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Antimicrobial activity of 18 ethnomedicinal plant extracts were evaluated against nine bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ervinia sp, Proteus vulgaris) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans).
Plants were collected from Palni hills of Southern Western Ghats and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the some ethnomedicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. BackgroundAccording to World Health Organization (WHO) more than 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs.
Root powder is mixed with lime juice and applied topically on the affected places to treat skin diseases. Whole plant is powdered with the leaves and stem of Tinospora cordifolia and mixed with cow's milk and taken internally to treat diarrhoea. Fruit powder is mixed with honey and the fruits of Trichopus zeylanicus, Terminalia bellirica, Phyllanthus emblica and rhizome of Curculigo orchioides and taken orally to stimulate body stamina.
Leaf paste is prepared in water and is applied topically on affected places of wounds and on heel to treat heel cracks. Powder of whole plant is mixed with the leaves of Toddalia asiatica, Vitex negundo and Naravelia zeylanica and applied externally to treat rheumatism. Root powder and dried fruits of Piper nigrum are mixed with water and taken internally to get relief from indigestion. Decoction of leaves prepared in water is taken orally by pregnant women during delivery to reduce delivery pain. Dried fruit coat is ground and mixed with water and taken internally to treat stomachache and diarrhoea. Young leaves are mixed with goat's milk and ground into a paste and taken internally to treat indigestion. Fruit powder prepared in water is made into paste and taken internally with the fruits of Ficus racemosa, leaves of Hybanthus enneaspermus, rhizome of Curculigo orchioides, Caryota urens & seeds of Cissus quandrangularis to strengthen the body.
Leaf and stem powder is mixed with the stem bark of Ficus racemosa, Ficus benghalensis, Madhuca longifolia, Strychnos nux-vomica and fruits of Carica papaya and taken internally to induce abortion and applied externally to treat skin diseases.
There are a few reports on the use of plants in traditional healing by either tribal people or indigenous communities of Tamil Nadu [7a€“11].
MethodsEthnobotanical surveyPlants were selected for this study based on their medicinal use.
Results and discussionsTable 1 provides the botanical name, family, local name, plant parts used together with their traditional therapeutic uses and properties for the 18 ethnomedicinal plants collected from Palni hills of Tamil Nadu. Preguntas Basicas (Generales) ?Que microorganismo puede causar la neumonia adquirida en la comunidad? Preguntas Avanzadas (Especificas) Para conocimientos especificos sobre un determinado paciente con una condicion especifica. Formato PICO P: Paciente o problema de interes: ?Podria describir un grupo de pacientes similar al que me interesa?
Ejemplo: Pregunta Estructurada ?En ninos con trastorno por deficit de atencion con hiperactividad, alguna modificacion en la dieta mejora su comportamiento?
Fuentes de Informacion Instrumentos y recursos que sirven para satisfacer las necesidades de informacion o conocimiento. Fuentes Primarias Tienen un caracter original, contienen informacion "de primera mano" tal y como la quiso transmitir el autor. Fuentes Terciarias Consisten en revisiones de trabajos y contienen informacion ya elaborada por los autores.
Tiempo requerido para su uso - + Grado de utilidad - + Robeson et al.Facilitating access to pre-processed research evidence in public health. Natural Standard Natural Standard es una colaboracion de investigacion internacional que agrega y sintetiza los datos sobre la Medicina Complementaria y Alternativa (CAM).
Opciones por niveles de lectura Contenido de Monografia Professional Monograph Revision exhaustiva basada en la evidencia y revisada por pares. Micromedex 2.0 AltMedDex Contiene informacion sobre fitofarmacos, complementos alimenticios, vitaminas y minerales. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine publishes selected collections of research articles, conference proceedings, reviews and reports as supplements. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID).
Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. BackgroundThe aim of this paper is to evaluate the ethnoveterinary remedies used by certain hunters in Trinidad. MethodsData collectionThe research area is located in Guayaguayare on private land belonging to a State-owned oil company.
ResultsEnvironmental hazardsThe following section outlines environmental hazards to hunters (and researchers) which may explain some of their bush medicine remedies. Plants used for snakebitesIf dogs are bitten by snakes, the injury is usually on the nostrils, forehead or front shoulder. DiscussionThe following sections examine the plant used by hunters in a holistic manner, however, it is difficult to judge hunting success. Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs) of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S.
BackgroundPropolis is a generic name used for the product that results from the addition of the mandibular secretions of various bee species to resins these insects collect from the buds, flowers and exudates of different plants [1]. MethodsPreparation and fractionation of geopropolis extractsSamples of geopropolis produced by M. ResultsAgar diffusion tests showed the antimicrobial action of geopropolis extracts (HAE-2 and HAE-3), with inhibition zones ranging from 10 to 13 mm for S.
Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of HAE-2 fractions revealed that only the chloroform fraction showed an inhibition zone when tested against S.
Chemical characterization of the geopropolis extracts indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in all samples. The experimental procedures with animals did not lead to any alteration in the serum concentration of calcium, albumin, and glucose in the GP group. A significant increase in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 was observed in the GP group, while the production of IFN-I? and TNF-I± was kept unaltered when compared to the S and the GS groups (Figure 3).
No significant changes were observed in the body weight of the animals and also in relation to the organs weight, with the exception of the stomach in the GS group (Table 3). Effect of topical oral treatment with a gel based on geopropolis (GP) from Melipona fasciculata Smith on organ weight in mice.
Histopathological analysis of the tongue in mice that received topical oral treatment with a gel based on geopropolis (GP) from Melipona fasciculata Smith. DiscussionIn this study we observed that geopropolis can display inhibitory effects on some oral pathogens, without detectable toxicity in mice. Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.Authors' contributionsSAL prepared the extracts, carried out the microbiological evaluation, organized the data analysis and drafted the manuscript.
These results suggested the preventive role of SAME for gentamicin induced toxicity that could be attributed by phytochemicals having antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.
