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Type C infections cause mild respiratory illness and is considered that it does not cause epidemics. Influenza viruses are constantly changing over time, usually by mutation (change in the viral RNA).
Healthy people recover from the flu without problems, but people with weakened immune systems are at high risk of serious complications. Most people have a natural immunity, but you can resort to vaccination against this disease.
Annual outbreaks of seasonal flu usually occur from early autumn to mid-spring, remains unstable and wet weather.
A flu pandemic occurs when a new stamp of the influenza virus, which infects a large number of people in the country or a few countries, the virus causes serious illness and spreads easily from person to person worldwide, and the spread of the virus is very fast. The symptoms of the common cold and seasonal flu are similar: fever, pain in muscles and joints, fatigue, runny nose and dry cough. It is advisable to conduct the treatment drugs Antigrippin, Amantadine, Rimantadine, Arbidol.
Prevention is vaccination, the observance of rules of personal hygiene, especially after contact with sick with the flu, wearing gauze bandages and measures aimed at strengthening the immunity system. Avian influenza – influenza virus a subtype of group A, which is very infectious among birds, are, in fact, are carriers.
In most confirmed cases of infection have occurred in Asia, Africa, the Pacific, Europe and the middle East.
Most cases of infection with the H5N1 avian influenza virus occurred in people having direct or close contact with infected poultry or surfaces contaminated with excretions from infected birds. People with suspected avian influenza requires early use of neuraminidase inhibitors due to their broad spectrum of activity.
Some of the medicines for human influenza viruses can be effective in dealing with H5N1, but not proved until the end. Typically used Oseltamivir, Zanamivir (zanamivir) relenza: a drug is given the form of inhalation. Popular drug, Rimantadine, has sadly lost its role in the treatment and prevention of avian influenza. A new strain of influenza A H1N1, also known as swine flu, was confirmed in the UK in April 2009 and has spread to almost 200 countries around the world.
Its symptoms swine flu similar to the symptoms of seasonal flu, however, in case of complications, it usually causes lung disease, In severe cases may develop pulmonary pneumonia. As with any kind of flu, symptoms of the disease will depend on the treatment and individual characteristics of the patient’s state of health.
Swine flu is treated with antiviral drugs such as Tamiflu (Tamiflu), relenza (Relenza) Zanamivir. Even if you feel these symptoms, it is important to take the full course of treatment even if the symptoms of swine flu have passed, and you began to feel better. Vaccination against swine flu is not mandatory, but people in high risk groups at the present time, it is strongly recommended to have vaccinations. On our website describes the most common disease of adults and children, causes and symptoms of these diseases, as well as the most effective treatments for these diseases. The information on this health site are for informational purposes only, professional diagnosis and treatment of the disease should be done by the doctor in the clinic. As China proved with its laggardly response to the SARS epidemic last year, national health agencies don't always pull their weight. This matters, because while regular flu vaccine cannot give immunity to H5N1, it could still be beneficial, especially to anyone who is exposed to avian flu from poultry.
While a vaccine against H5N1 virus would be a great thing, there are other ways to prepare for avian flu.
Content on this page was developed during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic and has not been updated. The H1N1 virus that caused that pandemic is now a regular human flu virus and continues to circulate seasonally worldwide. The English language content on this website is being archived for historic and reference purposes only.
For current, updated information on seasonal flu, including information about H1N1, see the CDC Seasonal Flu website. Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are antigen detection tests that detect influenza viral nucleoprotein antigen. Few comparisons of RIDTs with RT-PCR for the detection of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus or seasonal influenza viruses have been published. If laboratories are performing RIDTs, it would be prudent to add a statement about the test limitations in the report of results so that the physician can decide how best to use the test for patient management. Note:A  The sensitivity of this assay has been shown to range between [10-70%*] for the detection of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus and between [20-100%*] for seasonal influenza viruses. Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file.
Children with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are at increased risk for severe outcomes from influenza, including death (1–3).
