The Greek peninsula was originally settled by the Minoan people who originated in Egypt and came to the mainland via the island of Crete on the south, by the Achaeans who settled in the Peloponnese, and by the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians who entered over the mountains from Europe in the north. The name comes from the ruins at Mycenae where a large palace and many graves were discovered.
The values that emerged from Homera€™s epic tales became the basic values of Greek culture and formed the basis for Greek education. Excellence (arete) -- doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments. Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. Glory (kleos) -- glory one achieves for parents, family, and polis through great deeds of excellence, honor, bravery.
Impermanence of human life -- everything in life is impermanent, but glory (kleos) never fades. After the Trojan Wars, the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil wars and their defenses became weakened. This period extended from the beginning of the wars with Persia up to the death of Alexander the Great in 336 B.C. The ideal Greek man was considered to be a brave warrior during war time and an excellent athlete in peace time.
The olympic site at Olympia still contains the actual fields, large dirt berms where spectators sat, the tunnel through which the contestants ran onto the fields, and remnants of many statues to the gods. Persia, a major power that developed to the northeast of the Fertile Crescent, expanded through military power into present-day Turkey (Anatolia) and into the western areas of the Black Sea, just to the north of Greece. The Greeks had established colonies in Troy, Ephesus, and other locations along the eastern edge of the Aegean in present day Turkey. Every modern marathon is exactly the same distance, whether it is run in London, Tokyo, or Boston.
Xerxes is also well known to Christians and Jews because he was the husband of Queen Esther, a Jewish young woman who lived during the Babylonian Captivity of Judah. Xerxes took his time -- four years -- to assemble a huge army of 2 million men and 1200 ships to attack Greece. The Persians marched to a point to the north of Athens, burning and pillaging Greek villages along their path.The goal was to conquer Athens and burn it to the ground in retaliation for Dariusa€™ previous defeat at Marathon. The Persians were like a herd of elephants attempting to crawl inside the neck of a Coke bottle. The Athenians meanwhile began evacuating all the citizens of Athens to Salamis, an island south of Athens, which was separated from the mainland by the Bay of Salamis. Why was the Athenian army not present at Thermopylae if the goal of Xerxes was to destroy Athens?
Why did Leonidas not dismiss the Thespians from the battle, as he did the other Greek troops?
What can be learned from the example of how Leonidas chose Thermopylae to fight the superior forces of the Persians? By the time the Persians entered Athens, the entire city had been evacuated except for some priests and priestesses who were supposedly given the job of defending the sacred temples on the Acropolis.
Why did Xerxes not head immediately into the Peloponnese to deal with Sparta, the hometown of Leonidas, who had angered him at Thermopylae?
When the Persian ships entered the Bay of Salamis they were quickly surrounded by the more maneuverable Greek ships. The Athenians went on to build the worlda€™s largest navy and a merchant fleet that trading throughout the Mediterranean, while the Spartans developed the worlda€™s most powerful army. After the Persian wars Athens and Sparta continued to develop two radically different cultures. The Peloponnesian League attacked Athens, but the outmanned Athenians under Pericles gained allies in the Peloponnese, thus damaging Spartaa€™s supply lines, and encouraged the Spartan helots (slaves) to flee to the Athenian allied city-states for safety and freedom. Athens had built large stone walls from the city down the rocky slopes about 8 miles to Piraeus, its port on the Aegean. Eventually in following years Athens proved to be the city with the most resiliency, vitality, and potential. What two confederations were set up in Greece in view of disputes and bad attitudes between the various city-states? Pericles was the leader of Athens following the Persian Wars and led Athens in its war against Sparta.
Socrates lived during the Peloponnesian Wars that racked Greece and brought Athens and Sparta to exhaustion. Socrates sought through his philosophy to teach a better way, and to do so through the education of the youth of Athens.
Socrates was upset by an earlier group of Athenian thinkers, the Sophists, who maintained that there were no universals or absolutes in life.
The elders of Athens were very disturbed by Socrates questioning tradition and teaching his students to do the same. Socrates was held in deep respect by his students, but resented by the leaders of the polis.
In the Apology of Plato (Dialogues 32, 41) when asked how he felt about his soon death, Socrates is reported by Plato to have replied that he had no feelings or emotions about death.
What does Socrates believe about the soul that leads him to conclude that everything a person needs to know already exists in his mind, and merely needs to be allowed to come out?
Since Socrates never wrote any of his teachings down, what is one source of his teachings that we can consult to discover what Socrates believed and taught? Early in life Plato wandered around the Mediterranean and was at one point captured by pirates.
In The Cave, Plato describes several people chained inside a cave who have never viewed what lies on the outside of the cave. But if there are real Forms of chairs and trees and red apples, then there are real Forms of humans, also. It was Platoa€™s emphasis on the upper story that appealed to people in Northern Europe during the Renaissance and during the Protestant Reformation, as opposed to the man-centered humanism of Aristotle which was favored in the Italian Renaissance. How is this expressed in the statement by Plato to his teacher: a€?a€?And what, Socrates, is the food of the soul?
Aristotle was the son of a physician who had served the grandfather of Alexander the Great.
An educated mind is able to listen to and entertain a thought without blindly accepting it. Aristotle departed from his teacher, Plato, by maintaining, as did Confucius and Buddha, that there is not enough time in this life to worry about a life to come. Aristotle was a pioneer biologist in observing and classifying the plants, trees, and animals of Greece.
Aristotle, in similar fashion to Plato his teacher, saw two energies or components of the soul -- desire and reason.
At the close of the middle ages, many Italians began to discard the traditions of the Roman Church. All three of these philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, emphasized human reason as the major force of life. In Christianity there is the important matter of the necessity of being born again, having our minds made new, of submitting our minds and wills to God, in trusting Him for wisdom and understanding. Some speculate that the gods and goddesses in Greek mythology were heroes from the earliest Mycenaean periods of Greeks history, preceding even Troy and Homer. This speculation comes from a careful study of Greek pottery, art, and sculpture, which gives, in the opinion of some historians, evidence that the gods and goddesses may have been the glorification by the early Greeks of major characters from the line of Cain who lived prior to the flood.
For instance, Zeus could possibly be Nimrod, the first of the great warriors and the founder of the first city according to Genesis.
Thus Greek mythology, maintains Johnson, is a corrupted version of biblical history, a twisted memory. To understand the whole story that underlies the stories contained in Greek mythology, one must be aware of the clash between the older Titans and the younger Olympians. In other pieces of Greek art there is a continuous emphasis on capturing and grasping the tree that contains the fruit of knowledge and mysteries. If Johnson is correct in his interpretations of the many scenes depicted in Greek pottery, Greek mythology deifies the pre-flood line of Cain and depicts Zeus as triumphant over Noah and his God for rule on the earth. Athena is consistently represented in Greek art as not only the patron of Athens but the goddess who possesses knowledge, wisdom, and access to the mysteries.
At the wedding feast celebrating Philipa€™s marriage to Cleopatra, her father made a toast, asking the gods for the birth of a son to become heir to the throne, obviously discounting Alexandera€™s legitimacy. In the melee that followed, one of his bodyguards, a friend of Alexander, stabbed Philip to death. It is interesting to note that about 700 years later when a Roman general demanded that all of his troops sacrifice to the Emperor to confirm their loyalty, the same Thebian elite unit, now comprising a legion of 6,000 men, refused to sacrifice and the entire legion was put to death. Alexander invaded Anatolia, conquered Syria and Palestine, became the only one in the history of Afghanistan to conquer it, and conquered mighty Egypt.
His goal was to unite the entire known world under one leader, speaking one language, and possessing one culture.
Before you read the following account, please read the story of Paula€™s visit to Athens as described by Luke, Paula€™s companion, in Acts 17:16-34. The Athenians developed a complex mythology in an attempt to make sense out of human existence. By the time of Christ there were literally several thousand gods and goddesses in the religious system of Athens. Monuments and altars to the many gods and goddesses lined the highway from Piraeus, the port, to the center of the city of Athens.
Paul stopped in Athens on his way to Corinth, waiting for companions to arrive from Thessaloniki. In describing Paula€™s reaction to the Athenian idolatry, Luke, the companion of Paul, uses the Greek word paroxysm from which we get paroxsymal. Epicureans taught that the basis of human life was to a€?eat, drink, and have a good time, because tomorrow we will die.a€? There are no moral absolutes. Sophists were an itinerant group of philosophers who emphasized the intellect as the basis of human success. Paul was invited to climb up to Mars Hill, a large hill inside Athens about 300 yards from the Acropolis. Some have suggested that Paul made a mistake by resorting to philosophy and logic in an attempt to be accepted by the Areopagus. They asked the oracle at Delphi, what had they done to cause this plague, and most importantly, what could they do to end it? Further, the Oracle said, the Athenians must travel to the Island of Crete, to Knossos, a traditional enemy of Athens, to seek out the legendary prophet, Epimenides. Upon arriving at Athens, Epimenides noticed the hundreds of altars and monuments dedicated to the scores of Athenian deities. According to Plato, he states in his Laws, since the deity sacrificed to was unknown to the Athenians and unknown to Epimenides, the sites were named in honor of Agnosto Theo, the unknown god who had been appeased and who had lifted the plague. Plato further noted that Epimenides prophesied that in ten years Persia would again attempt to invade Athens but would be frustrated and turned back.
Within ten years, Persia, under Darius, attempted to invade Athens, just as Epimenides predicted, but was defeated at the famous Battle of Marathon.
Lest we become too enamored by Epimenides, however, he also claimed that Zeus was immortal.
The refusal of the people of Crete to adore Zeus as the Immortal One caused Epimenides to make that classic statement, a€?All Cretans, liars!a€? This quote is cited by Paul in Titus 1:12. In the book, Peace Child, Don Richardson describes how the Gospel seemed to be a concept beyond the ability of the Asmat tribe in New Guinea to understand.
Likewise, in the Ekari tribe of New Guinea the loss was lamented of the knowledge of Ajii, a place where the dead could go after death, where there was the absence of war, illness, sadness. In this same way, Paul used the bridge of the agnosto theo to enable the Athenians to understand the Gospel. Although Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were later revered by the rest of the world, they were not well received during their lifetimes in Athens. What truths did Epimenides declare about the true God when he made his four suggestions about the agnosto theo? What can we learn from this story to help us in talking with other people about the Good News of Jesus? Although Rome conquered Greece, Greece in its religion, philosophy, and language conquered Rome. The Christian faith grew rapidly in Greece, including such famous Christian communities as those in Corinth, Athens, Philippi, and Thessaloniki.
After the fall of Constantinople to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1453, most of Greece in 1460 fell to the Ottomans.The Ottoman Turks were mountain people from the north of Persia who invaded and conquered present-day Turkey by the 12th century. Facing Russian troops sent by the Christian tsar of Russia at the walls of Constantinople in 1829, the Sultan of the Ottomans finally recognized Greek independence. In the 20th Century Greece was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II, and a communist government was elected shortly after the war. Greece is important and of interest to Western Christians because it was the birthplace of the Christian Church in Europe.
Greece is also the civilization that served as a bottleneck, preventing the domination of Islam in Europe.