BackgroundGentamicin is an aminoglycoside, natural or semisynthetic antibiotic clinically used against Gram negative bacteria because of its efficacy and failure to increase bacterial resistance. MethodsPreparation of plant extractWhole plant (leaves, stem, flowers, seeds and roots) of Sonchus asper at maturity was collected from District Rawalpindi and after identification a specimen was submitted at herbarium of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Pakistan. DNA ladder assayDNA was isolated from the liver and renal tissues by following the method described previously [30].
ResultsEffect of SAME on liver marker enzymesGentamicin increased the level of biochemical parameters; AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and I?-GT in serum as compared to that of the control group (Table 1).
Effects of SAME on urinary protein, glucose and urine output in ratEffect of gentamicin and gentamicin plus SAME on urinary protein, glucose and urine output are shown in Table 3. Effects of SAME on hepatorenal antioxidant enzymes of ratEffects of gentamicin, and gentamicin plus SAME on hepatorenal antioxidant defense system such as CAT, POD and SOD are shown in Table 4 and 5. Effects of SAME on hepatorenal TBARS, GSH and DNA fragmentation in ratTable 6 and 7 show the effects of SAME on TBARS, GSH and DNA fragmentation in liver and renal samples. Effects of SAME on DNA ladder assayDNA ladder assay showed a continuous banding pattern of fragmented DNA induced with gentamicin in both the organs; liver and kidneys (Figure 1).
Agarose gel showing DNA damages by gentamicin and preventive effects of SAME in different groups. Histopathological studies of liverLiver of animal in the control group showed normal hepatic architecture, where the hepatocytes are arranged around the central vein and alternate with blood sinusoids. Histopathology showing the alterations induced with gentamicin and preventive effects of SAME in hepatic tissues of rat. Histopathological studies of kidneysHistopathological studies of kidneys showed the normal architecture including glomerulus, bowman capsule, distal and proximal convoluted tubules. Microphotographs of different experimental groups showing the histopathology of renal tissues. DiscussionGentamicin is a therapeutic agent used against the life threatening infections in human, but it causes acute renal failure in 10-15% of the patients [31] while more than 30% of the patients showed the signs of nephrotoxicity which have received the gentamicin for more than 7 days [32, 33]. ConclusionDietary polyphenols present in the SAME exhibit hepato and nephroprotective activities probably through free radical scavenging properties. Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.Authors' contributionsMRK has made substantial contribution to conception and design, interpretation of data, drafting and revising the manuscript for intellectual content. Data on the potential efficacy of acupuncture (AC) in controlling intense or very intense pain in patients with Herpes Zoster (HZ) has not been so far adequately assessed in comparison with standard pharmacological treatment (ST) by a controlled trial design. Within the VZV Pescara study, pain was assessed in HZ patients on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) both at the beginning and at the end of treatment.
One hundred and two patients were randomized to receive either AC (n = 52) or ST (n = 50) for 4 weeks. This controlled and randomized trial provides the first evidence of a potential role of AC for the treatment of acute herpetic pain.
BackgroundA significant proportion (18% to 41%) of patients suffering with Herpes Zoster (HZ) experience intense or very intense pain at presentation, frequently persisting after the healing of rash [1a€“4]. MethodsStudy design and populationThe present randomized clinical trial was nested within the "VZV Pescara Study", a cohort study aimed at evaluating the intensity of pain at presentation, pain persistence, overall pain burden and relative predictors in HZ patients [14]. OutcomesThe main outcome of the study was the reduction in pain intensity between baseline and the end of the 4-week treatment, as measured by the reduction in the VAS score [38, 39]. Comparison between acupuncture and standard analgesic therapyNo significant differences were observed between the 2 therapeutic approaches in any of the outcomes under consideration (Table 2). DiscussionLack of proper efficacy evaluations, adequate statistical power and rational design of the previous studies assessing the role of Acupuncture for Zoster related acute pain is acknowledged [36, 37]. ConclusionsWith these caveats, our study provides the first evidence from a randomized controlled design of a potential role of acupuncture in the treatment of acute herpetic pain. We just discovered an amazing report about Moringa, courtesy of our friends over at The Eden Prescription. Called the “miracle tree” on account of its many virtues, Moringa is very well known in India, parts of Africa, the Philippines and several other countries, yet it is relatively unknown in countries such as the USA. It also contains numerous powerful anti-cancer compounds such as kaempferol, rhamnetin and isoquercetin.
Please note that it’s a long way before Moringa can be claimed as a cancer cure, but this kind of study is important because it indicates the potential for a starting point for a medicine of the future. Moringa is now extensively cultivated throughout Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and Central America, but the largest Moringa crop in the world is produced by India – where it grows natively.
Note – as always, this article is not medical advice nor a substitute for consultation with a medical professional.
Note 2 – “In Vitro” literally means “In Glassware” and is the Latin expression to denote that the tests were done on cell cultures in a lab, as opposed to “In Vivo” which means tested on living creatures. Please check out The Eden Prescription for more reports on the cutting edge science being done investigating the medicinal properties of herbs! The collected ethnomedicinal plants were used in folk medicine in the treatment of skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders.
The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using paper disc diffusion method. Among the plants tested, Acalypha fruticosa, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Toddalia asiatica,Cassia auriculata, Punica granatum and Syzygium lineare were most active. Compared to hexane extract, methanol extract showed significant activity against tested organisms.
Use of herbal medicines in Asia represents a long history of human interactions with the environment. The development of drug resistance in human pathogens against commonly used antibiotics has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources including plants [12]. Fresh plant parts were collected from the tribal villages (Paliyar tribe) in Palni hills of Tamil Nadu, India in Jan a€“ April 2005.
Out of the 18 plants tested for antimicrobial activity, 10 plant species showed antimicrobial activity by inhibiting one or more microorganisms. Ejemplo: ?La hierba de San Juan es eficaz para aliviar los sintomas de la depresion post-parto? Ejemplos: Articulos cientificos, tesis, patentes, trabajos de conferencias, Opinion de expertos, publicaciones oficiales de sitio web Corresponden a los distintos tipos de estudios de investigacion experimentales y observacionales. Ejemplos: Libros, revisiones, Consensos, Guias Clinicas de Diagnostico y Tratamiento, Centros de informacion, etc.
