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Q- Would removal of the dam help alleviate upstream flooding problems suffered by residents of the Family Farm neighborhood in Woodside?
A- Searsville Dam was not designed to provide any flood protection benefit downstream and has caused flooding upstream.
A- While the dam was well built, the average age for a dam is reported, by Stanford, to be 40 years and Searsville Dam is 120 years old. Q- Stanford currently uses the reservoir for non-potable water use, such as irrigation, landscaping and fire-fighting. A- As with other completed dam removals, this project design would maintain or replace existing owner needs with improved facilities and ease of operation.
A- Recent studies and completed dam removal efforts have shown that dam removal is almost always less expensive than eventual dam safety retrofitting, installation of required fish passage facilities, and ongoing maintenance costs. A- Fortunately, there are many sources of funding for dam removal and ecosystem restoration projects of this kind.
A- The existing ecosystem has emerged around an artificial and unsustainable reservoir that is filling in with sediment.
Q- What effects would removal -- including possible flushing of sediment -- have on the recovering population of steelhead elsewhere in the watershed?
A- The dam has held back sediment for over a century and altered the natural flow of gravels and beneficial sediments downstream creating a a€?hungry watera€? situation that has impacted bank erosion and the native habitat for steelhead. Corte Madera Creek and the many tributary streams (above) contain excellent habitat and continues to support wild, rainbow trout (below), which are the descendants of sea-run steelhead.
Q- The current wetlands support a rich bird habitat and foraging ground for bats a€“ would this be protected with the removal?
A- Some of the recently established wetlands and habitat utilized by birds and bats can remain with dam removal and design plans would maximize the protection of sensitive areas in a manner similar to other successful dam removal efforts. Stanford officials have often wondered about the impacts of dam removal on vegetation established on the reservoir and possible negative impacts to neotropical migrant birds that have been observed here in high abundance. Searsville Dam removal would restore miles of currently buried streams, riparian forests and thick border habitats, and increase the amount of highly productive fringe wetland habitat that these riparian zones provide. Overall, the project could trade in the unsustainable, artificial, reservoir habitat for a net gain in stream habitat, riparian forest habitat, fringe wetland habitat, historic wetland ponds, and upland habitat. A- Dam removal will eliminate the artificial reservoir habitat that currently allows for the breeding and dispersal of several exotic and invasive species that prey upon and compete with the native species. A- Dozens of large dams have been successfully removed and hundreds of medium and smaller dams have been taken out over the past couple decades.
A- Over 500 dams have been removed in the United States in recent years and several dams that were about the size of Searsville, and larger, have recently been removed from rivers around the country. The mouth of San Francisquito Creek (above) is near several wetland restoration projects in need of sediment.
Q- How would the removal of 60 feet of concrete blocks affect the biological preserve and surrounding communities?
A- Removal of the concrete blocks would be a short-term disturbance to the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve and surrounding communities. A- Doing nothing at the dam and reservoir is not an option that any stakeholders are currently considering or embracing due to the imminent negative impacts of such a non-action. Q- How will you work with Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve and other watershed stakeholders to ensure their concerns are being met? A- Members and supporters of the Beyond Searsville Dam Coalition have been collaborating with Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford University, San Francisquito Joint Powers Authority, San Francisquito Watershed Project, local jurisdictions, government agencies, community groups, and other non-profit groups for several decades on a variety of watershed related projects.
Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Director, Philippe Cohen (green cap), and Stanford Engineering Professor, David Freyberg (at right), atop Searsville Dam talking to a group from the Salmonid Restoration Federation conference who were interested in dam removal. 1) What is a dam?a€?There are a number of technical and legal definitions of a dam but generally it is any structure that impounds or diverts water. However, this inventory only covers dams that meet minimum height and impoundment requirements, so an unknown number of small dams are not included in the inventory. 3) Which state has the most dams?a€?According to the NID, Texas has the most dams of any state at 6,798. 4) Who regulates dam operations?a€?A number of state and federal agencies are responsible for regulating dams.