As part of the investigation, the Ohio Department of Health and CDC reviewed medical records of all residents of the facility. The residential facility provides medical, recreational, and educational services for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopment conditions that affect their ability to perform basic skills of daily living. During the outbreak, 76 residents had acute onset of respiratory illness; 13 were severely ill, including seven with confirmed influenza and six with suspected influenza (Figure). The 13 children and young adults with severe influenza illnesses in this outbreak likely would have benefited from earlier treatment with influenza antiviral medications. Clinicians might encounter challenges in diagnosing influenza in persons with severe neurologic or neurodevelopmental conditions because patients might have only subtle deviations from their baseline medical status and be unable to communicate symptoms effectively. All 13 severely ill residents reportedly were vaccinated with the influenza vaccine recommended for the 2010?11 influenza season. Clinicians caring for patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions should be vigilant for signs and symptoms that might indicate early respiratory illness and should initiate influenza antiviral treatment as soon as warranted, especially during influenza season.
Children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions have increased risk for severe illness and complications from seasonal influenza, including death. This report documents severe influenza-related illness resulting in 10 hospitalizations and seven deaths among 130 persons in a residential facility for persons with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions.
Clinicians should be alert to possible influenza among children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions, especially during influenza season. Alternate Text: The figure above shows the number of cases of influenza-related illness at a residential facility in Ohio during 2011, by illness onset date and severity. Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. This conversion might result in character translation or format errors in the HTML version.


An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. The most recent FluView report shows that flu activity continues to decrease in the United States. CDC also recommends that patients suspected of having influenza who are at high risk of flu complications or who are very sick with flu-like illness should receive prompt treatment with influenza antiviral drugs without waiting for confirmatory testing. Influenza A viruses are found in humans and many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses and seals. The latest report on CDC's international flu activities highlights the progress that has been made over the past two fiscal years in establishing, expanding and maintaining influenza surveillance and laboratory capacity in more than 50 countries around the world where CDC has provided support.
The flu can be uncomplicated, in which the prognosis is quite favorable, and can have very serious consequences, including death. This constant changing often enables the virus to evade the immune system of the host (humans, birds and other animals), so that the host is susceptible to changing flu virus infections throughout life. Although most people recover within a week without any medical assistance, they in no case should not be confused, the flu is a viral disease and is much more dangerous than the common cold and often causes complications. Currently, there is no confirmed person – the carrier of H5N1 infection flu, but bird flu remains a serious concern, with the potential to cause a deadly pandemic.
Even if poultry and eggs were contaminated with the virus, proper heat treatment would kill it.
Wash your hands with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds of processing raw poultry and eggs.
Use a food thermometer to make sure that You cook poultry at a temperature of at least 75 degrees Celsius.
If You plan to visit any of the countries that have had confirmed human infection of the H5N1 go to pre-vaccination, and it is better to refrain from travel.
The majority of the cases registered in the world, was relatively light, the victims began to recover during the week.
It is very important to people risk to get antivirals and start taking them as soon as possible – within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms.
But a few examples, from this and other outbreaks, show what happens behind the scenes when a dangerous disease hoves into view.
For example, the largest outbreak of Ebola, a bleeding disease, was controlled in 2001 by an international collaboration directed by WHO's Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network.
Another example arose during 2003, when Indonesia's government consistently denied that H5N1 was killing its poultry. Reducing the number of more familiar (and therefore less deadly) flus reduces the chance that anyone will simultaneously get infected with avian and human flu strains.
The commercially available RIDTs discussed in this document can provide results within 30 minutes or less. Performance of influenza rapid point-of-care tests in the detection of swine lineage A(H1N1) influenza viruses. Analytical sensitivity of rapid influenza antigen detection tests for swine-origin influenza virus (H1N1). Evaluation of multiple test methods for the detection of the novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) during the New York City outbreak.
Influenza diagnosis and treatment in children: a review of studies on clinically useful tests and antiviral treatment for influenza. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. Seasonal Influenza in Adults and Children - Diagnosis, Treatment, Chemoprophylaxis, and Institutional Outbreak Management: Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
In April 2011, the Ohio Department of Health and CDC investigated an influenza outbreak that began in February 2011 in a residential facility for 130 children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. A confirmed influenza case was defined as laboratory-confirmed influenza (by reverse transcriptase?polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] or rapid influenza diagnostic test [RIDT]) in a facility resident.
Although eight residents received antiviral treatment, oseltamivir was initiated within 48 hours of illness onset in only four cases.
Patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions also might exhibit impaired pulmonary function resulting from muscle abnormalities or conditions such as severe scoliosis. Although vaccination is the best method for preventing influenza and its complications (4,5), its effectiveness varies depending on vaccine virus match and the age and health of the person vaccinated.
First, a broad case definition was used to identify suspected cases, and not all ill residents underwent diagnostic testing; thus, respiratory pathogens other than influenza might have contributed to this outbreak. Prompt testing for influenza and empiric antiviral treatment are recommended for these patients when influenza is suspected (4,5). Neurological and neuromuscular disease as a risk factor for respiratory failure in children hospitalized with influenza infection.
Antiviral agents for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza—recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). A systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and risks of inactivated influenza vaccines in different target groups. Effects of influenza vaccination of health-care workers on mortality of elderly people in long-term care: a randomised controlled trial. General recommendations on immunization—recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). For some of these residents, underlying medical conditions might have hindered early diagnosis and treatment and contributed to the severity of illness.
Prompt testing and early empiric antiviral treatment in residents with respiratory symptoms in residential or long-term care facilities is important.
During February 1–28, 2011, 76 residents had onset of acute respiratory illness; 13 were severely ill, including seven with confirmed influenza and six with suspected influenza.
While flu activity has peaked nationally for this season, some parts of the country are still experiencing widespread flu.
Vaccination can reduce flu illnesses, doctors' visits, and missed work and school due to flu illness, as well as prevent flu-related hospitalizations. Laboratory research at CDC suggests these viruses would need to undergo significant changes to become capable of infecting and spreading easily among humans. Almost all human cases have been observed in people having direct or close contact with H5N1-infected poultry or contaminated material. If contact was unavoidable, in the course of 2 days to measure body temperature at least 2 times a day, to monitor symptoms over a week since contact.
To enhance the antiviral effect, you must take them within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.
That's when the two strains might be able to swap genetic material, creating a deadly bird virus that's good at infecting people. Thus, results are available in a clinically relevant time period to inform clinical decisions. Therefore, a negative RIDT result does not rule out novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.


During low influenza activity periods, confirmation of positive RIDT results by another testing method such as viral culture or rRT-PCR should be considered. If influenza is circulating in your community, a diagnosis of influenza should be considered based on a patienta€™s clinical presentation and empiric antiviral treatment should be considered, if indicated.A  If more conclusive testing is desired, follow-up confirmatory testing with either [viral culture or RT-PCR*] is warranted. This report summarizes the characteristics and clinical courses of 13 severely ill residents with suspected or confirmed influenza; 10 were hospitalized, and seven died. With his neurologic impairment he was able to make sounds but unable to speak or move on his own volition.
Treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor is best started within 48 hours of symptom onset; however, recent observational data indicate that, even when started more than 48 hours after illness onset, treatment can help prevent influenza-related complications and death in persons at higher risk or with more severe illness (4). They might, therefore, be less able to clear pulmonary secretions and be at increased risk for subsequent lower respiratory tract infection (1,5). Preliminary data for the 2010?11 influenza season indicate that influenza vaccine effectiveness was approximately 60% for all age groups combined, and that almost all influenza viruses isolated were well-matched to the vaccine strains (CDC, unpublished data, 2011). Although vaccine storage temperature data were not available for the period when the residents were vaccinated, the vaccine refrigerator temperature was considerably below optimal temperature during the investigation. Second, residents of this facility are considerably more medically fragile than patients with mild neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions; therefore, this report is not generalizable to all patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions or all patients in residential-care centers. Antiviral chemoprophylaxis also should be provided to all eligible residents of long-term–care facilities during influenza outbreaks (4,5). Influenza prevention efforts should include vaccination of residents, health-care personnel, and others who might transmit influenza to residents, use of infection control precautions, and appropriate use of antiviral medications. Llame al 1-800-CDC-INFO si tiene preguntas sobre la influenza estacional, cuyas respuestas no ha encontrado en este sitio.
Up to the moment of production of antibodies to the new virus, the disease can occur at full speed.
The symptoms of H5N1 avian influenza may depend on the immune system and whether previously infected with the strain of the patient, such a person is almost not susceptible to the virus.