What is not laudable, is the religious darkness that existed in Greece prior to the arrival of the Gospel. What are the differences between the limited democracy of Athens and democracy as practiced in the United States? What evidences are there for humane treatment of girls and women in the ancient Greek civilization?
It is said that the Romans capture the Greeks, but in reality the Greeks captured the Romans. The classical civilizations of Greece established institutions and defined values and styles that endured for many centuries and that continue to influence our lives today.
Alongside of these religions developed two divinely revealed religions: Judaism and Christianity.
The first Greek civilization was the Minoan civilization, located on the island of Crete, with Knossos as its main community.
The migration into the Greek mainland from the north by the Mycenaean people, and their subsequent invasion of Crete, resulted in a common language. Troy was a city-state strategically located at the Hellespont, where it controlled traffic to and from Europe and Asia Minor. Athens served as one of the models for the Founding Fathers of the United States of America, but as a direct democracy functioned very differently than the representative democracy established in the United States. While Athens was experimenting with a direct democracy, Israel had received from Jehovah through Moses a form of democratic, representative government.
Israel, even though embracing a limited monarchy, considered itself a theocracy, with Jehovah at its center and the temple and sacrificial system centered in Jerusalem.
The story of the plague at Athens and the wisdom of Epimenides led to the worship of the a€?Unknown Goda€? and to the eventual entrance of the Gospel to Athens and Greece. Persia became the feared enemy of the Greek city-states, resulting in three major battles at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis.
Ironically, the wife of Xerxes, king of Persia, was Esther, a Jewish woman whose family had been takenA  to Babylon in the Babylonian Captivity of 566 BC.
The refusal of Athens to share its democratic dream with the other city-states, as well as jealousy and rebellion on the part of the other city-states, resulted in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Macedonia under Philip the Great conquered all of Greece and established the Macedonian empire. The values contained in The Iliad and The Odyssey that permeated Greek culture and Western Civilization. The difference between a direct democracy, like that of Athens, and a representative republic, like that of the United States of America. The battles in the Persian-Greek wars at Thermopylae, Marathon, and Salamis, included the reasons why the numerically smaller Greek forces were able to ultimately defeat the vast forces of Persia.
1.Excellence (arete) --A  doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. 2.Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments.
3.Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. 4.Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life.
DESCRIPTION:This seminal work was initially compiled in manuscript form on vellum, with drawings in red and black.
The author, a seventh century Bishop of Seville (Spain), leaned heavily himself on classical writers, as well as the teachings of the Church Fathers.
In view of the extraordinary influence of this treatise, the following excepts (the translation is taken from G.
Concerning the earth we are told that it is named from its roundness (orbis) which is like a wheel; whence the small wheel is called a€?orbiculusa€?. As to size, Isidore accepts Eratosthenesa€™ estimate (via Macrobius) of 252,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth. The Ancients did not divide these three parts of the world equally, for Asia stretches right from the south, through the east to the north, but Europe stretches from the north to the west and thence Africa from the west to the south. Interestingly, Isidore was the first writer to clearly define the Mediterranean by that proper name. It contains many provinces and districts whose names and geographical situations I will briefly describe, beginning from Paradise .
This obvious Biblical note coming so early in the topographical section of the treatise might lead the reader to expect its continuance in subsequent chapters; but apart from one or two entirely understandable references to Biblical lore - Scythia and Gothia also are said to have been named by Magog, son of Japhet and the River Ganges which sacred scripture calls Phison, flows down from Paradise to the realms of India - only the most sparing use of this source is made. In the extreme east of Asia the country of Seres is rich in fine leaves, from which are cut fleeces which the natives who decline the merchandise of other peoples sell for use as garments . Europe, in the true classical fashion, is divided from Asia by the river Tanais [todaya€™s Don] and is bordered on the north by the Northern Ocean. Moreover beyond [these] three parts of the world, on the other side of the ocean, is a fourth inland part in the south, which is unknown to us because of the heat of the sun, within the bounds of which the Antipodes are fabulously said to dwell. This concession by Isidore as expressed in the brief quote above indicated that he more than half believed in the sphericity of the earth and quite fully in the doctrine of the Antipodes. As far as his own graphic expression of the worlda€™s geography, one of the map designs frequently associated with Isidore of Seville is actually a survival of the ancient Greek tripartite division of the world into Asia, Africa and Europe, surrounded by the Ocean Sea. The T within the O produced a world image divided into half (by the cross of the T) and two quarters. Regardless of experience and all knowledge to the contrary, the most important city regionally was located in the center of the habitable world.
In addition to the usual tripartite circular map of the world, some manuscripts of the Etymologiarum feature other map designs as well. Caius Crispus Sallustius, generally known as Sallust (86-34 BCE) was a Roman senator and historian, who subsequent to his falling out with the Caesar, was sent to Africa as a governor of Numidia (In the north-west of Africa}.
He produced his most important works on the conspiracy of Catiline and the war of Rome with Jugurtha. The Medes and Armenians connected them selves with the Libyans who dwelled near the African sea, while the Getulians lay more to the sun, not far from the torrid heats; and these soon built themselves towns, as, being separated from Spain only by a strait, they proceeded to open an intercourse with its inhabitants. Some copies of Sallusts manuscripts, which have reached us, do also include a simple T-O map, which relates to his narrative of the Jugurthine War. As mentioned above, Sallusta€™s works were copied and re-copied and were in use until the late medieval period and many of the later copies of his manuscripts have reached us.
Sallust mappamundi, ninth century, a€?University of Leipzig Library, Leipzig, Germany, MS 1607, f. Since Sallust was the governor of Numidia, he has naturally paid more attention to the details of this continent. In the bodies of water dividing the world into the three continents, the Mediterranean bears no legend.
Another variation of the basic Isidorean design was called the Byzantine-Oxford, or B-O T-O maps. More prominently than in any other example of the biblical school, the Holy Land dominates the center of the map. The map was brought back to England or Ireland after the First Crusade, which conquered Jerusalem in 1099. Christian scholars adopted the T-O map for its simplicity, as had the classical writers who first employed it.
These T-O maps, whether actually contained in the Etymologiarum of Isidore, in later editions of the same, as modified derivatives thereof (Sallusts, B-O T-O), or as maps that were merely influenced by the basic design format (Hereford, Ebstorf, et.
At the Benedictine monastery of Thorney in East Anglia, a large and elegant computus book was finished in 1110, designed to be an ornament of the newly completed church.
The continents are arranged with Asia at the top, Europe apparently in the center and Africa in the southwest corner. Like the map within the rota of sunrises and sunsets, this is a T-O map with Asia in the top half, and Europe and Africa in the lower half. In form, content and function, MS 17a€™s map represents a recent development in medieval cartography. On the other hand, this mappamundi is also closely connected in content and context to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram on fol.
But there is also a particularly insular connection between computus and universal geography, one that is connected to the debates over the correct system of calculating Easter that marked the early years of Christianity in England.
Schematic maps of the oikumene of the T-O type are often embedded in computus diagrams as a shorthand representation of the earth; zone maps illustrating the climates of the earth, derived from Macrobiusa€™ Commentum in Somnium Scipionis (#201), appear in anthologies of cosmographic materials as illustrations of passages from Isidore (cf. In about 1446-1451 Jean Mansel composed a universal history titled La fleur des histoires, and then in the 1460s wrote a longer version of the same work.
The map is placed at the start of the prologue to Book IV, in which a description of the regions of the world is given in alphabetical order. The name gorgato recalls the medieval Latin gargata and Old French gargate, meaning a€?throat,a€? perhaps alluding to the creaturea€™s voracious nature, but these monsters seem to have been invented by the cartographer. The T-O map tradition did not die out as a cartographic form of expression until as late as the 17th century, as may be seen from a book such as the Variae Orbis Universi, by Petrus Bertius, 1628. The Matenadaran archive collection in Yerevan, capital of Armenia, contains some 14,000 manuscripts from the golden age of Armenian literature, beginning in the 5th century, and from later periods.
One exception to the general lack of maps in the Yerevan archives is MS 1242, a collection of eighteen unrelated essays on religious, moral, mathematical and astronomical subjects dating mainly from the 13th to the 15th centuries. The map on folio 132r can be described as of the T - O type, but its construction has been modified. Also as in many maps of the T-O genre, the centre is occupied by the Holy City of Jerusalem, which is shown with its six gates, each inscribed with its name in Armenian.
In both shape and arrangement, the city sign is akin to that on the Hereford mapparnundi, c.1290 (#226), although it lacks the enclosing crenulated walls of the Hereford map sign. As shown in the following Table, in addition to Jerusalem, twenty-seven place- names are found on the map. The inscription to the left of the stem of the T, below the triangle formed by three dots, reads, Ays koghms Eropa [This side is Europe].
The Red Sea [Karmir] dzov; only the word sea is legible on the map) is shown as a bold open circle on the borders of Africa and Asia. The division between Europe and Asia, normally marked with the horizontal crossbar of the T, here is demarcated with a single red line and is more complex.
In keeping with T-O maps in general, the greater part of the Armenian map is allocated to Asia, inscribed Ays koghms Asia [This side is Asia]. In the east, in the upper part of the map close to the Ocean are the names Khaytai [China] and Zaytun [Zaytun], another Chinese trading port city.
The presence of these toponyms in the area between Europe and China bears witness to the importance of these towns and provinces in trade and commerce between East and West and is perhaps indicative of the period of the mapa€™s creation. There is nothing, then, untoward in the inclusion on the Armenian map of Sara (Sarai), a city founded only in the 1240s by Batu Khan, the grandson of Mongol leader Gangiz Khan, who took over the territory of southern Russia and its Turkic speaking peoples during the early 13th century. Khachaturian also proposed that based on palaeographic evidence, the map was made in the Cilician Kingdom of Armenia during the Crusades, unfortunately not specifying which Crusade.
Caffa, the first town listed in the row of toponyms along the northeastern periphery of the map, was only a small Crimean seaside town until the 13th century.
The presence of the name Caffa on the map is a strong indication that the map was made during the citya€™s heyday, namely in the 14th century. Since, in my view, the map has to postdate both the establishment of Sarai-Batu and Sarai-Berke (New Sarai, established 1257-1266) and the time when Caffa became an important conurbation, it cannot be dated to earlier than the third quarter of the 13th century.
While the majority of T-O maps produced in the Christian West depict Armenia, Mount Ararat and Noaha€™s Ark, this Armenian mapmaker has chosen not to mention any of these Armenian features.
In the end, the absence of reference on the Armenian map to Armenia itself or to any of its immediate neighbors, such as Persia and Assyria, is more puzzling. The existence of this Armenian language T-O map, though, may be owed simply to the curiosity of an individual whose interest in Western maps and literature would have been a sufficient reason for him to create a map of his own in line with those of the Western mapmakers of the time, leaving us an Armenian map as remarkable for its uniqueness as for the hints it gives of the interconnections underlying the T-O maps and the mappaemundi of the West. This is a very late example of a T-O world map, probably made in Bruges in 1482 for King Edward IV, the founder of the old Royal Library. 205CT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm dia, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205CCDiagram map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 9th century, 24 cm square, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 210, f. 205DD Isidore mappamundi, unknown, 11th century, 26 cm dia, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 10058, f.