5) How many dams actually produce power?a€?FERC regulates approximately 2,300 hydroelectric producing dams. 7) Why are some dams being removed?a€?There has been a growing movement to remove dams where the costs - including environmental, safety, and socio-cultural impacts - outweigh the benefits - including hydropower, flood control, irrigation, or recreation - or where the dam no longer serves any useful purpose. 8) How are dams removed?a€?Because dams and rivers vary greatly, physical removal strategies and techniques may also vary on a case by case basis. 9) How many dams have been removed to date?a€?Currently, American Rivers is aware of more than 600 dams that have been removed over the past 50 years in this country.A  We are still in the process of gathering this data, so that figure is likely to increase as more information becomes available. 10) How much does it cost to remove a dam?a€?Because the size and location of dams vary so greatly, the cost to remove an individual dam can range from tens of thousands of dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars. 11) Who owns the dams that are being removed?a€?Private businesses, federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, or public utilities may own dams. 12) Who pays for dam removal?a€?Who pays for the removal of a dam is often a complex issue. 13) Who decides that dams should be removed?a€?The decision to remove a dam is made by varying entities, depending on the regulatory oversight of the dam. 14) Can rivers be restored through dam removal?a€?Although most rivers cannot be completely restored to historic conditions - simply because of the amount of development that has occurred on and along them - dam removal can often recreate conditions that move the river towards those historic conditions. 15) What benefits do dams provide?a€?Dams may provide a variety of benefits, including water supply, power generation, flood control, recreation, and irrigation.
16) How can the benefits of a dam be replaced when it is removed?a€?While dams serve a number of human needs, society has developed ways to address many of these needs without dams. Rather than plugging rivers with multiple hydropower dams, a cheaper and less environmentally harmful solution is to use existing energy efficiency technologies.
17) Is it cost effective to remove a dam?a€?Dam removal can be expensive in the short term, but in most cases where dams have been removed or are being considered for removal, money is actually saved over the long term. 18) Will the removal of a dam matter if other dams in the system are not removed?a€?Some rivers are so heavily developed and dammed that removal of one dam on that river will only return flows to a small portion of the river. 19) Are we going to decide in twenty years that we need to start building dams again?a€?We have learned a lot in the past twenty years about the many impacts dams have on rivers, and we have learned many alternatives to damming rivers. 21) What are the potential downsides to dam removal?a€?Dam removal does result in fundamental changes to the local environment.
How quickly do rivers recover after dam removal?a€?Rivers are very dynamic and resilient systems. 1) What is a dam?There are a number of technical and legal definitions of a dam but generally it is any structure that impounds or diverts water. 3) Which state has the most dams?According to the NID, Texas has the most dams of any state at 6,798. 4) Who regulates dam operations?A number of state and federal agencies are responsible for regulating dams. 5) How many dams actually produce power?FERC regulates approximately 2,300 hydroelectric producing dams.
7) Why are some dams being removed?There has been a growing movement to remove dams where the costs - including environmental, safety, and socio-cultural impacts - outweigh the benefits - including hydropower, flood control, irrigation, or recreation - or where the dam no longer serves any useful purpose. 8) How are dams removed?Because dams and rivers vary greatly, physical removal strategies and techniques may also vary on a case by case basis. 9) How many dams have been removed to date?Currently, American Rivers is aware of more than 600 dams that have been removed over the past 50 years in this country.A  We are still in the process of gathering this data, so that figure is likely to increase as more information becomes available. 10) How much does it cost to remove a dam?Because the size and location of dams vary so greatly, the cost to remove an individual dam can range from tens of thousands of dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars. 11) Who owns the dams that are being removed?Private businesses, federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, or public utilities may own dams.
13) Who decides that dams should be removed?The decision to remove a dam is made by varying entities, depending on the regulatory oversight of the dam. 14) Can rivers be restored through dam removal?Although most rivers cannot be completely restored to historic conditions - simply because of the amount of development that has occurred on and along them - dam removal can often recreate conditions that move the river towards those historic conditions. 15) What benefits do dams provide?Dams may provide a variety of benefits, including water supply, power generation, flood control, recreation, and irrigation. 16) How can the benefits of a dam be replaced when it is removed?While dams serve a number of human needs, society has developed ways to address many of these needs without dams.
17) Is it cost effective to remove a dam?Dam removal can be expensive in the short term, but in most cases where dams have been removed or are being considered for removal, money is actually saved over the long term. 18) Will the removal of a dam matter if other dams in the system are not removed?Some rivers are so heavily developed and dammed that removal of one dam on that river will only return flows to a small portion of the river. 19) Are we going to decide in twenty years that we need to start building dams again?We have learned a lot in the past twenty years about the many impacts dams have on rivers, and we have learned many alternatives to damming rivers. 21) What are the potential downsides to dam removal?Dam removal does result in fundamental changes to the local environment. 22)How quickly do rivers recover after dam removal?Rivers are very dynamic and resilient systems. The recent presidential debates have not dealt with in any depth the most important long-term issue facing the country – education.