Second, supplies of regular flu vaccine ran dry in December, just weeks after the CDC's head publicly pushed flu shots. Diagnosis is challenging in this population, and clinicians should consider influenza in patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions who have respiratory illness or a decline in baseline medical status when influenza is circulating in the community.
Common diagnoses among residents included severe to profound intellectual disability, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, scoliosis, quadriplegia, visual impairment, recurrent pneumonia, and gastroesophageal reflux. He had multiple prior admissions for aspiration pneumonia and a history of abnormalities noted on chest radiography. Jhung, MD, Lyn Finelli, DrPH, Influenza Div, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Georgina Peacock, MD, Lorraine F. The 13 cases in this report highlight two important considerations for influenza in persons with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions: 1) the challenges of early diagnosis and treatment, and 2) the increased risk for severe illness in this population. Clinicians who care for these patients should be alert to potential signs and symptoms of influenza during influenza season and administer early and aggressive antiviral treatment if influenza is suspected. Influenza vaccine effectiveness, however, can be considerably lower in immunosuppressed persons or those with underlying medical conditions (6,7). Vaccines must be stored properly from the time they are manufactured until they are administered. Health-care personnel should be vaccinated, and clinicians should continue to encourage influenza vaccination in these patients, given the challenges posed by diagnosis and their increased risk for severe influenza-related outcomes. Previously developed antibodies can in some cases provide partial protection against infection with the new influenza. In a logical world, since it would take 18 months to gear up production, large stockpiles of antiviral drugs would be assembled in advance of the epidemic that many experts consider inevitable.
A None of the currently FDA approved RIDTs can distinguish between influenza A virus subtypes (e.g. Prompt testing, early and aggressive antiviral treatment, and antiviral chemoprophylaxis are important for these patients (4,5). A severe case of influenza was a laboratory-confirmed or suspected case that resulted in hospitalization or death. Because influenza can appear as a nonspecific respiratory infection, clinicians should consider coadministration of empiric antiviral and antibiotic treatment, if warranted.
Influenza can spread rapidly among patients and staff members in residential settings, and outbreaks are not uncommon. Many vaccines can be inactivated by exposure to temperatures colder than 33°F (0.6°C) (10). Two types of antiviral drugs, the neuraminidase inhibitors and the adamantine family, work against some types of influenza. When influenza is suspected, antiviral treatment should be given as soon as possible after symptom onset, ideally within 48 hours. For case ascertainment, the outbreak duration was defined as February 1–28, 2011, a period designated to include all confirmed cases and begin at least 1 week before identification of the first confirmed case.
Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, runny or stuffy nose, cough, diarrhea, headache, and some behavioral side effects have been associated with the use of influenza antiviral drugs; however, these are uncommon, and use of antiviral medications is still recommended, especially in this high-risk group. Vaccination of health-care personnel has been associated with a decrease in influenza and related mortality in patients in long-term care facilities (8,9).
He tested positive for influenza A, and treatment with oseltamivir (75 mg once daily) was initiated.
Moore, MD, Div of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities; Alejandro Azofeifa, DDS, Loren Rodgers, PhD, Samuel E. Because persons with neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders are at high risk for complications and the vaccine might not protect them fully, vaccination should be one part of a larger program of influenza prevention in these settings. Of nine severely ill residents tested, six were positive for influenza A virus infection by RIDT and one for 2009 influenza A (H1N1)* by RT-PCR. On illness day 6, he tested positive for influenza A by RIDT and was treated with oseltamivir (60 mg twice daily).
He recovered from the acute illness and was discharged to the residential facility after 8 days of hospitalization. The program should include vaccination of residents of long-term care facilities, health-care personnel, and others who might transmit influenza to residents. Residential facilities for patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are encouraged to vaccinate all eligible residents and staff members against influenza. On the same day, he developed both acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation and sepsis with hypotension requiring vasopressor support. The program also should include use of infection control precautions, and early use of influenza antiviral medications for treatment of persons with suspected or confirmed influenza and for prevention in other residents and staff members as soon as an outbreak is identified (4). On illness day 7, chest radiography showed diffuse lung opacities that progressed to complete opacity of both lungs.



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