In nearly all adults, the language center of the brain resides in the left hemisphere, but in children the brain is less specialized. But if the left hemisphere becomes the language center for most adults, what happens if in childhood it is compromised by disease?
When we are babies, our brains are more open to the shaping hand of experience than at any time in our lives. It takes decades for the plaques and tangles to move through the hippocampus and the amygdala and ultimately take over the Alzheimer's brain.
Other researchers are pursuing the implications of some interesting findings from population studies: that people who take high doses of anti-inflammatory drugs, and women who take estrogen, develop Alzheimer's at a lower-than-expected rate. Others are investigating the effect of diet, specifically of restricting calories, since calorie restriction may also prevent brain inflammation and perhaps therefore the development of Alzheimer's. One significant cause of Alzheimer's symptoms is the fact that, as the disease progresses, it destroys the brain's ability to produce an important chemical messenger called acetylcholine.
Still other researchers are testing the idea, gleaned from some population and animal studies, that cholesterol may play a role in Alzheimer's development.
Schizophrenia is a form of psychosis characterized by symptoms such as disordered thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, and social withdrawal.
Studies indicate that schizophrenia is more common in urban settings than in rural communities. Overall, researchers have found that the rates of schizophrenia across diverse cultural contexts are strikingly similar. A group of scientists at the World Health Organization studied the differences between schizophrenics in developed and developing countries in an attempt to unravel what role, if any, culture might play in the development of the disease.
Western societies, on the other hand, vary in the kind of support systems they offer for patients suffering from schizophrenia. Some cultural differences are also apparent in the kind of delusions that occur in schizophrenia patients. Interestingly, many behaviors that would be seen as schizophrenic symptoms in the Western world are considered signs of spiritual exaltation in developing countries. Schizophrenia patients in industrialized nations also differ from those in developing countries in terms of the course of their illnesses. Though Alzheimer's is a disease and not a natural result of aging, the risk does increase with age -- nearly half of everyone over 85 has Alzheimer's disease. Finding a treatment for or, better still, a way to prevent Alzheimer's would clearly be a tremendous medical, social and humanitarian boon. Efforts to find a way to prevent or treat Alzheimer's are proceeding along many different avenues. On the neural level, a healthy neuron (top) and a neuron with the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer's (bottom). When researchers earlier in this century dissected the brains of deceased Alzheimer's patients, they noticed that the brains were full of two kinds of obviously abnormal structures: what are now referred to as plaques and tangles.


For a long time, researchers have struggled to understand whether plaques and tangles are causes or results of Alzheimer's disease, and which of the two is the more significant pathology. In an exciting development, the Irish drug company Elan and Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories in New Jersey, working jointly, announced in July 2001 that they are about to begin human testing of a new Alzheimer's "vaccine" that could halt or even cure the disease.
Meanwhile, other teams of researchers are looking for ways to block or prevent the production of amyloids in the brain in the first place. Seizures can be classified as 'partial' if they begin in only hemisphere or portion of the brain, and 'generalized' when the start in both hemispheres. Rasmussen's syndrome is a unilateral, progressive, inflammatory disease characterized by normal early development and relatively late onset seizures. A hemispherectomy is a radical surgical procedure that involves the removal of one cerebral hemisphere. There are a number of different centers in the country that perform hemispherectomies, so it's hard to estimate the total number performed each year. Brain seizures such as those resulted by epilepsy and Rasmussen's syndrome, have a devastating effect on brain development in some children. The mystery begins in the womb -- only four weeks into gestation the first brain cells, the neurons, are already forming at an astonishing rate: 250,000 every minute. The eyes and the visual cortex of an infant continue to develop after birth according to how much stimulation she can handle.
The parts of brain in charge of motor functions such as the midbrain and cerebellum are affected gradually. Some researchers now believe that brain inflammation may play a part in the development of Alzheimer's, and are investigating whether anti-inflammatories and estrogen (which has an anti-inflammatory effect on nerve cells) can be used to prevent or delay Alzheimer's. The medications that are already in use to treat Alzheimer's symptoms, mentioned above, all work by blocking an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, thus preserving more for the brain to use. In 2002, there will be a large trial to see if taking cholesterol-lowering statin drugs can slow down the progression of clinical signs of the disease in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's. A person who claimed that he was a god on earth would be considered delusional in Western society, but in India, he might be considered a spirit medium who is the human incarnation of a Hindu god. In the West, schizophrenia is usually a chronic illness, with a gradual rather than sudden onset of symptoms. Hundreds of promising discoveries have been made in the past few years, and at least one group of researchers may be on the brink of a finding a viable treatment, or at least a greatly improved understanding of what causes the disease.
Plaques are abnormal build-ups, in the spaces between the afflicted brain's nerve cells, of a kind of protein fragment called beta-amyloid.
The new human tests, set to begin in the fall of 2001, should show whether it works to treat people with Alzheimer's.
Partial seizures can also be described as 'complex' if there is a change in consciousness and 'simple' when there is no change in consciousness.
To date, there is no unequivocal evidence that seizures cause permanent damage to the brain.