205ET-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, Santarem s Atlas compose de mappemondes . 205GG Circular Plan of Jerusalem, unknown, 13th century, 26 cm diameter, British Library, Additional MS. 205HT-O Sallust map from Bellum Jugurthinum, unknown, 14th century, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, Fond. 205HH Reverse T-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 12th century, 19 cm diameter, Cathedral Curch of Exeter, MS.
205JJT-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 9th century, 12.5 cm diameter, Burgerbibliothek, Bern, Codex 417, fol.
205LLSallust T-O map from De bello Jugurthino, West oriented, unknown, 6.8 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS.
205MT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 8th century, 22 X 29 cm, Vatican Library, MS Vat. 205MM Sallust T-O map with symmetrical rivers, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, MS.
205NSallust T-O map, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge MS. 205OT-O Sallust map, unknown, 13th century, 4.3 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS Lat. 205QT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm diameter, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut.
205TT-O and -V maps from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 12th century, 7.2 cm diameter, BnF, Manuscrits (Latin 10293 fol. 205TTT-O world map by Chatillon, Gautier de Chatillon, 13th century, 7 cm diameter, Bodleian Library, MS Bod. 205V1Gauthier de Chatillon mappimundi, Alexandreis, Gauthier de Chatillon, 13th century, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Francais 11334, fol.
205WY-O map from Macrobiusa€™ Commentarium in somnium Scipionis, unknown, 12th century, 8.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205YT-O map from MS of Commentary on the Apocalypse of Saint John (Beatus), unknown, 11th century, 4.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205ZT-O map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 12th century, 8.1 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS.
A letterman in baseball, basketball, and cross country at Drewry Mason High School in rural Ridgeway, Va., and later, a walk-on member of the Virginia Tech baseball team, Dale Koger (building construction '77) has always loved sports.
For nearly 30 years, Koger has put his self-professed passions to work, achieving major-league results--literally. In light of his extensive accomplishments with Clark, Koger was handpicked in a 2002 national search to start up Turner's Sports Group in Arlington, Va. Though clearly a gifted, and perhaps destined, construction executive, Koger says that he initially enrolled at Tech in the architectural curriculum.
Despite his hectic schedule, Koger, who lives in Ashburn, Va., with his wife and two teenagers, still manages to nurture his passion for sports, coaching youth baseball and basketball and playing golf and baseball (in the men's senior league).
Image LinkEncyclop?dia BritannicaThe Industrial Revolution, beginning in the 1700's, shaped the first half of the 19th century's workforce.
The Luddite Riots ran between 1811-1816 in England, and was comprised of a series of attacks on british factories and machineries.
The invention of the typographer by William Burt in 1829, opened up a new communication channel to be utilitzed by companies and organizations. The Factories Act of 1947 (Ten Hours) stipulated that a work day may not be longer than 10 hours for both women and children.
Ita€™s most famous ruler was the legendary king Minos who established the capitol city of Knossos. It was a warrior culture mentioned by Homer in his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, describing the events that took place during the Trojan Wars between the Mycenaeans from the mainland of Greece and Troy on the western shoreline of Anatolia (present-day Turkey). They were carried into Roman culture by Virgil, were embraced by the Byzantines, and were carried into Italy during the Renaissance. Art, pottery, sculpturing, and architecture developed, establishing the foundation for much of the Classical period. Athenian democracy developed under Pericles and the Parthenon was built on the Acropolis in Athens in worship of Athena.
It derived its name from the goddess Athena who in Greek myth competed with Poseidon to be the patron of the city. The Isthmus games were held every two years at the narrow isthmus of Greece, located near Corinth. He was most angered by Athens and Sparta, because when his father Darius sent messengers to those two cities to offer them the opportunity to surrender prior to the Battle of Marathon, they killed Dariusa€™ emissaries by throwing them down into deep wells.
The Persians arrived at a narrow, rocky pass, Thermopylae, which overlooked the rocky shoreline below -- a 50-foot wide narrow pass which only permitted a limited numbers of troops to squeeze through the pass at a time. King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the pass with 300 Spartans and 400 soldiers from other city-states. A Greek traitor, however, revealed a hidden pass through the mountains that would by-pass Thermopylae and allow the Persian to attack Leonidas from the rear. He sent a messenger to Xerxes with the message that many of the Greeks were terrified, that they would not fight, and that if Xerxes sent his ships into the Bay of Salamis they could easily wipe out the Athenian navy. This would not bode well for the future of peace between the two city-states, however, and ultimately resulted in the Peloponnesian Wars. During the Peloponnesian War Athens suffered from a plague, which took the life of Pericles.
Pericles led a number of major building projects in Athens including the rebuilding of the Parthenon, constructing a large statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and rebuilt the acropolis. Socrates maintained that the universe and life below here on earth pointed to a different reality. In the dialogue, Meno, Socrates set forth the idea that when a person is born it is a reincarnation of the eternal soul which contains all knowledge.
He argued that the soul is eternal, lives on after the death of the physical body, and existed before the physical body.
Although he disagreed with some of his teachings, Plato memorialized Socrates in his work, the Apology of Plato. In it he describes the ideal form of government and society comprised of three classes of people: producers (craftsmen, farmers, builders), warriors, and guardians (rulers). The goal is to follow the lead of the rational and spiritual portions of the soul and to make them masters over the appetite. They can only speculate and guess, based upon the shadows they see moving across the floor and walls of the cave. Plato seemed to these North European Christians to be saying that reality is above where God is. After his education in Athens, Aristotle was hired by King Philip of Macedonia to be the personal tutor of this son, the future Alexander the Great in Macedonia.


Too many good things go unaccomplished because of either a bad beginning or not beginning at all. During the Reign of Terror in France all Christian symbols were removed from the cathedral in Paris and a statute of the Goddess of Human Reason was placed in the cathedral.
On the other hand, there is considerable evidence, some speculate, that many of the Greek gods and goddesses were reminder remnants of Biblical history prior to the Flood of Noah. Eve may be the prototype of Athena, because invariably when depicted in Greek sculpture Athena is pictured with a snake at her one side and a sword at the other. Access to its snowy peaks was very difficult, it was shrouded in mystery, and was supposed by the Greeks to be the home of the Twelve Olympians.
He is the son of Gaea and then became her husband; together they had many offspring, including twelve of the Titans. Because Atlas led the Titans in the battle, he was singled out by Zeus for a special punishment and was condemned to hold up for eternity the world on his back.
Earth (Gaia) presents the new-born child to Athena, who represents the reborn serpent-friendly Eve after the Flood. In Section One of the Cycle of Rebirths in Buddhism, the gods and demigods are continually engaged, as here with the Greek deities, in a struggle over who will obtain the magic fruit of the tree that dispenses wisdom and eternity. To depict this, Athena is usually accompanied by one or several snakes -- the symbol to the Greeks of hidden wisdom.
As the story goes, Olympia, a mystical follower of the god Dionysus, often slept with a giant snake in her bed as both a pet and a spiritual symbol of Zeus. Olympia immediately feared that Cleopatra would produce a son who would become the legitimate heir to Philipa€™s throne. When he ran from the banquet, two of Alexandera€™s other friends caught him and killed him. When a boy baby was later born to Cleopatra, Alexandera€™s mother Olympia arranged to have Cleopatra and the child killed to prevent a challenger to Alexandera€™s throne.
In Egypt he left behind a Greek, General Ptolemy, who became the first of the Ptolemaic pharaohs.
Wherever he went he left behind Greek soldiers to intermarry with the population and in this way to capture the local culture. In other words, Paul was a€?deeply shaken.a€? he had a a€?sudden attacka€? or a€?deep disturbance,a€? and felt impelled to make a statement. He informs them about the unknown God, the Creator, who is near to each one of us, the one whom they worship but whose identity is a mystery to them. The Greeks, whether from Sparta, Athens, or Thebes, would never think of going to war, embarking on a new project, or taking a long trip, without consulting with the Oracle.
The Oracle's advice disturbed them -- an Unknown God was the cause of the plague, she said, who intended to punish the Athenians for having violated many years before an ancient Greek code of conduct against another city-state. The grateful citizens wanted to reward Epimenides, but he declined any payment, asking merely for a treaty of peace between Athens and his home city, Knossos.
He spent the majority of his time in front of them filling that empty concept of the unknown god with truth about the God they worshipped as the agnosto theo. That is, until he discovered the exchange of little children made between warring clans for the purpose of making peace. The Roman gods, for example, were for the most part simply re named Greek gods from Greek mythology.
It impacted the entire culture of Greece and the population were almost entirely Christianized by the middle of the second century.
They destroyed most of the ancient Christian communities in Turkey, like Ephesus, Laodicea, Pergamum, and other churches listed in the New Testament. The long struggle of Greece to resist Islam and to serve as a guard for the rest of Christian Europe against the Islamic Ottomans was at last over. It is interesting to travel through Greece to see white crosses placed virtually every hilltop to celebrate their independence from Ottoman rule.
Churches at Corinth, Ephesus, Thessaloniki, and Philippi all had New Testament letters addressed to them.
Many school children in America study Greek mythology in school, thinking of it as some sort of fairy tale, cartoonish system, not realizing its demonic roots and total domination of the Greek culture.
Thomas Jefferson seemed to have favored implementing a certain form of limited democracy in the United States. How might they have been modified and re directed after the Greeks embraced the Christian faith?
They drove many of the Mycenaean people to the Ionian coast, and intermarried with the remaining Mycenaeans to form the Greek people. 700 B.C), authored two important epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the oldest known European literature.
There is some indication that this mythology was the deification of a€?heroica€? men and women of old, who, before the Flood, composed the line of unrighteous persons. This was in stark contrast to the polytheism and idolatry practiced by its neighbors, including Greece and Rome.
From this it is quite evident that the two parts, Europe and Africa, occupy half of the world and that Asia alone occupies the other half. Proceeding to a systematic description of the countries of the world, of Asia Isidore says that it is bounded in the east by Lake Maeotis [Sea of Azov] and the river Tanais [the river Don].
Other maps give definite localities for the Twelve Tribes of Israel and the abiding places of the Twelve Apostles. The most closely related or influenced maps of the T-Oa€™s are those that accompany manuscripts of Sallusta€™s works and may have originally been drawn to illustrate a passage from Sallusta€™s De bello Jugurthino which, like Isidorea€™s treatise, also attempted to briefly describe the countries of the world.
Both accounts appear bound in one manuscript that was copied and used as a textbook of history for almost a millennium. The sea is boisterous, and deficient in harbors; the soil is fertile in corn, and good for pasturage, but unproductive of trees. The name of Medes the Libyans gradually corrupted changing It in their barbarous tongue, into Moors.
Many copies of this map mention the name of Armenians in North Africa, along with the names of the Medes and the Persians These were probably the forbearers of the first T-O maps, as we know them today. Some of these include basic T-O maps, which show the continents, including the names of some countries and peoples. The copy dates from the ninth or tenth century and is drawn on vellum and taken from a Sallust manuscript now in the University of Leipzig in Germany. In the area of Europe there are no legends, only the city of Roma is represented with a vignette of a castle and its name, attesting to the importance of the power of Rome in the Empire.