The terrible battle in Wisconsin over teachers’ collective bargaining rights, and of the teachers’ strike in Chicago over a host of issues, prominently, seniority issues, are symptoms of our concerns, but they are not focused on what’s wrong.
The results should have been embarrassing for the United States, although I’d guess that very few in this country paid any attention.
Shanghai swept to first place by far in all three exams, with Finland, South Korea and Singapore coming in second in science, reading and math, respectively. When a student enters high school and subsequently drops out, there is a terrible waste of a life unfulfilled and public expense in educating that person. According the US Bureau of Labor Statistics there were 3.7 million job openings available as of July 2012*.
I believe it’s fair to say that schools of education largely teach the technology of education, that is they teach one how to teach. David McCullough, perhaps our greatest living historian was just interviewed on CBS’ 60 Minutes.
President Bill Clinton recently pointed out that people who have an ideology tend to bend the facts to fit their ideology instead of seeking the truth. There are and always have been any number of excellent public and private schools in the United States.
Many states have dropped out of the program, citing either financial exigencies, a lack of cost-effectiveness, or both. Everyone knows that some schools are truly excellent, with great teachers, enthusiastic and hard-working students, and excellent outcomes. Online courses such as Kahn Academy and many others allow students to learn at their own pace, be it faster or slower. Finally I want to spend some time discussing why I believe science should form the basis of all education.
So it makes sense to build on this natural passion for understanding in order to construct a formal education. Let me tell you about the best program I’ve seen yet, one that I was intimately involved with at one time (I was chairman of its Advisory Board for several years). The SSEC has now implemented K-12 programs in 1,200 school districts in the United States affecting some 30% of all students.
After the war in Vietnam a number of boat people from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia started arriving at our shores.
This attracted the attention of a group of researchers at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor who conducted a large study over a number of years to find out how they did it. Note that “family values” as used here are different from those political code words in common use currently in the US.
On the GPA’s 79% of the children earned A’s or B’s in their local schools, and on the state-wide math tests 85% earned A’s or B’s.
Maybe there’s something here that explains how the Vietnamese were able to defeat not only the French imperialists but also the world’s greatest war machine, the USA. Those who believe in American Exceptionalism should look deeply into the eyes of these children. 2.The quality of our primary and secondary education has declined in comparison to that of many other countries. IN EGYPT AND TUNISIA, ORDINARY CITIZENS HAVE TOPPLED AUTOCRATS; ELSEWHERE IN THE ARAB WORLD, they still battle dictators, armed with little more than their belief in freedom, human rights, and democracy.
As the British scientist Jacob Bronowski observed more than half a century ago, the enterprise of science requires the adoption of certain values that are adhered to by its practitioners with exceptional rigor. Science advances by overthrowing an existing paradigm, or at least substantially expanding or modifying it. This constant renewal and advancement of our scientific understanding is a central feature of the scientific enterprise. The new Arab societies we are building must be open pluralistic societies that are producers of knowledge and new opportunities.
I wanted to comment on your folio and call your attention to an opinion by Linda Greenhouse in the NY Times today. On your education manifesto, I agree with Dodie's comment about the way schools are funded in this country.


I’m working on my next offering that deals with how we might actually bring about a renaissance in the American family within a generation or at most, two. This article by Frederick Hess on school choice in ‘National Affairs’ has just come in, with an extensive analysis of why charter schools are a disappointment. For mining companies, a long-term licence to operate depends on a capacity to renew existing commitments while seeking new solutions to environmental concerns.Sustainability best practice recognises the need to reduce a site’s ecological footprint, so it is logical to include any mine camp in this equation.
As mining operations face ongoing demand to increase productivity and decrease costs without sacrificing safety, a challenge exaggerated by a lack of highly skilled operators, Atlas Copco has published Blasthole Drilling in Open Pit Mining aimed at helping customers successfully meet these challenges.
Tenova TAKRAF has won a turnkey contract for the supply of one SRs2000 bucketwheel excavator  for the coal mine extension operated by the Zhahanaoer branch of the CPE Mengdong Energy Group. China, which is the world’s second-largest energy user, may consume between 4 and 6% more coal next year on continued economic growth, China Securities Journal said, reporting on a forecast from the China National Coal Association. OTB Products' 50 degree cooling vests can significantly reduce the threat of heat exhaustion amongst the workforce. Headquartered in Portland, Oregon, Columbia Steel's 86-acre facility is home to an on-site product design and engineering department and full-service steel foundry, with the capacity to produce wear parts and custom castings weighing up to 40,000 pounds.
