and press Enter. If you did everything correctly, you should now get a apk file in your root directory with the name ‘backdoored_WhatsApp.apk’. Now wait for the victim to run the app, when he does it, you will get a Meterpreter prompt in the terminal!
I found the script from the comments section of a thread in NullByte, so thanks to the guy who shared it, I’m sorry I don’t remember which thread it was or who the guy was. The most common layer 2 and layer 3 protocols, Ethernet and IP respectively, pale in comparison to TCP’s complexity. The purpose of these posts and the resulting software is purely educational – to learn network and system programming at a deeper level. Although the CFAA is a criminal statute, most judicial opinions interpreting it are issued in civil (injunction and damages) litigation.
Those judges concluded that the CFAA is simply an anti-hacking statute that criminalizes circumventing “technological barriers.” It does not apply to Nosal, the majority held, because he was not the person who entered his former employer’s computer system.
It alleged substantially the same crimes but added more facts with the purpose, apparently, of getting around the en banc ruling. The district court judge emphasized that the Ninth Circuit en banc majority’s words cannot be taken literally. Because of their consistent mentions on social media, it’s hard for them to avoid conspiracy theories spun by people to make the truth either more transparent or hard to grasp. A photo compilation allegedly taken and stolen from NASA which will probably make you think if the conspiracy theories really are speaking the truth. This documented shot of yet another UFO brings up a lot of questions: where did it come from? The way the stones are arranged has a similarity with the Mayan temples or the pyramids in Egypt. Such a huge structure left unnoticed by people only means that this can be found in a place where no one usually passes through making it even more suspicious as a secret. Rock formations don’t always turn out like this so what could have caused this to happen and show? Appears to be charred or blackened rock that could be the result of extraterrestrial or supernatural or paranormal events. A hacker, or hackers, have released what are alleged to be the financial details of some very rich and powerful people. Hillary Clinton but for others there is explicit detail about mortgages, credit cards, etc including limits, balances and payment history. For an up-to-date complete list of TCP and UDP ports registered with the IANA, please see the official IANA site. It is often referred to as a data structure server since keys can contain strings, hashes, lists, sets, sorted sets, bitmaps and hyperloglogs. Once installed on the victim machine, we can do whatever we want to their system by sending out commands to it.
The app will look and behave exactly as the original one, so the victim won’t even know that his system is compromised.
I’m sure it can be done in other OS, especially Linux Distros, but that will involve some more complications so I’m not going to cover those. Just do a google search “app_name apk download” and Google will come up with a lot of results. I will also show you how can you get a working Meterpreter session using that backdoored apk, if you don’t know that already. The function of all these payloads are same, essentially they are all Meterpreter payloads, the difference is only in the method they use to connect to your Kali system.
Note that we specified the output file name using the “-o meterpreter.apk” argument in the command, so if you like, you can name it anything else also. So let’s open the AndroidManifest.xml of both the original app and the payload from the respective folders. Android uses this certificate to identify the author of an app, and the certificate does not need to be signed by a certificate authority. I’m sure most of you, or at least those who have set a foot in the kingdom of hacking, have heard of Metasploit. Other important sub-projects include the Opcode Database, shellcode archive and related research. The flagship payload which comes with the Metasploit Framework is the ‘Meterpreter’, which also has an Android version that comes as an .apk file. I’m gonna show you how to take any .apk file, be it WhatsApp or Amazon or SnapChat, and embed the Meterpreter payload in that apk. You should also install the latest version of ‘ApkTool’ and some libraries for the scripts to work properly. But more than often it cannot determine to which Activity of the app it should bind the payload to, so it asks you to select it.
When you find that tag, look for the ‘android:name’ attribute of that tag and from there, note the name of that Activity.
As none of us wants to be a script-kiddie, we will learn how to do this manually in the next article.


Indeed, TCP has accumulated many specifications over its lifetime of more than thirty years. Nosal is one of the unique reported CFAA cases in which the defendant was charged with a crime. Nosal again moved to dismiss the CFAA counts, stressing that the statutory words “accesses” and “access” relate to unauthorized logging into the company’s computer, not to the use that is made of the computer after logging in.
According to that judge, “[h]acking was only a shorthand term used [by the en banc majority] as common parlance .
Press play and see for yourself what some hackers were able to dig out from NASA’s closet of secrets. Another civilization could have been existing even before the human race plagued the Earth.
Found lodged several feet beneath the ground, this could have been a vessel carrying something from another place to ours. If this photo was kept from people, then this might not be your ordinary plane crash debris.
It’s normal for a government agency dealing in space exploration and travel to have shots of the night sky and the space beyond that but why keep it from us?
Have they been withholding information from us regarding how the lights in the cosmic plane could probably determine the strategic locations of these structures on Earth?
Whether these figures are accurate and have come from some sort of computer breach, or whether someone is just having some fun is not yet known but law enforcement are already investigating. If you are not willing to go down the hard path, you can use that method to do it just fine.
If you are serious about Hacking [or Penetration Testing, if you prefer], you should use Kali as it was built specifically for Pen-Testing. To ensure that the payload runs, we have to inject a hook in the original apk’s .smali code.
Both of them are essentially Markup Languages, and both use the familiar tags and attributes structure [e.g.
But most of the users don’t care to read all those boring texts, so we do not have to worry about that much.
In case you are wondering what a payload is,  it’s a program we can install on a victim’s system to compromise it.
To the victim it will look and behave exactly as the original app, so he will use it regularly without any doubt, letting you do anything you want to his phone.
Save that apk in any folder, in this tutorial I will use the Root folder and aWhatApp.apk as example.
Make sure to change it to the appropriate values, especially the IP, the LPORT can be set to any reasonable port no. The core specification, however, is seemingly compact1 – the important parts being TCP header parsing, the state machine, congestion control and retransmission timeout computation. Now, district and appellate court judges in a single federal case pending in the Northern District of California, U.S. When you know documented shots like this are kept from you, you know there’s something else going on. But if this photo was hidden from the eyes of the public, then there’s a very good chance that this subterranean tunnel would not be found here. We could know more about this if only we knew where it is but it seems a lot of people would go out of their way just to keep this a secret.
An authentic petrified gear which would mean that we weren’t the first ones to occupy our planet.
But if you want to know the inner workings and have a greater knowledge, continue reading this post. If you are wondering what is this hook thingy I’m talking about, well essentially it’s a code which intercepts some specific function call and  reacts to it. Copy the additional permission lines from the Payload’s AndroidManifest to the original app’s one. Normally we have to install the Meterpreter payload in the victims phone by any means [Usually involving Social Engineering], and when the victim runs the application, we would get a direct connection to that phone remotely and we can use it to wreak havoc on it. After I saw that this script does what it promises, I learned the process by reverse-engineering it.
But what was about this unknown structure that was so important that it was kept a secret from us? What was once a UFO in what appears to be taken by photograph in the snowy mountains is now on the ground but still remains unidentified. Did they find any signs of life or evidence that it was occupied by living things before it was submerged?
No one in their right mind is going to install and run such an app, which apparently does nothing when it is opened. And also, In the following Android Hacking tutorials, I may refer to this tutorial, so If you can take it, I suggest you to keep on reading. In this case, we are going to place the hook so that when the app is launched, it will also launch the payload with it.
Nosal, have produced several divergent opinions regarding congressional intent with respect to the meaning of the CFAA. As if this wasn’t a secret already, now we have to find out what the secret within the secret means. Places found in unlikely places such as the icy plains always mean something more than what meets the eye.



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