Affrica contains 24 legends, which include cities of Harran, Cartage [Cartage] plus four other cities. The left arm of the T is inscribed Tanais, but the right arm, which should have borne the name Nilus, is only connected to the Nile at the right extremity, where the Nilus is shown as a vertical line. There are 15 toponyms and the countries of Phoenicea, Carthago, Ethiopia, Numidia and mountains of Catabatmon are shown.
This area is divided first into the lands of Judea, Galilee, and Palestine, and further by the names of seven of the Twelve Tribes.
One of the most interesting features of this map is its highly abstract form: it is mostly comprised of straight lines with only a few concessions to irregular geographical forms. Most puzzling is that the label for Europe crosses what would normally be the Mediterranean. The division of the earth among the sons of Noah, Noaha€™s ark, seven of the twelve tribal territories of the land of Israel, Jericho and the city of refuge (Joshua 20) for those guilty of involuntary manslaughter under Hebrew law, all come from Jewish history.
These divisions are treated rather casually, however, for the label EVROPA straddles the boundary between Europe and Africa; locations in the Holy Land are indifferently assigned to Asia and Africa, and Athens and Achaia are placed in Asia.
Running horizontally across the middle of the map, and dividing Asia from Africa and Europe, is a band labeled HIERVSALEM.
Europe in principle occupies the left hand side of the lower half of the map, but the label EVROPA actually straddles the vertical divider. Great Britain, Ireland and Thule are represented at or over the edge of the orbis and in the northern rather than western quadrant.
The prominence given to Jerusalem, together with the double representation of the Cross (once on its own, and once on Mount Zion), is a case in point. Evelyn Edson, on the other hand, argues that MS 17a€™s mappamundi is one of a small group of complex maps directly inspired by computus themes. A famous and often reproduced world map in a manuscript of the short version of Mansela€™s book, which was probably made by Simom Marmion in about 1460, illustrates the division of the world among the three sons of Noah.
Mansela€™s description includes ancient places such as Carthage and Delos, biblical places such as Babylon and Judaea, and lands of contemporary importance such as Westphalia and Gascony. Of course that is the easy conclusion, but it is rendered very plausible if we look at the names of some of the islands in the circumfluent oceana€”golgavatas terra, lapides presiosa (for lapides pretiosi, a€?precious stonesa€?), habundans terra, illa deserta, tamaria, alphaua terra, and illa arcana, for examplea€”which are quite clearly invented. It immediately precedes the prologue to Book IV, which includes a regional description of the world in alphabetical order. Among these manuscripts are many illustrated works on astrology and astronomy as well as some on geography, but virtually nothing contains a map. The circular legend around the city reads The city of Jerusalem populated in ancient and recent times by the Israelites [the Armenian phrase reads Bnakui hin yev nor avrinatz qaghaq I[sra] letzotz vor e Yerusaghem]. It also resembles the plan of Jerusalem in another Armenian manuscript in the Matenadaran, the much later MS 1770 which dates from 1589. This is shown by the pair of vertical red lines that descend from Jerusalem in the center to the outer Ocean and represent the Mediterranean, which is identified only by the word Sea. Between the inscription and the Mediterranean, that is in western Africa, is a small circle which, being inland, can only denote a lake.
It is outlined in black, colored solidly in red and interrupted as if to indicate the traditional crossing of the Israelites as they fled from Egypt. Two black lines, drawn at right angles to each other and to the red lines of the continental division and the Mediterranean, indicate the Aegean and Black Seas. In the north, following the curve of the encircling Ocean, and on the borders of Europe and Asia, is written Rusq [Russia]. Zaytun was the Arabic name given to the port of Quanzhou or Tseu-Tung in the province of Fujian, China. It may also be that this is the earliest Christian map on which the toponyms Caffa, Azov, Sarai, Zaytun and Khansai are found.
The geographer Mkrdich Khachaturiana€™s suggestion that the map dates from 1206 is unlikely to be correct. The Flemish Franciscan William de Rubruck (1220-1293), who in 1253 travelled to the region, stated that [Sarah] Batu was one of the most important cities of the region. It is hardly possible to date a manuscript precisely based on palaeography alone, and, furthermore, the script used on the map is similar to that in a manuscript produced in Caffa in 1445 (Matenadaran, MS 8963), which is another collection of astrological and scientific subjects, with diagrams and calendars. Only after Genoese merchants had leased it from the Mongols, was it transformed into a flourishing commercial centre, trading with the East and rivaling the Venetian- controlled city of Tanais on the Sea of Azov.
Such a date would fit the suggestion that the Armenian mapmaker, who was most likely to have been a monk, either saw or was told about contemporary Italian T-O maps in Caffa, a city not only administered by the Genoese, but also to all intents and purposes functioning as an Italian city, and one of the most suitably located Armenian communities for intellectual as well as commercial contact with the West. Hovhannes Hovhannisian, the other Armenian geographer who has studied the map, argues that the presence of the commercial centers of Khorazm [Oxiana] and Sarai are indicative of the period when the Mongols had close connections with Khorazm (that is, from the 1240s to the 1360s), and this explains the rationale behind his dating the map to as late as 1360.
Other biblical events and places are shown on the map, however: Jerusalem, the giving of the Tablets of the Law to Moses, Mount Sinai and the Red Sea. While the Hereford mappamundi, c.1290 (#226) and the Sawley map, 1180 (#215) each show a monastic establishment, the references to these have been placed on the banks of the Nile.
It can plausibly be deduced, that the author was familiar with Central Asia since current trends in commercial and political relations are well represented by the depiction of the Silk Road cities and major trading centers such as Baghdad, Damascus, Constantinople and Venice. A sumptuous example of Flemish illumination illustrating an encyclopedic work, it embodies the spirit of medieval civilization. See the list below for descriptions on a wide array of places to visit and experience during your visit to the Central Texas area.
As vice president and general manager of Turner Construction Company's Sports Group, overseeing the preconstruction services and construction operations of major sports facility projects across the country, he has become one of the industry's key players.
With Koger at the helm, Turner--which had never ranked higher than second on Engineering News Record's (ENR) annual list of the largest U.S. Beginning in England, this period entailed a shift from an agrarian economy to one that favored and utilized machines and industrial labor. This event landmarked the incipient journey of locomotive transport and travel to be used by companies.
As most northern states were abolishing slavery, Southern states were able to assure themselves with a self-sustaining supply of slaves as any child born to a current slave would be considered so themselves. The riots and attacks were engendered from the fear of factory workers that machines would soon replace their labor as a response to developments made after the French Wars.
Women working in the industry were reported to be under employment for means to assist familial success instead of stressful circumstances.
Present day forms of the typographer today (email and computer generated letters) provide a primary form of communication within the workplace.
While seamingly unimportant to the development of organizational culture, this invention allowed for the mass production of seamed materials. This act strengthened child labor acts of the time and gave children a solid scheduled work day. He probably did not write the Iliad and the Odyssey because handwriting was not discovered in Greece until about 400 years after the time Homer was said to have lived.There were Greek colonies all along the Ionian coastline. The philosophic schools of Socrates and Plato developed.The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) was fought between Athens and Sparta and their allied city-states. Darius and the Persians invaded Greece with over 100,000 troops but were defeated by 20,000 Greek hoplites in the famous battle at Marathon just north of Athens. Her story is recorded in the Book of Esther and through her efforts a major slaughter of the Jews was averted. When a spy told them that the Persians were so numerous that when they shot their arrows they blocked the sun, Leonidasa€™ response was, a€?Good! Xerxes sent about 400 Persian triremes into the bay where the larger Persian ships, loaded with soldiers who could not swim, were faced by 300 smaller, sleeker Greek ships built to sail from island to island and were much more maneuverable. These wars involved virtually all of the Greek city-states who allied themselves with either Athens or Sparta. He was so important to the life of Athens that his period of leadership is called the Age of Pericles (5th century).
He is also known for his contribution to the further development of democracy in Athens, which also provided salaries for magistrates and limited eligibility for public office to those who were born to two Athenian-born parents. Confucius was the result of the Warring States period in Chinese history and he sought employment as a civil servant in order to sell his ideas to the rulers. Therefore, each child, upon physical birth, is a reincarnation of that eternal soul and hence possesses that ancient knowledge.
When he was ransomed by his friends they purchased a small property for him so that he could settle down.
But we are trapped in our human bodies and cannot conceive of those Forms other than by observing their shadows down here in the lower story where we live.
We only see his reflections down here but one day we will be fully enlightened when we go to heaven to be where he is. For example, it is okay to laugh at a joke during lunch time, but probably is a bad idea in the middle of your grandmothera€™s funeral.
They knew nothing about a personal God who lies outside of us, who communicates with us, and who has set out for us ideas and principles that are absolutes by which we are to live. Hera represents the serpenta€™s Eve before the Flood, and Athena represents the rebirth of the serpenta€™s Eve after the Flood.
The ruler of the Titans was Cronus (or Chronos, from which we get the words a€?chronologya€? and a€?chronometera€?). Gaea seems to have been an earth-mother who was worshipped before the Indo-European invasion into Greece that lead to the Hellenistic civilization.
His rule ended when his son Cronus, encouraged by Uranusa€™ mother-wife,Gaea, castrated him. 190 BC), Nereus, the Greek Noah, standing in the rear to left, is the only one among the many other figures who is not actively engaged in the battle.
The figure to the left of Gaia and the child is Hephaistos, the eldest son of Zeus and Hera, the deified Cain, the eldest son of Adam and Eve. Is it possible that Athena, as with the other Greek deities, is a flashback to a pre-flood person -- possibly, Eve? Later she convinced the young Alexander that when she conceived him in her womb, she had become pregnant, not by Philip, but by Zeus, king of the gods. When Philip, drunken from wine, stumbled over a table in his attempt to strike Alexander, Alexander taunted Philip in front of all the guests by exclaiming, a€?Look!
The most famous of his descendants was Cleopatra, lover of Julius Caesar and Marc Anthony. He also created several cities which he named Alexandria, the most famous becoming the capitol of Egypt under the Greek Ptolemaic pharaohs. As each group of invaders swept into Greece, parts of their mythologies and deities of their religions were incorporated into the Greek religion. On the top of the Acropolis in Athens stood the Parthenon, the temple devoted to the worship of Athena.
Luke tells us that Paul attracted the attention of the Epicureans and the Stoics, the two main schools of Athenian philosophy at the time. They even founded a debating forum called the Areopagus, a unique Athenian group, at one time the ruling institution of Athens. Paul was a master at meeting people where they were, moving them in the direction of truth, and then explaining to them the Gospel. Every year a woman from a local village was selected to spend the entire year sitting on a stool at Delphi, next to an open crevasse created by one of the many earthquakes in the region. All of the known gods either dona€™t hear us or are incapable of helping you with this plague.
It was in this condition that the Apostle Paul found the Athenians when he visited them in the first century A. When one of the warring clans wanted peace, they would take one of their own baby boys and, traveling under a truce to the enemy village, would offer the little boy as a peace offering. Letters in the New Testament were written to Greek churches at Corinth, Thessaloniki, Philippi, and Ephesus. When Constantine built the new Roman capitol at Constantinople, Greece became the host-area for the Byzantine Empire. Christian monasteries in mountainous Greece became the safe havens for the Christian scriptures and other Christian literature.