As the elevation of the reservoir and trapped sediment were lowered, upstream flooding issues caused by the dam are expected to be eliminated. The dam removal design plan can maximize flood protection benefits to downstream communities.
Searsville Dam provides a moderate amount of water that can easily be replaced with a less harmful water diversion facility that allows for improved functionality to Stanford. Federal, state, local, private, and non-profit entities are all providing large grants and donations to dam removal efforts nationwide.
Some of the current vegetation and habitat that has grown up on the upstream end of the reservoir can be maintained with the dam removal design.
Dam removal would provide additional spawning gravels below the dam for steelhead as well as more natural water flow regimes and anticipated improvements to water quality.
These native trout are genetically isolated by the dam and their survival is at risk due to inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity. It is critical to understand that while the artificial, and disappearing, open-water reservoir habitat will be reduced, the historic and ecologically unique habitat buried by the dam and reservoir will be restored. In addition, much of the established riparian vegetation at the upper end of Searsville Reservoir could remain with theA  dam removal design.
The historic map below shows what this habitat looked like before the dam and what it can look like again with dam removal and ecosystem restoration.
Several species of non-native bass, sunfish, and panfish as well as bullfrogs occur in the warm, artificial, flat-water of Searsville Reservoir. Much more complicated dam removals have been completed that involved hydro-power replacement, polluted sediment disposal, adjacent development, and other challenges that this project would not have. There are also several dams that are planned for removal over the next couple years that are many times larger in size and in the amount of stored sediment. A portion of the sediment can be transported for other uses, including the stated desire for it at planned San Francisco Bay wetland restoration projects or nearby agricultural sites.
We will continue to work with all of these stakeholders to address their concerns, as we feel that the safety and ecosystem issues are in our mutual interest and that the most effective project will occur when shared goals are best addressed. While many progressive leaders at Stanford acknowledge the potential benefits of dam removal and the need for comprehensive studies to analyze specific dam removal alternatives, many watershed stakeholders are concerned that several individuals at Stanford are misrepresenting the issue and standing in the way of productive collaboration and investigation on this critical watershed decision that impacts all stakeholders. There are approximately 75,000 dams in the US Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) National Inventory of Dams (NID), which is the most comprehensive inventory of dams nationwide. Of the 75,000 dams in the database, approximately 66,000 are located on rivers (the remainder impound water off-river). Generally, the process involves drawing down the reservoir, potentially removing the sediment built up behind the dam, removing the structure, and mitigating for downstream effects of increased flow and sediment re-suspension. Most of the dams removed to date have been owned privately, by local government, or by public utilities. In past cases, removal has been financed by the dam owner, local, state and federal governments, and in some cases agreements whereby multiple stakeholders contribute to cover the costs. In most cases, the dam owner itself is the decision-maker, often deciding that the costs of continuing to operate and maintain the dam are more than removing the dam.
For example, fish are returning to historic stretches of river that had been previously obstructed on Butte Creek in California, theA Souadabscook River in Maine, and the Clearwater River in Idaho, as a result of dam removals. For instance, flood control can often be accomplished more effectively and for less money by restoring wetlands, maintaining riparian buffers, or moving people out of the floodplain. Removal eliminates the expenses associated with maintenance and safety as well as direct and indirect expenses associated with fish and wildlife protection (e.g. The reservoir will be eliminated, and with it the flat-water habitat that had been created. Experience has shown that natural river systems can be restored relatively rapidly after dam removal.
We still have superb research and graduate education universities, but to uphold standards they now draw heavily on foreign students and faculty. I believe that if teachers want to be unionized, they should be allowed to, but they have a responsibility in turn not to abuse their power.
In about half of the United States fully one third of the students entering high school never graduate.
This is a good thing, but it surely should not be the only thing that prospective educators learn in four years of college.
We have a plague of ideology in this country that is stifling any public – particularly political – discourse. Yet the majority of the population continues on the path of mediocrity and even ineptitude.
It began in 1965 to provide summer school for children about to start kindergarten and later expanded to include year-round preschool classes.
What is meant by this is salaries that can lure people into a profession that they actually want but don’t enter because salaries in industry are so much more.
It was called the National Science Resources Center, a joint project of the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution, and is now the Smithsonian Science Education Center – SSEC.