Usa una metodologia integral y escalas de clasificacion reproducibles, la informacion esta basada en la evidencia, basada en el consenso y revisada por expertos, y con la experiencia colectiva de un comite editorial multidisciplinario.
Proporciona informacion de eficacia, efectos adversos, interacciones, embarazo, lactancia, farmacologia, toxicologia, dosificacion y productos.
Informacion con enfoque clinico que incluye uso, dosificacion, eficacia, reacciones adversas e interacciones.
Jose Luis Rojas - Unidad de Epidemiologia Clinica FMAH -UPCH ?Donde buscar articulos cientificos?
Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. One research hazard was the presence of a mite infestation Trombicula species, in the area.
For snakebites of hunters and their dogs a piece of the woody flexible vine called monkey ladder (Bauhinia cumanensis orBauhinia excisa, Fabaceae) is pounded and put on the bite.
Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Distinct pharmacological activities of propolis have been demonstrated, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties, among others [2a€“4].
On the other hand, animals in this group presented an increased concentration of urea and reduced concentrations of cholesterol, and triglycerides (Figure 2). Besides, no macro- or microscopic alteration was detected in the liver, kidney, or stomach. Furthermore, an immunomodulatory activity, due to an increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, was also detected.The inhibitory activity displayed by geopropolis against S.
We have investigated the preventive effect of methanolic extract of Sonchus asper (SAME) on the gentamicin induced alterations in biochemical and morphological parameters in liver and kidneys of Sprague-Dawley male rat. However, the main problem associated with gentamicin is the cause of nephrotoxicity at its therapeutic doses and appeared to be a major cause of nonoliguric acute renal failure [1]. Treatment of SAME in combination with gentamicin reduced the serum level of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and I?-GT, dose dependently, to that of the gentamicin treated group. In addition, altered level of these parameters induced with gentamicin in serum was restored, dose dependently, with the simultaneous treatment of SAME to rats than that of the control group. Urinary excretion of protein, glucose and urinary output significantly increased with gentamicin than that of the control group.
DNA injuries were comprehensively eliminated by the SAME treatment in liver and kidney samples. Each hepatic cell possesses a limiting membrane, centrally placed large nucleus and prominent nucleoli (Figure 2 A).
Treatment of gentamicin markedly disrupted the histology as evidenced by the tubular degeneration, tubular congestion, tubular dilatation and glomerular injuries (Figure 3B,C). In this study we have tested the hypothesis that SAME administration could prevent gentamicin induced hepatorenal toxicity in rat.Treatment of gentamicin causes significant increase in the serum level of liver and kidney function markers such as creatinine, BUN, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin as compared to respective control indicating hepatorenal dysfunction. Altered level of hepatic markers such as AST, ALT, ALP and LDH with gentamicin exposure was reversed towards normalization with SAME. IB made significant contribution to acquisition of data, analysis, drafting of the manuscript. Response rates, mean changes in pain intensity, differences in total pain burden with an area-under-the-curve (AUC) method over a 1-year follow-up and differences in the incidence of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) were evaluated. Groups were comparable regarding age, sex, pain intensity at presentation and missed antiviral prescription.
Both pain in the acute phase and chronic pain in post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) may severely impact on quality of life and health care costs, interfering with physical, emotional and social functioning of affected patients [5a€“7]. Final approval of the study was granted by the Ethical Committee of the Local Healthcare Agency of Pescara in March, 2006. Of them, 129 reported intense or very intense pain at presentation and were thus eligible for the present trial.
Similarly, as shown in Table 1, demographic and clinical characteristics of the 66 patients entering the final analyses were well balanced between groups.
Chi-squared test was used to compare the VAS response rate and the prevalence of PHN at each time point across groups. Coghlan reported in 1992 the treatment of a small case series of patients with pain caused either by acute HZ or by PHN, including 4 patients each. Patients with intense or very intense pain at presentation showed a significant and similar degree of pain relief using acupuncture and standard pharmacological therapy. Both Institutions granted the unusual opportunity of carrying out a study design completely independent of the influence of pharmaceutical companies; this was motivated by the strive to improve daily assistance to HZ patients and their acute pain.
Gomme de Benoide ????????? ???? ????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????. In 2013 scientists reported in a paper published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (A peer-reviewed, open access journal) that A hot-water extract of the leaves of Moringa Oleifera killed up to 97% of human pancreatic cancer cells (Panc-1) after 72 hours in lab tests. Fewer than 6% patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas live five years after diagnosis. However it seems from the current buzz around it that it may well soon experience a rise to new popularity. Now, researchers are discovering that Moringa has anti-cancer potential with positive results so far against ovarian cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma in lab tests.
It’s especially interesting because Moringa is already in common use – not only in herbalism but in a wide variety of other applications. It’s fascinating to note that may be one reason why the death rate from pancreatic cancer in India is a stunning 84% lower than in the United States!
Such studies indicate preliminary success but much more research will be needed to “prove” efficacy in humans.
All microorganisms were obtained from Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
The highest antifungal activity was exhibited by methanol extract of Peltophorum pterocarpum and Punica granatum against Candida albicans. This study also showed that Toddalia asiatica, Syzygium lineare, Acalypha fruticosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents. Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat chronic as well as infectious diseases.
Screening of medicinal plants for antimicrobial activities and phytochemicals is important for finding potential new compounds for therapeutic use. The results of the antimicrobial screening of the crude extracts of all species of plants are shown in Table 2. Suelen ser contestada por las bases de datos que tienen acceso a la literatura de investigacion. Antes de escribir una revision, el autor hace una busqueda usando las fuentes secundarias para identificar los trabajos originales. Incluye tabla de evidencia y discusion de la evidencia, analisis estadistico y valoracion de la calidad de los ensayos clinicos disponibles. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals Editado por la Royal Pharmaceutical Society de la Gran Bretana. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. During the research some hunters claimed that their dogs either started hunting or hunted better after they had treated them in various ways with medicinal plants.
From 1997 a€“ 1999, the authors conducted research with one group of seven hunters based in south Trinidad on this private land (not in the protected animal reserve).