Many buildings in the United States imitate great architecture with their large marble pillars, built during the a€?Greek revivala€? in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The former were made into two parts because the Great Sea (called the Mediterranean) enters from the Ocean between them and cuts them apart . His treatment of the habitable earth enables one to arrive fairly easily at the scope of his knowledge. During his mission there he was involved in various rebellions and conflicts with neighboring powers and has left accounts of his activities. In his Jugurthine War Sallust writes about Africa, describing its geographic location and climatic conditions, as well as its demography where he narrates how the Armenian mercenaries settled in North Africa and intermingling with the Libyan tribes, gave rise to the peoples that inhabit the region today. Since they are about the history of northern Africa, this particular area is shown in more detail.
In Europe only the name of the continent and two countries of Italia and Hyspania are shown.
Near the Nile the land is described as Exusta [parched], a reference to the southern parched areas. Jerusalem was the focus of that Conquest for more than two centuries of Crusaders, and it would remain the center of attention on maps until the invention of printing and the publication of Ptolemy in the 1470s.
The whole is illustrated by instructive diagrams, including five world maps: two T-O centers of rotae, two zonal maps, and one larger, more detailed map. Another oddity is that Achaia, where St Andrew [preached] is in Southeast Asia, far from Athens, the preaching site of Paul.
These are the usual numbers for the descendants of Shem and Ham, but the source of the numbers for Armenia and why this country is singled out are not clear.
There is no attempt at cartographic realism: this is a diagram containing a list of places. ASIA MAIOR: glossed QVOD SVNT SEPTVAGINTA DVE GENTES ORTE, and beneath this De Sem gentes XXVI.
In the Europe zone, reading from top to bottom and left to right are: Terra macedonum, Campania, Italia, ROMA, tiberis flumen, Tuscia, mons Ethna, sicilia, KARTAGO MAGNA. These independent maps tend to occupy the full width of the page, or the page in its entirety.
Anna-Dorothea von den Brincken claims that this map is the first to position Jerusalem in the centre of the world, and not at its eastern extremity. A mappamundi with identical arrangement and legends appears in the Peterborough Computus (Harley 3667 fol. The British Isles and Ireland were little corners of the outer margins of the orbis terrarum, which further served to marginalize the deviant computus of the island churches. But the ADAM device, to say nothing of its proximity to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram both in MS 17 and in the Peterborough computus, argue forcefully for its derivation from Byrhtferth or his milieu.
In this category she includes oikumene maps, often quite large, such as the one in Vatican City BAV 6018 fols. Another world map in a manuscript of the long version of the book, this one created c.1480, for this map contains large and prominent sea monsters in the circumfluent ocean. His aim was to show how Rome developed from a small town to a global empire, almost every corner of which had been penetrated by Christianity before the empire passed to the Franks.
In fact none of the islands in the circumfluent ocean which are discussed by Mansela€”Grande-Bretagne, iles Fortunees, Gales, Irlande, Orcades, Escosse, Thanatos, Taprobane, Thule, and Islandea€”appears on this map.
The oldest geographical work originates from as early as the fifth century and is titled in Armenian Ashkharhatzuytz or Mirror of the World. The horizontal arms of the letter T (stretching north and south from Jerusalem at the centre) are not represented by the rivers Tanais (Don) and Nile, as in conventional T-O maps, but by single red lines ruled, it would seem, to demarcate Asia from Europe and from Africa. The considerable prominence given to Jerusalem can be explained by the fact that the Armenian Church had, and still has, close ties with the Holy City and is one of the four custodians of the Holy Places, with a church, seminary and religious order active since the 5th century.
Outside the double-circle frame of the map are the names of the four cardinal directions Hyusis, Harav, Arevelq and Arevmutq, and the word Dzov [Sea] is written seven times. Further in from the Ocean two cities are named, Kostandnupolis [Constantinople] and Venejia [Venice]. Indeed, that is how it is identified, with the phrase Ays dzovis anunn Tuman [This Sea is named Tuman]. The legend that appears to refer to the Crossing of the Red Sea is worn and partly illegible. A gap in the horizontal line for the Aegean, filled with the name Kostandnupolis [Constantinople], seems to imply that the line also represents the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus. Zaytun and Khansai appear on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#246) as Ciutat de Zaytun and Ciutat de Cansay, respectively; Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (#249) contains these toponyms as Cayton and Chansay.
His conjecture was based on the assumption that all the toponyms on the map are contemporary with the time of its creation.
This posed a problem for Khachaturian, however, and he therefore had to insist that the toponym Sara related not to Sarai-Batu but to some other location, perhaps a putative island in the Caspian Sea, even though the Caspian is neither mentioned on the map nor has it ever had an inhabited island named Sara. Looking at the toponyms shown on the map, the question arises why a Cilician-Armenian mapmaker would have included the names of cities along the distant northern Silk Road, instead of the toponyms in his locality. The earliest mention of Caffa in Armenian literature dates from the middle of the 13th century. In Rouben Galichiana€™s view, the most creditable hypothesis is that the map was created between the late-13th and mid-14th centuries, or even slightly later, which is in line with Hovhannisiana€™s proposal. The legend to the southeast of Palestine, between Mount Sinai and the Nile reads Takhtak orinatz zor yet[ur] a[stua]tz Movs[es]i, which translates Tablets of law that God gave Moses. The Armenian language has several different words that mean monastery, among them liana, menastan and ananpat. It may also be suggested that the mapmaker was a native of the region, very likely from 14th century Caffa, then one of the most important Armenian cultural centers and the source of a large number of manuscripts of that date. Please give us a call for more information on any place you in which you would like to know more. During this time, the implementation of factory labor, including division of labor and specialization, changed the culture around labor within organizations as a whole. Long distance travel and export of goods can be seen as one of our most valuable attributes within businesses and organizations today. These riots highlighted brought to light the importance of worker's rights and value within our workplace. The intention behind the tariff was to create a self-sustaining manufacturing industry by taxing foreign goods and promoting the sale of U.S. Women within this industry were being utilized as strongly as men, suggesting a movement towards equality within the workforce. This invention, and others of the industrial revolution, opened up the ideal of mass manufacturing. Furthermore, this can be seen as a major contributor to the future development of the "work day" amongst organizations. The Iliad and the Odyssey were memorized by the Greeks and became essential components of Greek thought and culture. It is proposed by some that writing developed in Greece shortly after Homer in order to record his epics. It was in response to the aftermath of this war and the defeat of Athens by Sparta that Socrates (469-399 BC) grew to prominence in an attempt to bring order out of the chaos that developed.
Pressure from Greecea€™s traditional enemy, Persia, prevented the idea of limited democracy from developing further and it was forgotten until much later under the leadership of Pericles (c. The Olympic games were held every four years at Olympia, in south-west Greece in the Peloponnese.
Darius, king of Persia, was furious to learn that Athens had aided the Greek colonies in their rebellion. A bad taste was left in the mouths of the Athenians because the promised military assistance from Sparta never materialized. The troops were recruited (usually by force) from all of the Persian colonies throughout the Middle East.
Hearing that the entire army and navy of Athens was on the nearby island of Salamis, Xerxes decided to postpone his march through the isthmus and to first annihilate the Athenians. Xerxes, who was overlooking the battle from a high cliff, watched in dismay as the Greeks used oars, spears, and heavy clubs to kill the Persians when their triremes were overturned. The job of the teacher is simply to induce it to come out by asking wise, guiding questions. He named the property Academus -- Academy -- because he quickly turned it into the site for a school, following the pattern of his mentor, Socrates.
Each has its own area of specialization and should not intrude into the areas of the other two classes.
It is okay to eat a doughnut, but probably not a good idea to eat a dozen doughnuts, especially just before you go to bed or just before running a race.
For instance, even though every village and town had its own favorite god or goddess and each had its own temple or sacred place, there was one goddess to whom it was permissible to make sacrifice, and none of the other gods and goddesses would be offended.
To insure his safety and superior position, when each of his children were born, he ate them!
The sculptors have placed him as a mute witness to the Greek godsa€™ defeat of the Giants (Nereusa€™ Yahweh-believing sons) signifying the end of Greek faith in Noaha€™s God.
Heracles, the Nimrod of Genesis, demands to know something that only the Salt Sea Old Man can tell him. Philip, King of Macedonia, assembled a powerful military and was intent on conquering Persia as payback for Persiaa€™s earlier invasions of Greece and, in his day, its current ongoing threat to the well-being of Greece. However, he died prior to completing the second step, his planned invasion of Anatolia and Persia. This divine parentage elevated Alexander to be a god in the flesh, on a par with the noblest heroes of Greek mythology.
Did Olympia and Alexander assassinate Philip prior to any chance of Philip fathering a son with Cleopatra? Beyond the beauty of the sites visited, however, Paul was deeply disturbed by the rampant idolatry.
While Paul seemed to them to be an ignorant babbler, still, it was new and interesting information he was babbling about! By the time of Paula€™s arrival it had become more like a breakfast club that gathered to hear all the latest ideas, fads, and philosophies.
His approach at Athens was not a new tactic and did not result in a rejection of the Gospel. Assemble also teams of stone masons and have ready a large supply of stones.a€? The next morning 100 goats arrived together with teams of masons and loads of stones. Second, if there is an unknown god, that god must have the ability and the inclination to hear us when we sacrifice to him or her.
The Greeks resisted conversion by the Muslim Ottomans and maintained a strong Christian culture, even in the face of frequent persecutions.
These maps are taken from various manuscript copies of Sallusts works some of them dating from as late as the 13th and the 14th centuries, when they were still in use as textbooks by historians and scholars. The fourth line from the center bottom, near mount Athlas reads Medi - Armeni, a reference to the Armenians and Medes having settled in the area. In Asia beside the name of the continent, river Nilus, Egypt and Mare Rubrum [Red Sea] are mentioned, while the tall rising tower bears the legend Jrslm [Jerusalem]. These are the people, that according to Sallust settled in North Africa, giving rise to the North African tribes of today. Its heavily biblical content is also unusual: note Hierusalem on the central axis with the cross and Mt.
Of the sons of Noah, Shem is found in Asia and Ham in Africa, as usual, but Japheth stands next to Shem in Asia, instead of Europe.
In the centre, at the juncture of the horizontal and vertical dividing bands, is an omega-shape with a cross in the centre, labeled beneath Mons syon. The only place names in the Africa zone are at the very top, and two of them, TERRA IVDA, and PALESTINA, may have been intended as part of the central band (B above). They absorbed significant amounts of text into the schematic frame, such as lists of the provinces of the inhabited world. She associates this with the piety of the First Crusade, and the attention given to the Cross would support this claim. 8v), a manuscript very closely related to MS 17 in space and time; and the Peterborough computus also contains the only other extant copy of Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram (#205Z13). Moreover, in Book 5 of the Historia ecclesiastica, Bede follows up his account of Adomnan of Ionaa€™s reception of the Roman Easter with a paraphrase of his De locis sanctis: now it is Jerusalem, not Rome, which is the center of the world, but the link between computistical orthodoxy and the universality of the Church in space is still the underlying message. The map (shown below) is in a chapter on the a€?Provinces du monde,a€? but there is almost no connection between the map and the list of provinces in the chapter.