Perhaps no one has said this better than the Librarian of the historic Library of Alexandria, Egypt.
Here are just two measures, their average grades and their math scores on the California Achievement Tests (CAT).
In the Indochinese culture these results are probably to be expected; in ours, they are hugely impressive.
They may be among those who came to the United States with nothing but the rags on their backs, and beat your kids in science and math. Inter-school sports competitions should be abandoned in favor of intramural contests in which all students can participate. Thus there is a certain constructive subversiveness built into the scientific enterprise, as a new generation of scientists makes its own contribution. It requires a tolerant engagement with the contrarian view that is grounded in disputes arbitrated by the rules of evidence and rationality. Our youth have sparked our revolution, just as other young people have transformed societies, reinvented business enterprise, and redefined our scientific understanding of the world we live in. Fitch is President of his own consulting firm, Fitch & Associates, based in Taos, New Mexico. If our nation and its states and communities and families get our principles and standards straight, the funding will undoubtedly follow.
If we give even more responsibilities to the schools for the rearing of children, we shall have more bureaucracy interfering with how we should live and think, and at greater cost.
Many companies have been embedding sustainability principles into mine camp design for decades and their experience in this area can be shared with others new to these concepts.
Atlas Copco shares the knowledge of its product experts and customers through 11 technical articles and nine case studies. The Zhahanaoer coalfield lies at the northwest end of Togliao city in China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous District. Demand from the world’s biggest producer and consumer of coal could be about 3,400 Mt from this year, the newspaper reported.
The valley and historic wetlands that are buried beneath Searsville Dam and Reservoir once provided natural flood protection benefits by filling and absorbing winter rains and then slowly releasing flows following the peak flow event.
Large cracks that remain on the dam were observed by the dam caretaker immediately after the 1906 earthquake. The shrinking reservoir provides a fading amount of storage capacity that can be replaced with existing off-stream reservoirs, expanded storage areas, new off-stream storage, and possible dredging of the remaining upper Searsville Reservoir areas. Almost all dam removal studies and construction efforts are being partially or fully funded with these available grants. In addition, miles of historic stream, riparian, and wetland habitat currently buried can be revived and restored with the dam removal. The existing downstream steelhead population is able to migrate up all other existing spawning and rearing tributaries in the watershed and away from any potential short-term disturbances from the dam removal. Several miles of stream habitat and associated riparian forests, comprising over 6 different tributary streams, can be reestablished.
These species are able to breed in this artificial habitat and spread downstream of the reservoir were they can prey on and compete with threatened steelhead trout, other native aquatic species; including amphibians and even small birds and mammals. Habitat restoration of this size has been successfully completed at hundreds of locations and many dam removal projects have enabled stream habitat and native wildlife to restore themselves quickly. See our Dam Blog page and American Rivers website for more information on completed and planned dam removal projects.
Noise abatement methods, scheduled use of roads by trucks, use of cleaner burning biodiesel in equipment operation, working around Preserve activities and research, and other determined actions could be implemented to reduce impacts. Dredging the reservoir and maintaining some open water has also been considered, but has limited benefits and most of the existing ecosystem and safety problems with the dam would remain.
We firmly believe that a collaborative, well-designed dam removal effort can be in the best interest of Stanford University and the entire watershed community. Non-federal dams that produce hydropower are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).
According to the NID, Oroville Dam, on the Feather River in California, is the tallest dam in the United States, measuring in at 770 ft. State dam safety offices can often order a dam to be removed if there are major safety concerns.
Updating antiquated irrigation systems and replacing inappropriate crops can dramatically reduce the need for dams and reservoirs in the arid West. Many dams that have been removed no longer had any beneficial use or that use was very limited. In some cases, this additional section of river is enough to sustain crucial populations of endangered or threatened species of fish, mollusks, and other wildlife.
In the next twenty years we are likely to learn even more about alternatives to dams and the impacts of dams on rivers.
Wetlands surrounding the reservoir will also be drained, although new wetlands are often created both in the newly restored river reach above the former dam site and in the river below. For example, spawning fish returned to theA Souadabscook River in Maine only months after a dam was removed, and the flushing of the sediment from the Milwaukee River in Wisconsin following the Woolen Mills Dam removal took only six months.
Experts agree that the results are valid evaluations of students’ knowledge and ability to creatively solve novel problems. These jobs are going begging because even though almost 8 percent of the working population are jobless and many more have given up looking for jobs, so many cannot qualify. They should have a rich instruction in the liberal arts with a major that is not in education.