These mites are called 'bA?te rouge' locally because of the orange colour of the larval cluster seen on the skin. The symbolic aspects of the plant use are very similar to those of the South American Amerindians and modern hunters may be unknowingly using the traditions of the original Amerindian inhabitants of Trinidad and Tobago. This diversity of pharmacological activities is related to quantitative and qualitative variations in the composition of different propolis samples [5, 6].Known pharmacological activities generally refer to propolis produced by Apis mellifera, the most common bee species in many countries and the main producer of honey in those countries [7]. Phenol content differed among the three extracts studied, with the lowest concentration being observed in HAE-2.
Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and DNA injuries increased while GSH contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD decreased with gentamicin in liver and kidney samples. Gentamicin is excreted through kidneys without degradation or metabolic changes, with 5 to 10% dose is concentrated in proximal tubules vastly exceeding the concurrent serum concentration [2].
After electrophoresis gel was studied under gel doc system and was photographed.Analysis of urineAfter the last treatment animals were shifted to metabolic cages for 24 h in order to collect their urine individually and to estimate urine volume.
Administration of SAME in combination with gentamicin ameliorated the toxicity of gentamicin and the level of protein, glucose and urinary output significantly reduced, as compared to that of the gentamicin treated group. Treatment of SAME along with gentamicin increased the activity level of CAT, POD and SOD, dose dependently, as compared to the gentamicin treated group.
Administration of SAME in combination with gentamicin significantly reversed the level of GSH, TBARS and DNA injuries as compared to gentamicin treated group in a dose dependent manner in both the liver and kidney samples. Microscopic examination of animal livers treated with gentamicin depicted marked hepatocellular changes, dilated and congested sinusoids with hemorrhage (Figure 2B).
Prevention of nephropathological injuries was determined with SAME to gentamicin treated rats (Figure 3D).
These injuries could be due to the production of free radicals and involvement of oxidative stress to hepatorenal toxicity caused by gentamicin treatment. From May 2006 to April 2008, 41 General Practitioners (GPs) in the district of Pescara, Italy, the Infectious Diseases (ID) Unit, the Dermatology Unit, and Pain Management Clinic (PMC) of the Pescara General Hospital asked all incident cases of HZ to participate in the cohort study. Twenty-seven patients (21%) refused to participate, and 102 patients were randomized to receive either acupuncture (AC, n = 52) or standard therapy (ST, n = 50) (Figure 2). A paired t-test was used to compare baseline vs end of therapy mean values of VAS and McGill scores, within each group. Electro-acupuncture alone was used and reported as generally effective, endorsing the opportunity for an exploratory trial [30]. Also, no differences between treatments were observed in the incidence of severe adverse events. It has a long history of use in traditional medicine due to its properties as an anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, antidepressant, anti-diabetes, pain and fever reducer and even asthma treatment.
A vast knowledge of how to use the plants against different illnesses may be expected to have accumulated in areas where the use of plants is still of great importance [1]. This paper reports the results of a survey that was done based on folk uses by traditional practitioners in Palni hills of Tamil Nadu along with bioassay test for antimicrobial activity.
The ethnobotanical data (local name, mode of preparation, medicinal uses) were collected through questionnaire, interviews and discussions among the tribal practitioners in their local language (Tamil). Among the plants screened, Acalypha fruticosa, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Toddalia asiatica,Cassia auriculata, Syzygium cumini and Syzygium lineare showed promising activity against tested microorganisms.
A veces, el sexo, la edad o raza de un paciente pueden ser relevantes para el diagnostico o tratamiento de una enfermedad. Tu pregunta no siempre necesita una comparacion especifica O: Outcome o resultado: ?Que se puede esperar lograr, medir, mejorar o afectar?
Luego, el autor presenta la informacion en una forma que sea facilmente comprensible para el profesional prescriptor. Contiene informacion sobre plantas medicinales y su aplicacion en la terapia alternativa y complementaria. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites.
This study has evolved out of an interest in a non-experimental evaluation of Trinidad and Tobago's ethnopharmacopoeia. One of these hunters was Indo-Trinidadian, the others were Afro-Trinidadian or of mixed race. The mites affect game animals like agouti and can attack man since they attach themselves to all mammals and vertebrates. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. However, some of these activities have also been observed in propolis produced by other bee species, including members of the tribe Meliponini [6, 8]. SAME administration, dose dependently, prevented the alteration in biochemical parameters and were supported by low level of tubular and glomerular injuries induced with gentamicin. Although its exact role in kidney dysfunction is not apparent, it is suggested that the selective accumulation of gentamicin in kidney cortex can induce oxidative stress and cause lipid peroxidation [3].
Urine samples were assayed for glucose and protein by using standard diagnostic kits (MediScreen Orgenics, France).Statistical analysisData recorded was analyzed for the mean and standard deviation in each group. Treatment of SAME along with gentamicin exhibited reversal of these changes (Figure 2C, D).

Gentamicin may influence the various metabolic pathways of liver thereby enhancing the level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, total and direct bilirubin, BUN and creatinine in serum.
These effects probably involve multiple molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulated by polyphenolics. Finally, opioid analgesics, including tramadol, possibly combined with other neuroactive agents, such as amitriptyline, have been used in the event of unresponsive pain [22a€“26]. All data were collected by the Infectious Disease Unit using a specifically created computerized network.
In brief, all patients in the cohort study were asked about pain severity at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after enrolment, using the five-degree semi-quantitative scale described above.
Many of the randomized patients, however, did not receive the allocated intervention, because of rapid pain quenching after enrolment (n = 13 in AC, n = 14 in ST), or for consent withdrawal after randomization (n = 1 in each group).
Finally, none of them discontinued treatment due to drug-related complications or procedure-related discomfort. We’ve dedicated a full page on our site to a detailed herbal report on the amazing Moringa and those interested in herbalism would do well to investigate this plant.
The medicinal value of plants lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human body. The voucher specimens in duplicate were deposited in the herbarium of Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai (India).Preparation of hexane and methanol extractPlant extracts were prepared by cold percolation method.
The tested plant extracts were most active against gram-positive microorganisms than gram-negative microorganisms. Dynamed, Clinical Evidence, UptoDate, GPC ACP Journal Club, TRIP Soporte de decision computarizado Revisiones Sistematicas Cochrane, DARE ACP Journal Club, TRIP PubMed, EMBASE, BVS, etc.