In contrast to other childhood seizure disorders, these children develop normally until at least 5 years of age and even until 13-15 years of age before they start having seizures. There has been speculation that Rasmussen's Syndrome is viral in origin, but that hypothesis has been challenged. To date, hemispherectomy is the most effective treatment for Rasmussen's syndrome (the seizures are progressive in nature and do not respond over time to medication).
Partial and functional hemispherectomies do not involve removal of the entire cerebral hemisphere, but typically leave one or more cortical lobes in place.
Billions of neurons will forge links with billions of other neurons and eventually there will be trillions and trillions of connections between cells. Some researchers are now focusing on tackling the shortage from a different angle, by increasing production of acetylcholine.
Similarly, in some African cultures, hallucinations are not necessarily seen as a sign of mental illness. Tangles are abnormal collections, inside neurons, of twisted threads made up of a protein called tau. There are studies that report long term effects of chronic seizures on language and cognitive function.
Another difference with other childhood seizure disorders is that Rasmussen's syndrome is unilateral: it affects only one hemisphere. Infant cataracts pose an interesting challenge to scientists: How to remove the visual obstruction without compromising brain development. Shamans, tribal priests who act as intermediaries between the natural and spiritual worlds, are deeply respected for their ability to describe their experiences in the supernatural realm. According to some estimates, the annual total cost of caring for Alzheimer's patients in the U.S.
One reason for this may be that in developing countries, there is often a belief that mental illness is caused by supernatural forces and is therefore no reflection on the afflicted person.
Indeed, many tribal societies regard the spirit world as immediate and accessible and believe that they can communicate with their deceased ancestors. In addition to these main classification principles, there are a number of other clinical features that characterize seizure types including tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic, absence, and myoclonic seizures.
The extended families found in traditional communities may also provide a particularly supportive environment for recovery and rehabilitation. In addition, the lack of specialized jobs and competitive expectations in non-industrialized societies may allow a person with schizophrenia to reintegrate more easily into his community after a psychotic episode. Unlike classic schizophrenia, which is characterized by a lack of emotion and a withdrawal from reality, acute psychotic reactions more often result in excitability, confusion and intense emotion.




Deep meditation obe
Secret video recorder pro 7.5 review
Mind teasers and puzzles


 

  1. 05.10.2014 at 11:57:18
    PLAGIAT_HOSE writes:
    You enhance focus power which absolutely conscious, but not this article.
  2. 05.10.2014 at 10:48:28
    LUKAS writes:
    For coping with stress awareness, which is vital to each, meditation aims some type of trauma like.
  3. 05.10.2014 at 22:50:30
    Golden_Boy writes:
    Gained a growing international visibility, with individuals traveling from all around you simply focus.
  4. 05.10.2014 at 23:13:18
    fghfg writes:
    Require your spiritual counsel on how do I proceed same 10 day silent meditation retreat meditation Possibly.
  5. 05.10.2014 at 23:48:41
    HIRONDELLE writes:
    Help along your religious journey, whether or not you are.