The legend hic sunt dragones, a€?Here there are dragonsa€?, sounds like a legend that would appear on many medieval mapsa€”such is our tendency to associate monsters with medieval mapsa€”but in fact it appears on only one other cartographic object, namely the Hunt-Lenox globe of c.1510 (Book IV, #314), where on the southeastern coast of Asia there is a legend that reads HC SVNT DRACONES. The prominent sea monsters on the map are thus invented dangers, rather than being based on the descriptions of sea monsters in a bestiary or encyclopedia, and the labels, like those on the islands, are attempts to convey an authority and accuracy which in fact are absent. Under the letter a€?Aa€™, for example, we read first about Asia and Assyria, then Arabia, Armenia and Albania. One full and almost sixty abridged manuscript copies of this work have survived, thirty-three of which are in the Matenadaran. Only the northern end of the single red line might be considered to represent the river Tanais, the traditional divide between Europe and Asia.
It may be worth bearing in mind that for the first four centuries of Christianity it was predominantly an Asiatic and North African religion, and that the Christian world was not divided into a Latin West and a predominantly Byzantine East until after the Council of Ephesus in 431. In Section 11, containing a text related to the Old Testament, there is circular plan of the city of Jerusalem (fol. Because the encircling Ocean touches two sides of paper, the words Hyusis [North] and Harav [South] have had to be split. West of this water body, an unnamed river is shown by a pair of parallel red lines bearing the simple inscription Sea.
North of Constantinople, the vertical black line, inscribed only as Sea, represents the Black Sea. According to Ibn-Battuta, this was the largest port [he] had ever seen, which could easily accommodate more than 100 large Chinese junks. Furthermore he claimed that since Mardin appears prominently on the map, it must have been made before the conquest of that city by the Arabs, in the early 13th century. By the middle of the 14th century, when numerous monastic scriptoria were in operation, the majority of Caffaa€™s population of 70,000 were Armenian.


Arguably, the lack of any references to Armenia itself could be attributed to the fact that he lived far from his homeland and felt no particular affinity with it. The Mediterranean Sea is not shown and only the black African faces convey a hint of reality. When I became a teenager, my father gave me opportunities to get involved in the work and to actually learn the various tradesman skills. When OMNI became Clark Construction Group in a 1996 merger, Koger was selected to launch the group's national sports facility construction division. 29, 2003, Turner's Sports Group completed nine stadium projects--four NFL stadiums and five collegiate football stadium expansions--totaling more than $1.5 billion in cumulative contract value, a feat that industry experts say is unlikely to be repeated. The telegraph was to be used for both governmental and commercial purposes during the mid 1800's.
There were two early forms, one a derivative of hieroglyphics in Egypt, and the other from the Phoenicians. Famed military heroes and kings of the polis from the Mycenaean Age were included as gods in the growing mythology of the Greek religion.
A two-tiered class system developed based upon onea€™s personal wealth, with the greatest power going to those at the top of the ladder; the lowest classes, however, were free from taxation.
When they arrived at the Hellespont, Xerxes filled the channel with ships and built bridges over the decks of the ships so that the men and supplies could pass over into Greece. He did not dismiss the Thespians because not trusting their loyalty, he wanted to keep his eye on them. Furthermore, the Athenians, Corinthians, and other Greek ships were highly motivated because they were fighting for the survival of Greece. Not only could the Persians not swim but their long robes became water-soaked causing most to drown.
Athens was viewed by many as the big, bad, prosperous wolf of Greece and potentially dangerous to the other city-states. His three principle featuring filial piety, he believed, would bring harmony and order to political, economic, and family life. This meant that it was not to the gods or the elders that we should run when seeking answers but through contemplating about onea€™s life, about what produces good, harmony, and happiness in this life. From Socratea€™s death comes the expression, a€?Pick your poison.a€? He chose to drink a beverage made of a lethal poison, hemlock. The rightful goal of every person is to faithfully live out the role assigned to him by nature and should not seek to do any other business or seek another other role. They probably would not believe him because what he saw and then reported to them would not necessarily conform to what they sightlessly imagined it to be. Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by being banished in defeat to Tartarus in the underworld. This worked fine until Rhea, unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of the newborn Zeus. Herakles demands to know from Nereus, who is a living connection to the pre-Flood world, where he can find the enlightenment of the serpent. He wondered how the Athenians, who had developed their special brand of democracy and produce philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, could fall for such pagan concepts of spirituality. As she sat there on her stool, breathing in those toxic and perhaps hallucinogenic fumes, it was believed that she could predict the future. Rubbing his sleepy eyes, Epimenides said, a€?Now, turn the goats loose and allow them to graze wherever they choose. Third, in order to help us this unknown god or goddess must have the ability and power to actually do something about the plague. In this way the two warring clans were related together in one confederacy by the presence of this one a€?peace child. After the Ottomans failed in their 1683 attempt to conquer Vienna, Austria, Christian troops from Venice and Austria invaded Greece, attacked the Ottomans in Athens, and greatly weakened Ottoman rule in Greece, By the late 1700s, however, Ottoman rule was re established until the Greeks won their independence, region by region from the Ottomans. Most of them die by the gradual decay of age, except such as perish by the sword or beasts of prey, for disease finds but few victims. The page is composed with the map above and a week-day table arranged under the arches below. Athens, Ephesus, Achaia, and Caesarea are mentioned specifically as sites where the apostles preached. The only significant difference between the Peterborough version of the map and the one found in MS 17 is that MS 17 alone contains the marginal note on Asia maior. A map of the Macrobian type also appears in the Abbonian computus manuscript Berlin 138 fol. Adam, Eve, and the serpent are in Eden at the top (east) of the map, with the rivers of Paradise flowing downward from it to the west (the river Jordan is labeled).
Heads symbolizing the four principal winds surround the habitable world, on which a number of historical or encyclopedic features are portrayed, such as the Tower of Babel, the Trees of the Sun and the Moon, the river Jordan, Jerusalem with Mount Calvary, the Red Sea, Rome, and some of the monstrous races.
These monsters, though invented, nonetheless have their effect, and render the circumfluent ocean a place of terrors, in contrast to the apparently peaceful buildings of the inhabited world.
The original Ashkharhatzuytz is attributed by some to the 5th century Armenian historian Movses Khorenatzi, while others believe that it is the work of the 7th century scientist and astronomer Anania Shirakatzi. Two vertical parallel red lines (running from Jerusalem to the western edge of the map) represent the unnamed Mediterranean Sea that separates Africa and Europe. Christianity had reached Armenia through the preaching of the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus.
392r), which is similar to the plan of the same city drawn in the centre of the world map of MS 1242. The significance of the two circles is made clear by the note, also on the outside, The all encompassing ocean, which is in this shape. Venice was an important entrepot for Armenian merchants, and Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the most important religious and political centre outside Jerusalem.
These lines, drawn almost at right angles to the Mediterranean, connect with the outer Ocean. Misr is the Arabic name of Egypt, used also in old Armenian, which the mapmaker has chosen to employ in conjunction with the later-day Armenian name of the country.
The northern extremity of the red line dividing Europe and Asia, beyond the eastern end of the Black Sea, must also stand for the Sea of Azov (for which there is no place-name) and the river Tanais. Sarai refers to the capital of the Mongols; it is either Sarai-Batu (Old Sarai), built in 1240s, or Sarai-Berke [New Sarai], dating from around 1260. These are doubtful lines of argument; information took time to be disseminated, and maps were only slowly updated. In addition, two legends in Palestine read Yekin anapatn [Came to the monastery] and Yekin Ye[rusaghe]m sakavq [A few came to Je[rusale]m]. The monastery on the Armenian map is not named but is defined as ananpat, which suggests a conscious choice, since on the Hereford map the whole legend reads Monasteria Sancti Antonii in deserto.
Started in Austin in 1984 as PC's Limited by Michael Dell, the company has grown into one of the largest publicly-traded companies in the world and a leader in the personal computer and computer services industry. The Mycenaeans were adventurers, traveling to and trading with peoples in Anatolia, Europe, and throughout the Mediterranean.
It was a a€?limiteda€? democracy because it only allowed adult males (not women!) (1) to vote and hold office, (2) but only if they were born in the city of Athens, (3) and if they owned land. The teachera€™s role is to encourage that knowledge to come out by use of proper questions.
Therefore, ethics is personal and autonomous (determined by onea€™s own thoughtful insight and not something received from others). We see the shadow of the Real Chair, the Real Tree, the Real Red Apple by looking at their shadows down here on earth. During their rule the Titans were associated with the various planets and their names remained attached to the planets when the Romans adopted much of Greek mythology. Zeus revolted against Cronus and the other Titans, defeated them, and banished them to Tartarus in the underworld. While on his death bed, lying in a tent in Baghdad, his troops filed past in a huge procession to honor their great leader.
Since it is early morning, none of the goats will normally lie down, but will eat their full after a night with no food. And fourth, this unknown god or goddess will understand that it is in ignorance that we do not know his or her name and will forgive us for our ignorance.a€? With those words, the sacrifices were offered up to the unknown god. Greek honor guards at the presidential palace today in Athens have 450 pleats in their native uniforms, signifying the 450 years that Greece was subjugated to the Ottoman Turks. Uniting these two gives us Garden of Delight; for it is planted with every kind of wood and fruit-bearing tree, having also the tree of life. Several of the districts are rich in gold and precious stones but are rarely approached by man owing to the ferocity of the Griffens . Animals of a venomous nature they have in great numbers, Africa, then, was originally occupied by the Getulians and Libyans, rude and uncivilized tribes, who subsisted on the flesh of wild animals, or like cattle, on the herbage of the soil.
Place names are almost entirely omitted from Africa and Asia Major, and a note in the upper right adds a€?[Asia] Major has in the east Alexandria and Pamphiliaa€?. The only places without a biblical link of some kind are in Italy (Sicily, Mount Etna, Tuscany, Campania), Constantinople and Britain, Ireland and Thule. However, the Peterborough map does not represent Mount Sion as a round a€?hilla€? with a cross, but as a triangle, and spells IERUSALEM without MS 17a€™s initial H. When these Greek names for the cardinal directions are read as if making the sign of the cross, that is, east-west-north-south, their initial letters spell ADAM. Jerusalem stands out at the center of the world and is labeled, as are Calvary, Babylon, the Red Sea, and Rome; the Trees of the Sun and Moon visited by Alexander the Great are also easy to identify.
As this manuscript is the only one of the long version of the work that contains a world map, it seems likely that the map was the result of a specific request by the patron commissioning the manuscript, namely Philippe II Sans Terre (1438-1497). The text also retains Isidorea€™s distinction between the Fortunate Islands and the earthly paradise and repeats the belief that Enoch and Elijah dwelt in the Garden and that the noise of the waters of Paradise falling to earth from a such a great height caused the local population to be born deaf.
The text is based on the work of Pappus of Alexandria (late third or early 4th century AD), but the chapters relating to Armenia and neighboring countries have been expanded. In accordance with the Western Christian T-O maps, the Armenian map is oriented with East at the top. It became the state religion in 301, after the conversion of King Tigran III, which makes the Armenian Church one of the oldest Christian entities. Although made in geographically widely separate locations, a common source or tradition may be suspected, especially were the Armenian map to prove to have been made before the end of the 13th century, which would place all these maps to within one hundred to one hundred fifty years of each other.
The term Sea, it should be noted, as used on the Armenian T-O map, refers any substantial body of water, whether it be an ocean, sea, lake or river.