This evaluation establishes whether the plant use is based on empirically verifiable principles or whether symbolic aspects of healing are more important [1]. This research included participant observation [2], which involved taking part in five hunts over the three years (going into the forest, observing the chase and capture, sharing a meal and sharing of take home game).
The author can confirm that depending on the sensitivity of the individual a larval infection produces slight or extreme irritation. For example the claim that dogs that are "crossed" are chasing spirits in the forest rather than prey may be related to the belief of theTacana in Bolivia that malevolent spirits dwell in canopy trees such as Dipteryx odorata and Ceiba samauma[15].
The samples were then filtered through filter paper to remove the inorganic portion (soil), concentrated in a rotary evaporator and air-dried at 40A°C for 48 h. However, none of the three geopropolis extracts tested in this study were seen to have antimicrobial activity against L. Biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), I?-glutamyltransferase (I?-GT), total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were determined in serum collected from various groups. Additionally, it can mediate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion mostly in mitochondria that can induce renal injuries [3].Gentamicin causes the activation of platelet activation factor ensuing local vasoconstriction and thus reduces the renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate [4].
Oxidative damage to kidneys by gentamicin may also contribute for the observed higher concentration of BUN and creatinine in serum. Bioactive components of SAME ameliorated the oxidative damage and had increased the regenerative and reparative capacity of liver and kidneys. In the most suffering patients, however, the control of pain is often unsatisfactory despite the administration of complex drug combinations, which also bear the potential of relevant metabolic effects [11, 22].In this context, the evidence that acupuncture may be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes lead to the hypothesis of a potential beneficial effect of this procedure for acute HZ-related pain [27a€“29]. To obtain the AUC, measures of pain intensity were combined with pain duration, and each patient's AUC was calculated as the sum of all areas obtained by multiplying the average of 2 consecutive pain scores by the number of days between the scores.Sample size estimationBecause of the recent debate on non-inferiority trials [44], the study was conservatively planned with a superiority design.
Finally, 1 AC and 2 ST patients were lost to follow-up, and 2 patients in each group underwent protocol violations (Figure 2). Massimo Franciotti, who assisted us in most of secretarial work throughout the study, together with Mrs. The plant materials were dried under shade and ground into fine powder using electric blender. One veterinarian1 served as the linkage and provided entrance to this group and facilitated the participation in the hunting activities.
Lesions may persist after the larvae have left to begin their adult stage however the dermatitis disappears. A typical tincture would contain one or more of the following plants: mat root (Aristolochia rugosa), cat's claw (Pithocellobium unguis-cati), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), snake bush (Barleria lupulina), obie seed (Cola nitida), and wild gri gri root (Acrocomia ierensis, tentative ID). The extract with the highest flavonoid concentration, HAE-2, presented the highest antimicrobial activity. In the north and in some states of northeastern Brazil, Melipona compressipes fasciculata is the most important species for honey bee production and play an important role in flower pollination [10]. The three hydroalcoholic extracts obtained (HAE-1, HAE-2 and HAE-3) were stored in a refrigerator (4-8A°C) until the time of analysis. Urinary out puts were measured in each group and also assessed for the level of protein and glucose. Gentamicin induced renal injuries are mostly localized to the proximal tubules because of association of gentamicin with polyanionic inositol phospholipids and megalin, a receptor, for uptake of gentamicin [5, 6].
The same results have been reported in earlier studies where they have suggested the kidney dysfunction caused by gentamicin oxidative stress [8, 13]. So it is mandatory to explore the bioactive chemicals in SAME in order to develop the therapeutics that have a promising role in the treatment of hepatorenal dysfunction diseases induced by xenobiotics.
Therefore, several studies investigated the impact of acupuncture in patients with intense pain due to HZ or PHN, with controversial results [13, 30a€“35]. Patients enrolled in the cohort study with pain classified as intense or very intense on a five-degree semi-quantitative scale (no pain, mild, moderate, intense, very intense) were asked to participate in the present trial.
As mentioned above, the main outcome was the difference in the mean change of VAS scores from baseline to the end of the treatment between groups.
The final analyses were thus based upon 34 patients in the AC group and 32 patients in the ST group (Figure 2).
Among these, all of the 16 cases treated within 1 week from pain onset were reported as cured, in comparison with only 5 (15.6%) among the 32 cases whose pain lasted over 1 week before treatment [33].
The use of medicinal plants as traditional medicines is well known in rural areas of many developing countries [3, 4].
The adult mites are free living on vegetation and are found in fruit- growing areas on chalky soil [4].Yellow fever outbreaks in the past have affected howler monkeys (Alouatte seniculus insularis) and can spread to any mammals, since these monkeys are susceptible to sylvan forms of the human disease [5].
Some snake bottles also contain the caterpillars (Battus polydamus, Papilionidae) [13] that eat tref leaves (Aristolochia trilobata).
In addition, a geopropolis-based gel is not toxic in an animal model and displays anti-inflammatory effect.
Stingless bees generally mix resinous material that they collect from plants with wax and soil and store large deposits of this material, called geopropolis, inside their hives. The extract with the highest flavonoid concentration, HAE-2, displayed the highest antimicrobial activity.