I ran into some students on university campuses who were bright and attractive and likeable. This is especially true in minority neighborhoods, since racism is still alive and well in America.
Once a very large federal program with attendant bureaucracy and vested financial and political interests is established, it becomes almost impossible to get rid of it. They learn that a square block won’t fit a round hole, that sugar tastes sweet, and that an arm can be used for lifting things.
Their basic premise is that children love to explore with real objects, be they butterflies, batteries and bulbs, weather or organisms. They were given shelter in some of the poorest inner city neighborhoods, and there they sent their children to school. A typical scenario was that after school at home, the family sat down at a round table for dinner. Truly professional teachers must receive remuneration that is competitive with that in other professions. Far too much energy and treasure is spent on inter-school contests that benefit so few students in any meaningful way. Many fear that the idealism of the revolutionary democrats will only pave the way for theological autocrats who preach an intolerant doctrine. Our respect and admiration for Newton are not diminished by the achievements of Albert Einstein. Today, as they lead the rebuilding of our societies, they must embrace the values of science.


He retired as Senior Vice President for R & D and Chief Scientific Officer Worldwide for SC Johnson in Racine, Wisconsin in 1990. He was the founding chairman of the National Industry Council for Science Education which later became a part of the Corporate Council for Mathematics and Science Education of the National Academy of Sciences. Avocational interests include skiing, hiking, alpine wildflower photography, and the collection of antique scientific instruments. The application of sustainable development principles can include the selection of location, materials, energy and waste management for the mine village. The technical articles offer important information in a practical and concise manner that everyone from experienced drill operators to industry novices will find useful and easy to understand.
The open pit mine is situated on a the ridge of the southern part of the Daxing’an mountain range.
All over the nation, restoration projects are being constructed that restore historic wetlands and adjacent riparian overflow areas to provide the dual benefits of ecosystem restoration and natural flood protection.
It is not known what the current structural condition of the dam is because it has been 43 years since the Division of Safety of Dams (DSOD) has inspected the foundation, toe, and groins of the dam.
New diversion facilities can tie into existing storage facilities, irrigation, and landscaping pipelines and improve water delivery. One state agency, the Department of Water Resources, already offered to study alternatives at Searsville Dam, including removal, at no cost to Stanford. The artificial reservoir ecosystem also currently harbors many exotic species of fish and frogs, which would be eliminated or drastically reduced in numbers, benefiting native species.
As observed with other dam removal efforts, such as the Marmot Dam removal in Oregon, wild salmon and steelhead migrated upstream of the removed dam within several days of it being removed and reestablished themselves into historic habitat, expanding their distribution and improving their population health. Biologically-rich wetland ponds and seasonal overflow wetland areas that are currently covered by the reservoir can be restored along with acres of transitional and upland habitat. Dam removal and ecosystem restoration plans can minimize the risk of additional exotic species becoming established during the restoration effort and help to minimize future exotic introductions.
Other sediment alternatives such as slurry piping and controlled sediment transport can be utilized to design the best plan to address project complexities. As with so many other recently completed dam removal efforts, project stakeholders decided that the long-term gains to the ecosystem, dam owner, and surrounding communities warranted the short-term disturbance of dam removal. Only dam removal has the combined benefits of eliminating the safety liability of the dam, providing a free flowing stream, restoring historic habitat (wetland, stream, riparian), eliminating or reducing non-native species, providing unimpeded steelhead migration, and providing natural flood protection features. Non-federal dams that do not produce hydropower are regulated by the state in which they reside.
The dam with the largest impoundment is Hoover Dam, on the Colorado River in Nevada, which stores approximately 30 million acre-feet of water. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission can order a hydropower dam under their jurisdiction to be removed for both environmental and safety reasons.
In addition, removal often generates income from newly available recreation opportunities - including fishing, kayaking, and rafting - which may actually result in a net economic benefit.