One of these is located at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea, within the parallel lines, whereas the other two lie just to the north of the lines.
On the other (eastern) side of the legend indicating Africa a large red circle contains the legend Paravon yev zorqn Yegiptosi [Pharaoh and the army of Egypt].
Directly south of the Red Sea, near the shores of the surrounding Ocean, lies Ethiopia, named Hapash. The 13th century traveler Marco Polo mentions Zai-tun and Kin-sai as being important cities, trading with Japan (Zipangu), as well as with the Arabs and Persians. Moreover, in the case of the Western mappaemundi the very essence of the map was the inclusion of old (historical as well as biblical) information together with contemporary places and events.
Since the two Western maps and the Armenian map seem to have been made within one hundred and one hundred fifty years of each other, we can see the reference on the respective maps as further confirmation of the possibility of a common source. The company employs almost 90,000 people worldwide, with over 14,000 local employees.Dell Diamond 3400 E. Because of this the Athenians developed a€?overseasa€? colonies in order to grow wheat and other grains.
To the women and to those who moved to Athens from other areas, this was hardly a democracy. A soldier, Pheidippides, was sent running back to Athens, 26 miles to the south, to announce the good news of the victory.
Zeus and his wife (first known as Dione and then Hera) are deifications of Adam and his wife Eve.a€? (Johnson, The Parthenon Code 2004, p. The New Testament was not written in Aramaic (the language of Jesus and the apostles) or in Latin (the language of the Roman conquerors) but was written in Greek, the most widely spoken language. They were controlled neither by customs, laws, nor the authority of any ruler, they wandered about, without fixed habitations and slept in the abodes to which night drove them. These islands, the only ones represented, break the frame of the map, perhaps as a burst of patriotism on the part of the scribes.
The popularity of this ancient conceit was primarily due to St Augustine, who compared Adama€™s progeny filling the earth and the sons of Noah re-populating the globe. A list map using the T-O form as a symbolic frame for displaying the names of provinces in Asia, Africa and Europe appears in Cotton Vitellius A.XII, fol. But otherwise the mapa€™s geography is vague; it presents much of the earth as a a€?jumblea€? of land and water. Adam and Eve, the tree and the serpent are shown within an ornate architectural frame, as if to emphasize the uniqueness and splendor of the Garden.
But once he had been assigned this task, the artist seems to have given his fancy free rein.
A later version of the Ashkharhatzuytz by the 13th century historian and geographer Vartan Areveltzi is also extant in multiple copies (MS 3119, 4184 and others). Armenian Christianity's ties with the Latin churches were severed in 554 over irreconcilable doctrinal differences. The city plan in the 16th century MS 1770 also would seem to have been derived from the same common source or tradition. Similarly the term Land does not denote a territory as such, but is placed wherever there is a significant gap between neighboring toponyms.
The Nile is placed well inside Asia, where a vertical (easta€”west) red line running from close to the eastern Ocean towards the Red Sea bears the legend Ays dzovis anun Nil asen [This Sea is named Nile].
Although the whole representation may be highly schematic, the way that the Aegean Sea is depicted as branching off from the Mediterranean to the west of Jerusalem and the easta€”west alignment of Black Sea, shown at right angles to the northern end of the Aegean near Constantinople, presents a more faithful picture of reality than many other T-O maps. Then comes Ashkharq Hndkatz [Lands of the Indians], followed well to the southeast by Hndkastan [Hindustan or India]. It was usual for medieval maps, in short, to depict conditions in existence some time before their creation. They invaded south to Crete where a blending of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures took place. Some historians state that the United States acquired its concept of democracy from Athens. From the middle of the Garden a spring gushes forth to water the whole grove and, dividing up, it provides the source of four rivers [see #205C and Q].
The northern (left) half of the cross bar represented the river Tanais [Don], and the southern (right) half of the cross bar represented the river Nile.
But after Hercules, as the Africans think, perished in Spain, his army, which was composed of various nations, having lost its leader, and many candidates severalty claiming the command of it, was speedily dispersed.
Around the circle of the map the cardinal directions are ostentatiously given in Greek and glossed in Latin: for example, Anathole vel oriens vel eoi, in the east. Like MS 17a€™s image, it gives considerable prominence to the circumambient ocean, as well as to the islands of Britain, Ireland and Thule: its creator seems to have been especially concerned to situate his own region with respect to the extremes of the world, both to the east and to the west.
It should also be noted that a second, incomplete copy of this map is found in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 265, p. It appears in Bedea€™s commentary on Genesis, and is prominently featured in Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram.
29r) in which only the northern temperate zone -- the oikumene or inhabited world -- is treated like a map, while the remainder of the disk is occupied solely by text.
From Paradise the four rivers flow out to give life to the earth and to establish a mysterious yet material connection between paradise and the human realm. Both the earlier and the later versions display the influence of Ptolemy, and as in the case of Ptolemy, no maps accompany these manuscripts.
By adding the word Land between the toponyms, the mapmaker has tried to show that although these towns are widely separated and distant from each other, they constitute a chain of cities along a route that can only be the Silk Road. In the Middle Ages, the designation India was used loosely to refer to the lands east of Persia, Media and the Middle East. Home of the Triple AAA Pacific Coast League Minor League, Round Rock Express baseball team.
The area with its moderate climate was ideal, however, for the development of olive groves, vineyards, almonds, and apples. The Saducees were hellenized Jews, and thus denied the reality of the resurrection of the dead. Approach to this place was barred to man after his sin, for now it is hedged about on all sides by a sword-like flame [romphaea flamma], that is to say that it is surrounded by a wall of fire that reaches almost to the sky. Of its constituent troops the Medes, Persians and Armenians having sailed over Into Africa, occupied the parts nearest to our sea. A note to one side says, Maior habet in oriente alexandriam pamphiliam, a reference to Asia Major at the top of the map. Kartago Magna, which could be Cartagena in Spain as Cartago appears elsewhere on the map, is another non-biblical site.
It is very close to such contemporary elaborations of the Sallust map as Vatican City, BAV Reg. Insular writers were particularly attracted to this theme, because they associated the conversion of their lands, at the very edge of the known world, with the fulfillment of Christa€™s command to take to Gospel to the ends of the earth.
64, underscores the magnetic attraction of these two ways of listing the inhabitants of the world, and how innovative MS 17 was in fusing them. In his book, Mansel described Paradise as a wonderful region surpassing all other earthly lands, fit for mana€™s initial perfection, surrounded by a wall of fire and situated on an exceptionally high mountain that reached the sphere of the moon. So here Lands of the Indians most probably refer to the northern and western neighbors of India, such as Persia and its neighboring countries, while Hndkastan denotes India proper.
Enjoy Americas favorite national pasttime in an affordable, exciting, fun, family-friendly atmosphere in a modern, top-of-the-line stadium located in Eastern Round Rock.Historic Chisolm Trail and Round Rock - In 1851 a small community was formed on the banks of Brushy Creek, near a large round rock located in the middle of the creek. In his honor and memory (his kleos) the Greeks established the marathon of 26 miles, exactly the distance of the modern marathon race. Kronos (Chronos), the father of time in Greek mythology, a€?could very well be,a€? says Johnson, a€?Greek religiona€™s equivalent of Yahweh, the Lord of Tome.
They constructed gymnasiums and athletic stadiums in Palestine, to the horror of the traditional and legalistic Pharisees.
Englanda€™s geographic position may have made it especially sensitive to this apocalyptic dimension: the second of two notes on chronology in Oxford Bodleian Library Auct. The manuscript is dated to the last quarter of the 11th century, and this addition to the second half of the 12th century but the hand of the map bears an extraordinarily close resemblance to that of Scribe A of MS 17, and the palaeographical indicators point to a date closer to 1100. This fulfillment would be the climax of history, and would usher in the last days; hence the world-maps included in the Apocalypse commentary of Beatus of Liebana were essentially maps illustrating the preaching of the apostles to the gentes descended from Noaha€™s three sons, but expanded to encompass the whole world and the entirety of the world-age (#207).
Its presence in the manuscript raises questions about how such an essentially non-Armenian-style map came to be made by an Armenian, and when, considering that this is the only T-O type map bearing Armenian inscriptions known to exist. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and head are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses. The frame of the map, a double circle, was drawn in drypoint, and at the right and left upper corners of the page are two smaller drypoint circles. Indeed, mappaemundi have a pronounced historical dimension: they are found in association with chronicles more frequently than in scientific works, and as illustrations of sacred history, they were infused with an allegorical vision of time. The first postmaster called the community Brushy Creek, but in 1854 the small settlement was renamed Round Rock in honor of this now famous rock. 82v, a manuscript contemporary with MS 17, adopts a four-ages scheme somewhat like that found in the dating clause on fol. Hence this world map is a logical addition to a manuscript devoted to the reckoning of time. Edson tentatively suggests a comparison to the maps of the Holy Land created by the Talmudic scholar Rashi to expound the sacred text; however, MS 17a€™s map does not illustrate a text. 3v, but the fourth age, instead of ending in the annus praesens, runs from the Incarnation ad iter ierusalem, as if this event closed the series of years and ushered in the end times. After the Civil War, Jesse Chisholm began to move cattle from South Texas through Round Rock, on the way to Abilene, Kansas. In fact, the only bodies of water to be named on this map are the rivers Jordan, Euphrates and Tiber.
In this respect, MS 17a€™s map is an integral part of a monastic encyclopedia, in which the study of the world and time is itself a serious discipline.
The route he established, which crossed Brushy Creek at the round rock became known as the Chisholm Trail. The land of Hyrcania, bordering Scythia to the west, has many tribes wandering far afield on account of the unfruitfulness of their lands. XII): the latter is of exceptional interest in that the map shares the page with a schema of the divisions of philosophy not dissimilar to the one on fol.
The interpolated Biblical references include the ark of Noah in Armenia, and cities such as Athens and Caesarea that are explicitly connected with the missionary activity of the apostles.
Grimes were both mortally wounded during a shootout that is re-enacted each year as part of the Frontier Days Celebration in July, have been preserved and remodeled and now house fine dining restaurants, art galleries, offices, etc.Old Settlers Park 2800 E. Palm Valley Blvd., Round Rock, Texas 78664 Huge 570 acre sportsplex complete with 3 miles of walking-jogging trails, 20 baseball fields, 5 softball fields, 12 tennis courts, 7 soccer fields, 2 volleyball courts, professionally designed disc-golf course, 7 playgrounds, picnic areas with BBQ grills, aquatic center, and a lake with paddleboat rentals and designated fishing areas.
This safe, family-friendly park further enhances Round Rocks reputation as the Sports Capital of the World.Premium Outlet Mall 4401 N.
More than 50 top stores and restaurants, all conveniently located to your home or office at La Frontera.