Lipid peroxides (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), DNA injuries and activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in liver and renal samples. Gentamicin resists the degradation of phospholipids that compromised the lysosomal membrane integrity and eventually the leakage of enzymes. However, gentamicin treatment causes depletion in total protein and albumin, useful markers of liver function, might be depressed as a result of defective protein synthesis. None of them, however, was a randomized controlled trial for acute pain in HZ [13, 36, 37].Here we report on a randomized, controlled trial, comparing the efficacy of acupuncture (AC) and standard pharmacological treatment (ST) in controlling intense or very intense acute pain in patients with HZ. At enrolment, a second specific informed consent was obtained, and the intensity of pain was re-assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) [38, 39]. Traditional healers claim that their medicine is cheaper and more effective than modern medicine. There is no comprehensive published information available on the number of hunting dogs in the country. Another occupational and research hazard is the presence of constricting and venomous snakes. The gel maintained the antibacterial activity previously demonstrated in the geopropolis extract against S. Gentamicin behaves as iron chelator and iron-gentamicin complexes are thought to be involved in free radical formation [7]. The experimental protocol and procedures used in this study were approved by the Ethics committee of the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan for the care and use of laboratory animals. Co-administration of SAME along with gentamicin caused significant decrease in the concentration of creatinine, BUN, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin while a significant increase in albumin and total protein of serum suggested the protective effects of SAME. If the intensity was a‰? 7 at VAS, participants were randomized to receive either standard pharmacological treatment (ST) or acupuncture (AC). In developing countries, low-income people such as farmers, people of small isolate villages and native communities use folk medicine for the treatment of common infections [5].We chose eighteen plant species used in folk medicine to determine their antimicrobial activity (Table 1). Hunting dogs are typically foxhounds, 13 inch and 9 inch beagles, coonhounds (all original stock imported) and mixed breeds.
Emergency snake medicines are obtained by chewing a three-inch piece of the root of bois canA?t (Cecropia peltata) taken from the east part of the tree and administering this chewed-root solution to the dog. Iron, released from the renal cortex mitochondria on account of excessive oxidative stress induced with gentamicin, act as a putative enhancer of gentamicin induced oxidative stress.
Similar protective studies of different extracts against gentamicin have been reported previously [8, 11, 12].Urinalysis also provides important clues about the functional status of kidneys. The randomization process was carried out by the Statistical Unit and stratified by gender, age class (10 y) and pain intensity (VAS 7-8, and VAS 9-10). In general, these plants are used in folk medicine in the treatment of skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders. Alternatively four or five berries of mardi gras (Renealmia alpinia), are crushed with the juice of wild cane (Costus scaber) and the dog is given two spoonfuls of the resulting solution. These beliefs may have originated in the Amazon where baths are a frequent way to utilise traditional remedies [17]. RNMG conceived the study, participated in its design and coordination, and critically reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content. Oxidative stress is mainly regulated by the cellular enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic (glutathione, ascorbic acid, I±-tocopherol) factors [7].Recent studies have shown that natural antioxidants obtained from different alternative systems of medicine display a wide range of biological activities. In this regard significantly higher quantity of urine volume, urinary glucose, and protein was recorded with gentamicin administration to rat for 10 days. None of the investigators had any role in the allocation of patients.InterventionIn the AC arm, 8 sessions of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture were administered twice weekly by 2 experienced acupuncture physicians, members of the Italian School of Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine, Boulogne, Italy.
Chi-squared test was used to compare the VAS response rate and the prevalence of PHN between groups. The authors report that patients were divided into 2 well balanced treatment groups, not mentioning any randomization process; no alternative analgesic treatment was administered to the control group [32].
Absorption routes of active compounds are the respiratory tract (volatile substances carried by water vapour) and the skin [17].
Signs toxic effects were not observed after application of the geopropolis-based gel, but an increase in the production of IL-4 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokines, was detected.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Studies of the State University of MaranhA?o (No. However, bactericidal effects were observed after 3 h treatment with geopropolis extract (reductions higher than 3log10 were obtained). On the other hand, an immunomodulatory action, due to the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines, was observed.
VMN conceived the study, coordinated the microbiological assays, and was involved in drafting the manuscript and revising it critically for intellectual content. Various alternatives possessing antioxidant properties have been used in order to minimize gentamicin induced oxidative stress in animal models.
At large scale excretion of gentamicin from kidneys, intracellular accumulation of gentamicin is confined primarily in the S1 and S2 segment of proximal convoluted tubules and can cause injuries [5, 31, 34]. Within each group, the differences in VAS and McGill scores between baseline and the end of the 4-week treatment were evaluated using paired t-test and confirmed through the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks test.
Evidently, there are not many scientific studies that confirm the antimicrobial properties for most of the plants collected for this study. The remaining plant residue was dried and soaked in 300 ml of methanol as above and the extract was collected as described earlier.Antimicrobial screeningThe hexane and methanol extracts of 18 plants were screened against a total of 9 bacterial strains and one fungal strain. Within the Elapidae family in Trinidad there are two poisonous coral snakes (Micrurus lemniscatus, Micrurus circinalis) which rarely bite dogs or humans since they are small, rare, and have retracted fangs [7]. One respondent who used mardi gras (Renealmia alpinia) for his dog claimed that the dog's throat became swollen after the snake bite. It is also practical to use baths if the intention is to disguise the smell of the hunting dog so that the game animal does not recognise it [18].The use of hallucinogenic and other plants to improve hunting success is documented in the literature [19, 16].
Our data demonstrate that geopropolis has the potential to be used for the control or prevention of diseases of the oral cavity, especially caries and candidiasis, as well as for treatment of inflammatory processes.
Many plant extracts have been reported to be effective in ameliorating organ toxicities [8a€“11]. These results are associated with significant excretion of urinary protein, glucosuria and urine output simulating the leakage and defects in reabsorption, and could be due to proximal tubular structural damage observed in this study. Therefore, to our knowledge, this is the first randomized clinical trial assessing the efficacy of acupuncture for the control of HZ-related intense or very intense acute pain as well as for the prevention of PHN during follow-up [30, 32, 33, 36, 37].
The authors joined in two social occasions in which each hunter in turn sat with the first author and added details to information already documented in the handout and confirmed his remedies. Micrurus venom has moderate effects on blood coagulation and tissue integrity however victims rarely survive because the potent neurotoxin in the venom causes a postsynaptic blockade of neuromuscular transmission [6]. After he gave the dog the medicine it stood up and it was completely recovered hours later.Plants used for mange and other skin conditionsThe leaves and vine stem of wild caraaili (Momordica charantia) are crushed in water and used to bathe dogs with mange. Waorani in the Ecuadorian Amazon feel that the characteristics of one entity or object may pass to another [19]. All animals were cared for in accordance with the guidelines of the Brazilian Council of Animal Studies.In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activityAntimicrobial activity was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Thus, the presence of these microorganisms is frequently associated with dental caries [39, 40].