Sediment that collects behind a dam, sometimes over hundreds of years, may contain toxics such as PCBs, dioxide, and heavy metals. It makes no sense that the science teacher in my kids’ high school was the football coach who never had any science, even though he had earned certification as a teacher. The ‘hard’ sciences are perceived as hard because they have developed a methodology – ‘the Scientific Method’, a discipline that attempts to lead us to good answers and not to get fooled by inadequate data and thinking. So that a well-researched, developmental, inquiry-based, hands-on curriculum without textbooks will bring enthusiasm for learning, structured and disciplined learning, and creative problem solving. They gave up everything except their boat-home to preserve their family values that would otherwise have been destroyed by the communists. Most difficult by far, in my estimation, is the building of stronger families with the ideals as exemplified by the boat people. But fighting extremism is best done not by censorship or autocracy but by embracing pluralism and defeating ideas with ideas. Any scientist who manufactures data risks being ostracized indefinitely from the scientific community, and he or she jeopardizes the credibility of science for the larger society.
Scientists are concerned with the content of the scientific work, not with the person who produced it. Together, all armed with these values, we can think of the unborn, remember the forgotten, give hope to the forlorn, include the excluded, reach out to the unreached, and by our actions from this day onward lay the foundation for better tomorrows.
Prior to that he was Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science for 15 years at the University of Connecticut in Storrs. This involved senior technology officers of major technology-based corporations in supporting best practice in science education. In this region the tough climate is characterised by temperatures varying from +39°C down to -39°C.
In addition, dam removal efforts nationwide are being awarded funding to precede the dam removal with major downstream flood protection projects to increase channel capacity, replace undersized bridges, improve levee systems, and ensure that flood risks are reduced with the project. Many earthquakes and several decades have past since this last detailed foundation inspection.
The remaining upper reservoir, west of Portola Road, is an historic wetland pond that preceded the construction of Searsville Dam. Water quality and habitat conditions downstream are expected to improve with dam removal, as has been the case elsewhere. Dam removal projects have consistently shown a strong benefit to salmon and steelhead populations in watersheds across the world.
An amazing and diverse array of habitat types and species will be restored for birds, bats, steelhead, and the full array of native species. Most of the non-native species utilizing Searsville Reservoir cannot thrive in the natural flowing stream environment. A combination of multiple sediment options has been used in other dam removal efforts and may provide the best way to deal with the sediment.
The dam that provides the most hydroelectric power in the United States is Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River in Washington, which generates 6180 megawatts (MW) of power.
Re-suspension of these toxic-laden sediments in the process of dam removal has the potential to damage downstream water quality and threaten the health of fish and wildlife and water users.
One young woman at a university in the Midwest came up to me after one of my talks and said that until she heard me speak that morning she'd never understood that the original 13 colonies were all on the East Coast. There’s an important added benefit in that this leads to better academic performance in all other areas, e.g. In a matter of months the kids were not only learning English but they shot to the top of their classes in science and math, and achieved at least average grades in English!
The oldest child helped the next younger, and so on down the line, with the parents circling behind to ensure wo?rk was getting done.
The inquiry-based science curriculum of the Smithsonian Science Education Center of the Smithsonian Institution and the National Academy of Sciences is exemplary.
No corporate manager would agree to a seniority system; nor would one agree to Last-in-first-out (LIFO) hiring practices. And here, science has much to say, particularly about the values that are needed for societies to be truly open and democratic, because these are the values of science. In earlier years he held positions at North Dakota State University and at The Marshall Laboratories of DuPont in Philadelphia. He has served on the Management Team of the National Institute for Science Education, a research-oriented entity supported by a $10M grant from the National Science Foundation. We have built this great edifice of an education system not on bedrock, but on an unstable foundation (the American Family), and it is crumbling. The oldest child helped the next younger, and so on down the line, with the parents circling behind to ensure work was getting done. This is an unprecedented opportunity to get massive funding and ease of permitting to reduce flooding, restore ecosystem health, and rebuild Stanforda€™s out-dated water supply facilities to a modern and sustainable state.
Stanford is responsible for coordinating this inspection that DSOD has identified in the above 2007 inspection report as a a€?prudenta€? measure that should be taken. This pond can be maintained and continue to provide fire-fighting needs as well as water storage capacity and open-water wetland habitat benefits. Dam removal would also allow for the resurgence of annual steelhead trout runs to the watersheda€™s largest tributary for the first time in 120 years, bringing back a critical keystone species to the ecosystem.
Removal of Searsville Dam would open up over ten miles of historic spawning and rearing habitat in the largest tributary of the entire watershed, where high quality habitat and native rainbow trout persist. In addition, the dam removal will reestablish critical wildlife migration routes at this confluence of riparian corridors currently blocked by the dam and submerged by the reservoir.
