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Does your company typically work on clinical and preclinical assets but it now has a Discovery opportunity and you are not quite sure about how to develop and manage the asset? Can my portfolio accommodate the differences between projects that deal with small molecule and protein-based drugs? General Characteristics of Viruses • Depending on one’s viewpoint, viruses may be regarded as exceptional y complex aggregations of nonliving chemicals or as exceptional y simple living microbes. Host Range • Host range refers to the spectrum of host cel s in which a virus can multiply. Viral Structure • A virion is a complete, ful y developed viral particle composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a coat. Nucleic Acid • Viruses contain either DNA or RNA, never both, and the nucleic acid may be single- or double-stranded, linear or circular, or divided into several separate molecules. Negative-strand RNA viruses • the genome is the complement of mRNA • First task of the virus is to make mRNA. Retroviruses • Virus has the enzyme reverse transcriptase as a part of the viral structure. Capsid and Envelope • The protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus is cal ed the capsid.
Viruses and Cancer • The earliest relationship between cancer and viruses was demonstrated in the early 1900s, when chicken leukemia and chicken sarcoma were transferred to healthy animals by cell-free filtrates. Causes of the Common Cold • More than 200 different viruses are known to cause the symptoms of the common cold. CLINICAL FEATURES • Influenza is characterized by fever, myalgia, headache and pharyngitis. Complications • Tend to occur in the young, elderly, and persons with chronic cardio-pulmonary diseases • Consist of: • 1. The virion is generally rounded but may be long and filamentous.A single-stranded RNA genome is closely associated with a helical nucleoprotein (NP), and is present in eight separate segments of ribonucleoprotein (RNP), each of which has to be present for successful replication.
The other type of envelope spike is a trimeric protein called the haemagglutinin (HA) (illustrated on the left) of which there are 13 major antigenic types. The Life Cycle of Influenza Virus Receptor-bound viruses are taken into the cell by endocytosis.
Camp Devens is near Boston, and has about 50,000 men, or did have before this epidemic broke loose. This constant antigenic change down the years means that new vaccines have to be made on a regular basis. The final stage in the life cycle of a virus is the release of completed viruses from the host cell, and this step has also been targeted by antiviral drug developers.


Both these drugs are effective against the known strains of H5N1 in mouse models although Tamiflu has been disappointing in recent real world use in human H5N1 infection due to 1. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
The content is objective, medically accurate, and adheres to Healthline's editorial standards and policies. Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family. If you interesting in "Antiviral Drugs" powerpoint themes, you can download to use this powerpoint template for your own presentation template. Therefore, the virus imports RNA polymerase or transcriptase as a part of the virus structure. Many features are common with those of the paramyxovirus infections of the respiratory tract. The haemagglutinin functions during attachment of the virus particle to the cell membrane, and can combine with specific receptors on a variety of cells including red blood cells. In the low pH environment of the endosome, RNP is released from MP1, and the viral lipoprotein envelope fuses with the lipid-bilayer of the vesicle, releasing viral RNP into the cell cytoplasm, from where it is transported into the nucleus. New influenza strains spread rapidly in children in schools and in places where people crowd together. Two drugs named zanamivir and oseltamivir that have been recently introduced to treat influenza prevent the release of viral particles by blocking a molecule named neuraminidase that is found on the surface of flu viruses, and also seems to be constant across a wide range of flu strains. The content is not directed, edited, approved, or otherwise influenced by the advertisers represented on this page, with exception of the potential recommendation of the broad topic area. For viewing only, you can play with our flash based presentation viewer instead of downloading the ppt file. Others, such as parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus, produce mild infections in adults but can precipitate severe lower respiratory infections in young children.
An antigenic protein called the matrix protein (MP 1) lines the inside of the envelope and and is chemically bound to the RNP. The lipoprotein envelope makes the virion rather labile – susceptible to heat, drying, detergents and solvents. Avian and human strains recombining in pigs in the Far East may permit virulent human strains to evolve. They multiply by using the host cel ‘s synthesizing machinery to cause the synthesis of specialized elements that can transfer the viral nucleic acid to other cel s.
Haemagglutinin: A substance, such as an antibody, that causes agglutination of red blood cel s. New viral RNA is encased in the capsid protein, and together with new matrix protein is then transported to sites at the cell surface where envelope haemagglutinin and neuraminadase components have been incorporated into the cell membrane. Pneumonia caused by bacteria- Haemophilus influenzae- Staphylococcus aureus- Streptococcus pneuminiae • 3. One is a box-shaped protein, called the neuraminidase (NA) (pink rectangles on the surface), of which there are nine major antigenic types, and which has enzymic properties as the name implies.


This epidemic started about four weeks ago, and has developed so rapidly that the camp is demoralized and all ordinary work is held up till it has passed.
Most attention has been given to oseltamivir (Tamiflu) because it is a tablet, which is easy to administer. There are also enveloped helical viruses (for example, Influenzavirus) and enveloped polyhedral viruses (for example, Herpesvirus). These agents grow best at temperatures of about 91 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature inside the human nose.
All assembleges of soldiers taboo.These men start with what appears to be an ordinary attack of LaGrippe or Influenza, and when brought to the Hosp.
Zanamavir (relenza) is administered as a dry powder inhaler much like some asthma inhalers. An intravenous version of Relenza has been administered to volunteers under study conditions but it is not yet approved or in production. Two hours after admission they have the Mahogany spots over the cheek bones, and a few hours later you can begin to see the Cyanosis extending from their ears and spreading all over the face, until it is hard to distinguish the coloured men from the white.
Both drugs can be used to treat influenza; they are also both approved for the prevention of influenza.
It is only a matter of a few hours then until death comes, and it is simply a struggle for air until they suffocate. These drugs are also effective against all strains of influenza A, unlike vaccines which are specific only to the strain for which they were designed. The importance of coronaviruses as a cause of colds is hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses, they are difficult to grow in the laboratory.
Both medications are well tolerated with few side effects, although there is concern over the possibility of psychological effects of Tamiflu and there may be occasional problems with asthmatics who use Relenza. One can stand it to see one, two or twenty men die, but to see these poor devils dropping like flies sort of gets on your nerves. Neuraminidase inhibitors must be taken within 48 hours—preferably within 36 hours—of the onset of flu symptoms. They do not ‘kill’ the flu virus but merely slow the virus replication down to a level where the immune system can more easily destroy it. There is no doubt in my mind that there is a new mixed infection here, but what I dont know. The relative importance of various viruses in pediatric colds, however, is unclear because it’s difficult to isolate the precise cause of symptoms in studies of children with colds.



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