Prevention of nephrotoxicity induced with gentamicin in rat by grape seed extract might be attributed by the presence of polyphenolic compounds [8].
Supernatant was used to estimate the protein contents by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as standard [25]. Histopathological examination of the gentamicin treated kidneys for 10 days indicated the presence of lesions in cortex with specifically in proximal convoluted tubules. We found that both AC and ST, associated with the prescription of antivirals, were efficacious in controlling intense or very intense pain.
The neurotoxin can cause cranial nerve paralysis leading to neurotoxic facies or respiratory paralysis and death [6].Some harmless snakes in the Colubridae family like Leptodeira annulata ashmeadi, Leptophis ahaetulla coeruleodorsus, Clelia clelia clelia, Helicops angulatus, Liophis species, Oxybelis aeneus, Pseudoboa neuwiedii, Thamnodynastes species, and Tripanurgos compressus, Erythrolamprus species,Siphlophis cervinus, Oxyrhopus petola petola, may bite and cause a reaction or mild envenomation [7].
The pulp of the fruit of the cannonball tree (Couroupita guianensis) is rubbed on the infected skin of mangy dogs. For this study, 25 I?L of extract was added to wells (5 mm in diameter) in agar plates as described previously [27].
Green tea extract possesses catechin and other polyphenolic compounds; prevents the gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rat [10, 11]. Gentamicin probably binds to the negatively charged cationic phosphoinositides components of brush border of proximal tubules and associated with megalin that are taken up by lysosomes, results in disruption of various processes [6].
A frothy solution is obtained by crushing the leaves of syrio (Sambucus simpsonii) in water.
In this experiment hydrogen peroxide was used as substrate for catalase activity while guaiacol was used for peroxidase activity.
Use of SAME in combination with gentamicin for 10 days ameliorated the hepatorenal toxicity induced with gentamicin and resulted in the restoration of histopathology. Local anaesthesia was repeated every second day in patients complaining for yet uncontrolled pain, up to 5 administrations. We found no significant difference both in VAS and McGill scores after 4 weeks of treatment between AC and ST.
In vitro antimicrobial activity was screened by using Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) obtained from Himedia (Mumbai). Bites from false corals are more common than those of true corals [6].Snakes in the Viperidae family are locally called 'mapepire'. These rituals included plants called 'beenas', which acted as charms to entice any object or desire wanted, including making the capture of game certain. Most results show that the use of Apis propolis is relatively safe, since it presents low toxicity [21a€“25].Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of M. Coenzyme Q10 played a significant role in protecting cells from oxidative stress induced with gentamicin and other agents [9, 13]. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined according to the procedure described previously [27].Estimation of renal glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS)Hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) contents were determined according to the method described previously [28] by using DTNB (5,5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate. Results obtained suggested that prevention of gentamicin induced renal toxicity with SAME at two different doses, might be due to the presence of various bioactive phytochemicals in the extract that may regulate and repair injured tissues.
Since pain intensity at rash onset is widely reported as the best predictor of PHN [6, 45a€“48], having selected for patients with intense or very intense pain we also evaluated the incidence of PHN at 3, 6 and 12 months after rash onset, as well as the total pain burden during follow-up in the 2 study arms.
Three eight hour days were spent talking to the Talparo informants while they worked on a cocoa and coffee farm.
Level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in renal homogenates was determined according to the method described by Iqbal et al.
Similar results for these parameters were reported in other studies [8, 9, 12].Gentamicin treatment causes hepatotoxicity as clearly indicated by the significant increase in serum level of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and I?-GT, than those of control rats. Under the assumption that acupuncture may have an immune modulating activity [49a€“52], evaluating these endpoint might have revealed an ability of this medical tool to influence the rate of pain persistence and relapses. The plates were allowed to solidify for 5 minutes and 0.1 % inoculum suspension was swabbed uniformly and the inoculum was allowed to dry for 5 minutes. Paramin and Talparo retain Hispanic traditions either from the original Spanish colonists or from continuous small-scale immigration from Venezuela [3]. The mapepire 'z'ananna' or 'bushmaster' (Lachesis muta muta) and 'mapepire balsain' or 'fer-de-lance' (Bothrops atrox atrox) are large and poisonous. Beenas were used for dogs, which were made to swallow specific pieces of roots and leaves for specific game animals [20].Beenas were used because there was an ancient almost forgotten belief that plants possessed associated spirits [21].
This chemical is obtained from Curcuma longa; decreased the oxidative stress induced with gentamicin and is also found beneficial against AIDS [14, 15]. Serum level of transaminases and ALP is generally considered as sensitive markers of liver function and their concentrations are increased in the serum because of their cytoplasmic nature and are thus released in blood by changing in the permeability of hepatocyte membranes. Neither pregabalin, local anaesthesia nor opioids were allowed at any time for patients in the AC group; prescription of either drug was considered a protocol violation. The incidence of PHN at 3, 6 and 12 months, as well as the mean AUC were overlapping in the 2 arms (Table 2).
Many of the original Spanish colonists intermarried with Trinidad's original Amerinidian inhabitants. In addition to the plant use of the Guyanese Amerindians, ants and other insects were made to bite the nostrils of the hunting dog.
A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was further analyzed for its antimicrobial activity on S. Erdosteine, a mucolytic agent also impart free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and other pharmacological or noxious agents [16, 17].
Increased level of LDH in serum in the present investigation apparently indicated the toxic effects of gentamicin in rat.
The limited dimensions of our population do not allow, however, to conclusively exclude, although unlikely, this hypothesis.It should be noted that the stratification for pain resulted in a perfect match of patients with very intense pain at presentation, which could have otherwise remarkably influenced the validity of our results for all endpoints. The loaded disc was placed on the surface of medium and the compound was allowed to diffuse for 5 minutes and the plates were kept for incubation at 37A°C for 24 hrs.
These snakes have front fangs and bitten areas show severe swelling and necrosis of tissue due to haemorrhagic, myotoxic, necrotizing, defibrinogenating, coagulant, caseinolytic, proteolytic, oedema-inducing, coagulant and neurotoxic venom activities [8].Hunting dogs may be stung by scorpions of the Buthidae family (Tityus trinitatis).