A detailed Dam Removal Alternatives Analysis study would identify the many options available. Short term impacts of the dam removal itself can include increased water turbidity and sediment buildup downstream from releasing large amounts of sediment from the reservoir, and water quality impacts from sudden releases of water and changes in temperature. These were families greatly influenced by the precepts of Confucius, precepts that affected not just ‘Indo China’ but China, Korea and Japan as well.
There is evidence that seniority rules are being eliminated under the current administration’s “Race to the Top” project.
There are many organizations, which, if they combined their energies and subscribed to this manifesto, could form a ‘critical mass’ to bring about the needed change.
These values of science are universal values worth defending, not just to promote the pursuit of science but to produce a better and more humane society.
He was responsible for establishing the academic polymer science programs at both North Dakota State and at UConn.
Fitch was Chairman of the Advisory Board of the National Science Resources Center -- now the Smithsonian Science Education Center --, a joint project of the Smithsonian Institution and the National Academy of Sciences. Beyond Searsville Dam requested that the DSOD require this study and they have informed Stanford that the study should happen before the end of 2012. As part of the larger Searsville Dam removal and ecosystem restoration project, Stanford has an unprecedented opportunity to upgrade their water delivery and storage facilities with the benefit of available grant funding, eliminated safety liability, and ease of permitting. The altered and artificial ecosystem would be transformed to a self-sustainable and native one.
The remaining, and historic, upper pond located west of Portola Road can continue to provide open-water wetland habitat.
It’s why we see so many Orientals at the tops of graduate schools, music organizations and scientific research institutes here in the United States. Teamwork has become essential in most fields of science, and it requires that all the members of the team receive the recognition they deserve. This last focusses on experiential learning in the early grades by means of the development and distribution of laboratory and instructional resources, leadership training at local school districts and regional centers, and the involvement of industry support. As the dam and concrete continue to age, experience additional earthquakes, and as the reservoir fills in and transported sediment potentially scours the dam, the structural integrity is expected to be reduced over time.
In addition, the upgraded water diversion and storage facilities can be designed to serve a critical secondary function of reducing flooding downstream by diverting and storing peak storm flows into collection basins as is being considered by the Joint Powers Authority in the watershed.
Contributions are also cumulative, and each should be recognized for his or her contribution. The active San Andreas Fault run adjacent to Searsville Reservoir, which can be seen as the oval blue shape near the center of the map, adjacent to the highest a€?Very-Violenta€? shaking severity level on the above image. Such multi-objective funding and permitting opportunities are being jumped at by dam owners across the country. It is a sentiment well captured in Isaac Newton’s famous statement that “If I have seen farther than most, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.” Science requires the freedom to enquire, to challenge, to think, to imagine the unimagined.
Dam removal can eliminate the dam failure risk identified by San Mateo County and extensive downstream inundation. It cannot function within the arbitrary limits of convention, nor can it flourish if it is forced to shy away from challenging the accepted.
Searsville Dam is listed as a a€?High Hazarda€? dam by the US Army Corps, State of California, and San Mateo County (pg. As noted in the above document, a High Hazard dam is defined as a dam whose failure would result in a€?probable loss of lives and significant property damagea€?. Stanforda€™s own report, SPEAR3, cites an analysis that determined failure of Searsville Dam could release a a€?catastrophica€? flow of 60,433 cubic feet per second, or a€?about 6 times the 500-year peak flow of 10,500 cfsa€? (Section 7.1 Page 7). Stanforda€™s own report, SPEAR3,A  cites an analysis that determined failure of Searsville Dam could release a a€?catastrophica€? flow of 60,433 cubic feet per second, or a€?about 6 times the 500-year peak flow of 10,500 cfsa€? (Section 7.1 Page 7). In addition to geologic, aging, and seismic considerations, the dama€™s limited spillway design and operation and bypass flow drain pipe present additional safety challenges for dealing with dam overtopping during flood events and the ability to quickly drain the reservoir during an emergency. The best teachers are those who have a gift and the energy and enthusiasm to convey their love for science or history or Shakespeare or whatever it is.
They can electrify the morning when you come into the classroom.”?Marc Tucker, of the National Center on Education and the Economy, has shown that today our schools of education fall far short of the standards in other countries such as in Finland, Japan, Shanghai and Ontario. They can electrify the morning when you come into the classroom.”Marc Tucker, of the National Center on Education and the Economy, has shown that today our schools of education fall far short of the standards in other countries such as in Finland, Japan, Shanghai and Ontario. There is a much higher degree of professionalism, higher teacher salaries, and higher social respect for teachers in such places than in the US.




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