Contour farming, planting cover crops, building stock tanks, rotating crops and planting new seed varieties reduced wind and water erosion and kept the soil intact during periods of drought. The mission of the Pflugerville Pfarmer's Market is to bring fresh, locally grown and prepared foods to the Pflugerville community.Vendors sell locally grown produce including tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, squash, okra, garlic, melons, peaches and grapes, artisan baked goods,honey, flowers,eggs, free-range meats, jarred salsas, pickles and jams,fruits and plants. IH-35, Georgetown, Texas 78628 - Hidden for 10,000 years, this fascinating underground discovery in 1963 is one of the best preserved caves in Texas and one of the few places where remains of prehistoric animals were unearthed. Explore this limestone cavern and discover beautiful examples of natures perfect artwork such as The Flowing Stone of Time, the mysterious Lake of the Moon and the intricate Soda Straw Balcony. Among the amazing variety of formations found within the cavern you will see beautiful helictites, ancient flowstones, and giant columns. With the assistance of the Texas Historical Commission and the dedication of preservation-minded county citizens and officials, the fifth courthouse of Williamson County has been returned to its original 1911 splendor, once again becoming a focal point of the county. The architecture of the downtown square buildings surrounding the old courthouse have been restored to its period beauty.
As you walk aroundthe town square, you can view the beautiful gingerbread features that takes us back to yesteryear.San Gabriel Park 445 E.
Morrow St., Georgetown, Texas 78628 - Meandering right through the very heart of Georgetown is the San Gabriel River.
San Gabriel Park is graced with Pecan trees and 200 year-old oak trees that offer the shade of their branches to family picnics, games of touch football or Frisbee, concerts, festivals, canoeing, swimming and fishing. For those with a little more energetic spirit, theres a new wooded 1-mile hike and bike trail that wanders along the North Fork of the San Gabriel River from San Gabriel Park to the new Rivery Park west of I-35. Resembling Bourbon Street in New Orleans, this older section of Sixth Street offers rows of shot bars, piano bars, biker bars, pubs, dance clubs, tattoo parlors, art galleries, and restaurants on both sides of the street in downtown Austin. Great live music of every type from well-known performers and up and coming bands alike, along with a very lively atmosphere make visiting downtown Austin a unique experience and keep . Popular events like the Austin Mardi Gras celebration, SXSW (South By Southwest Music Festival), ROT Rally (The Republic of Texas Bikers Rally), the Old Pecan Street Festival and Sixth's Street infamous Halloween celebration all make for great times with great people. With a wide range of newer, hip, chic restaurants, and more upscale clubs with rooftop decks and outdoor seating, West Sixth Street provides for a little more relaxed, yet still lively nightclub atmosphere.Esthers Follies on 6th Street - 525 E. 6th St., Austin, Texas 78701 Esther's Follies began as a by-product of a pool parlor, called Esther's Pool, on East Sixth Street April Fool's Day, 1977. For more than a quarter-century, the folks at Esthers Pool have kept Austin rolling with laughter. Part magic show, part vaudeville review, part satire tour-de-force, Esthers Follies takes no prisoners, offering biting, hilarious satire on all the newsmakers and events fit to parody.
The stage's huge windows look out over Sixth Street, so passersby unwittingly become part of the show. Go Thursday through Saturday, or book the theatre for a private party.Alamo Drafthouse Cinema Downtown Ritz - 320 E. 6th St., Austin, Texas 78701 Although there are numerous locations now, the Alamo Drafthouse Cinema is an innovative Austin original and still Austins only independently owned and operated movie theater, offering a unique setting for dinner and a movie all in one. Located on Sixth Street in the newly remodeled former Ritz Theater, The Alamo Drafthouse Downtown offers two theaters seating 75, and 175 and is a hip combination of restaurant, bar, movie theatre, and events venue.
Movies include first-runs, as well as classics, and the dinner is chef-prepared and the drinks are reasonably priced. Also check out the Rolling Roadshow (giant inflatable screen that goes on the road throughout the U.S.
It is a pretty cool concept and has created quite a huge following.Warehouse District - Downtown area bordered by Cesar Chavez St. A bit trendier and certainly more pricey, it caters to a slightly older crowd than the other downtown entertainment areas. True to its name, the formerly old, abandoned warehouses throughout this downtown section of Austin have been renovated into concert halls, high-end retail stores, art galleries, salons, trendy steakhouses, seafood eateries, and other chic restaurants and bars such as Qua (a dance club with a live shark tank under the see-through dance floor) and Cedar Street Bar (with outdoor patios and courtyards for live music, dancing and dining). In the 1970s, Stubbs Restaurant became the heart of an explosive music scene and was ground zero for musicians like Joe Ely and Stevie Ray Vaughn.
Other musicians who would play for their supper in those days included Muddy Waters, John Lee Hooker, Willie Nelson, Johnny Cash, Robert Cray, George Thorogood, Clarence Gatemouth Brown, Linda Ronstadt, and the Fabulous Thunderbirds. The Lubbock location closed years ago, but the legend continues in Austin with great Texas Bar-B-Que, ice cold beer, and an indoor and outdoor concert venue featuring some of the most popular bands in music today. The 30-acre garden is free and open to the public most days year-round and is enjoyed by over 400,000 visitors each year, including thousands of school children from Austin and the surrounding communities. Theme gardens such as rose, herb and Japanese garden are interconnected with streams, waterfalls and Koi-filled ponds. Three acres in size, Barton Springs Pool is fed from under ground springs and is on average 68 degrees year round. Over the years, Barton Springs Pool has drawn people from all walks of life, from legislators who have concocted state laws there to free-spirited topless sunbathers who turned heads in the seventies.
Even Robert Redford learned to swim at the pool when he was five years old while visiting his mother's relative in Austin. The pool began as a swimming hole in the Colorado River, became a resort in the 1920s, and is today a popular swimming pool operated by the City of Austin.Elizabet Ney Museum - 304 E. In this studio, Ney sculpted the great men of frontier Texas, among them, life-sized figures of Stephen F. Ney also assembled in this studio her earlier sculptures of European notables, among them, King Ludwig II of Bavaria, King George V of Hanover, Otto von Bismarck, Giuseppi Garibaldi, Justus von Liebig, Arthur Schopenhauer and Jacob Grimm, all cherished portraits Ney rendered from life as a as a young artist. By the turn of the century, Elisabet Ney's Hyde Park studio had become a gathering place for influential Texans drawn to the colorful character of "Miss Ney" and to the stimulating discussions of politics and ideas that took place there. Inspired by Ney's "revolutionary" idea that art and beauty have been and can be powerful forces in the shaping of a nation as well as in individuals, these early Texans went on to found the University of Texas Art Department, the Texas Commission on the Arts, the Texas Fine Arts Association and museums and art schools throughout the state. See the rainwater harvesting system, meditate on the beauty of a Hill Country stream, visit Wild Ideas: The Store, and dine at the Wildflower Caf. Dont forget your walking shoes so you can take a short hike on one of four trails, and be sure to bring your camera to photograph the award-winning architecture and beautiful blooming displays. Weekend activities include workshops and lectures on everything from gardening with natural plants to nature photography. Few locals realize it is only a short drive of 13 miles from the capitol building, making it one of Austin's best kept secrets.Wildlife to be observed and photographed includes white-tailed deer, raccoons, armadillos, squirrels, and numerous birds. Capital Of Texas Hwy., Austin, Texas 78746 - Wild Basin Wilderness Preserve was founded in 1974 to protect 227 acres of Texas Hill Country. Come and enjoy over 3 miles of hiking trails through woodland, grassland, and streamside habitats. Wild Basin also hosts a variety of family events, concerts, adult workshops, children's and school programs. Wild Basin's nature education programs are funded by special events, memberships, corporate donations and grants. Trail maps are available at the Environmental Education Center or at kiosks at either trailhead. A Segway Tour is an exciting and unique approach to viewing historical landmarks, local businesses, and captivating attractions. Informative guides will lead you on an intriguing journey full of facts and entertainment through downtown Austin to the Texas State Capital.Lone Star Riverboat Cruises - Located on Lady Bird Lake (formally Town Lake) in downtown Austin, Texas.
Experience the exhilaration of the outdoors, the abundant waterfowl, our ever changing city skyline and the natural beauty that is Austin. Hewanted to share that beauty with the town he loved,so he openeda canoe rental business on the banks of the creek, just downstream from Barton Springs. He and his wife, Dorothy,and their four-year-old daughter rented out theirnine canoes on weekends while Howard worked for the Texas Park and Wildlife Department. Together they built the business to the environmentally friendly and family oriented establishment that it is today.
With over100 canoes and kayaks and reasonable prices, Zilker Park Boat Rentals is the perfect place to bring friends and family to enjoy a relaxing outing on the water. But if you're looking for a pleasant, mostly flat, walk, jog, or bike ride with several excellent views of downtown Austin and Lady Bird Lake, then the Lady Bird Lake Hike and Bike Trail may fit the bill for you.The Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge - (formerly known simply as the Congress Avenue Bridge) crosses over Lady Bird Lake in Austin, Texas. The bridge was known as the Congress Avenue Bridge from the construction of the first span across the Colorado River at that location in the late 19th century until November 16, 2006, when the Austin City Council renamed the current bridge in honor of the late Ann W. The bridge is a concrete arch bridge, with three southbound and three northbound vehicle lanes and sidewalks on both sides of the bridge. The bridge is currently home to the world's largest urban Mexican Free-Tailed Bat colony and hosts large crowds of Austinites gathered for bat watching at sunset throughout the Spring and Summer months.Long Center for the Performing Arts - 701 W. Palmer (Municipal) Auditorium, built in 1959 on the shores of Town Lake, was recently renovated into a multi-venue community performing arts center.
It is one of Austin's most vibrant and innovative arts organizations and Central Texas' oldest professional theatre.The Broken Spoke - 3201 S. Lamar Blvd., Austin, Texas 78704 - Texas' most definitive legendary dance hall built in 1964. If you're ever in Austin, stop by for an ice-cold Lone Star longneck and some traditional country music by some "real" country musicians.The Spoke has some of Austin's very best local talent such as Alvin Crow, Asleep at the Wheel, Gary P. Nunn, Sam and Son, better known as The Geezinslaw Brothers, Jerry Jeff Walker, The Derailers, Jimmie Dale Gilmore, Chris Wall, and Dale Watson just to name a few.
Some of the old time country music legends that have played The Spoke include Ernest Tubb, Roy Acuff, Hank Thompson, Tex Ritter, Ray Price, Kitty Wells, Grandpa Jones, Willie Nelson and George Strait.
While most of these stars are no longer around, Willie still stops in for chicken fried steak.
When it was completed in 1888, it was claimed to be the seventh largest building in the world. Some 1,000 men (mostly convicts) worked every day for four years at the height of the project. It cost $3,744, 600 to build and was funded funded through an article in the state constitution, adopted February 15, 1876, which authorized the sale of public lands for the purpose. In one of the largest barter transactions in recorded history, the builders of the capitol were paid with over three-million acres of public land in the Texas panhandle.
This tract later became the largest cattle ranch in the world, the XIT Ranch, covering ten counties (The XIT brand stands for 10 in Texas). The building has been renovated many times, with central air conditioning installed in 1955 and the most recent refurbishments completed in 1997.
It was built in 1854, designed by prominent architect Abner Cook in Greek Revival style, and has been the home of every Texas governor since 1856.
The mansion is the oldest continuously inhabited house in Texas and fourth oldest governor's mansion in the United States that has been continuously occupied by a chief executive.
It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, and further was declared a U.S. On June 8, 2008, while midway through a major renovation, the mansion was heavily damaged by a four-alarm fire believed to be arson.



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