It is claimed that this plant imparts a red colour to the bath water.Plants used for injuriesDogs may get trauma damage during the hunt but may have insufficient contact with game animals to pick up any diseases directly from them. Plant leaves and other plant parts including peppers were then rubbed into the wounds on the noses of the dogs [20]. Quantification of DNA for the intact chromatin and fragmented chromatin was determined by using freshly prepared DPA (Diphenylamine) solution and optical density was recorded at 620 nm with SmartSpec Spectrophotometer. At the end of incubation, inhibition zones formed around the disc were measured with transparent ruler in millimeter. The following information was collected from all respondents, the popular name, uses, part(s) used, mode of preparation and application. This was done on the assumption that the power of scent in dogs was improved by these practices since the nasal mucous membranes were cleaned, the perceptions were sharpened, and the dog would keep its nose to the ground when hunting [20, 21].
Cultures were adjusted with sterile saline to a density equivalent to the McFarland scale No. Histopathological lesions observed in this study correlate the serum level of liver function enzymes concentration induced with gentamicin and the possible preventive effects of SAME treatment in gentamicin treated rats indicating the improvement in the functional status of liver [14].Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nephropathies of human are now characterized as a key element [1]. First, we decided to measure pain intensity both by VAS and McGill scales at study entrance and after 4 weeks of treatment, that is when the investigator felt that his intervention for the control of acute pain was complete. Tityus trinitatis accounts for 90% of the scorpion population, but there are six other species which are all venomous [9, 10]. There seemed to be a mental connection of success in acquisition of game with pain previously inflicted on the hunter and his dog [20]. Marked renoprotective effects of methanol extract of Sonchus asper against carbon tetrachloride induced injuries are reported in our previous studies [19]. Gentamicin exposure to rats mediates the generation of ROS that play a significant role in the progression of hepatic and renal injuries including array of biomolecules such as membrane lipids, protein and nucleic acids especially in some organelles such as mitochondria and lysosomes of renal tissues [3]. Clearly, it would have been interesting to measure ongoing pain control at intermediate time points, to better appreciate minor differences between the investigational arms.
Other injuries that hunting dogs are susceptible to would be nail breakage, lameness and shoulder injuries, injuries caused by running into an object or the dog may be kicked by a deer.DosagesDosages were imprecise but hunters claimed to know what would happen with some cases of overdosing. The nervous system of the dogs was irritated to such an extent that it was responsive to even the slightest external stimulus and therefore more likely to be successful in hunting [21].
Similarly methanolic extract of Sonchus asper is found beneficial in decreasing the oxidative stress induced with potassium bromated in cardiovascular system of rat [20].
Increased propagation of ROS mediates the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, attached to biomembranes. There are approximately 175 stings by Tityus trinitatis and eight human deaths annually [11]. For example an overdose of ruckshun (Vernonia scorpioides) would over-excite the dog to the point where it would even bark at snakes.
There was also the belief that inflicting pain was a means of preparing to meet without flinching any pain or danger that could arise during the chase [20].
However, the authors did not investigate the effects of geopropolis on other microorganisms, and no in vitro tests were performed.
Chemical characterization of Sonchus asper revealed the presence of polyphenolics such as rutin, quercetin, catechin and myricetin [21, 22]. However, 41 GPs and 3 hospital units were committed to recruit HZ patients for 2 years, and more than 400 HZ patients had to be enrolled to identify 129 patients with intense or very intense pain at presentation (those with the highest need of improvements in pain control). The author collected the other 40% percent of the documented plants from the informants in Mayaro, Talparo and Paramin, and on one occasion when the hunting camp was being dismantled by three of the hunters for the closed season. In humans acute symptoms are convulsions, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, sweating, dyspnoea and localised burning [10]. If a dog is given a tincture made with puncheon rum (80% proof), it is claimed that the dog may become temporarily crazy. This preparation was not ill-advised since Lachesis muta muta often lives in the burrows of lappe and tatou [22]. We found no other studies in the literature investigating the antimicrobial activity of geopropolis produced by M.
Since liver and kidneys are involved in the metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics, these may be more prone to various pathological conditions. In this study we observed a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation product (TBARS) with gentamicin.
In addition, a relatively large number of the eligible patients (n = 27) refused to enter the trial. Of all scorpion sting victims, 80% developed acute pancreatitis and in 38% of these cases there was no abdominal pain [10].Conventional treatment in Trinidad for snakebites and scorpion stings in dogs makes use of steroids, antibiotics and the ananase enzyme (from the pineapple Ananas comosus) and needs to take place within 2 hours of the bite. Based on experiences like these, some hunters have switched from alcohol to olive oil for their tincture solution. Each hunting dog was trained to hunt one sort of game [20].The use of the solitary wasp in the "steaming" process can also be linked to Amerindian traditions. The inability of conventional medicine to minimize the gentamicin induced oxidative damage has contributed for the use of complementary medicine. However, this was probably unavoidable because of distrust or fear of an unusual technique such as acupuncture. Firstly, the Amazonian belief that the characteristics of one entity or object may pass to another [19], could explain the use of a wasp that hunts successfully in baths or decoctions to make dogs better hunters.
However, no studies have been performed on the antioxidant potential of Sonchus asper against the oxidative stress caused by gentamicin. Notably, no differences in age, gender and pain intensity were observed between these patients and those included in our analyses. All the plants were identified at the University of the West Indies Herbarium, but no voucher specimens were deposited. The snake bite site typically is a necrotic area, the skin sloughs off due to the proteases in the venom and the area looks dark and bruised [12]. Lipophilic compounds are not extracted in alcohol that would be extracted by olive oil.One respondent claimed that pot bush (Ottonia ovata) gave his dog a headache (it shook its head continuously and there is no sign of anything in its ear), and it made two respondent's tongues numb. Additionally there are records of a specific ant that was given to dogs by Guyanese Amerindians in order to make them good hunters [21].
After incubation, the diameters of the zones of inhibition were measured.The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by the broth dilution technique using BHI broth (Difco). Thus, the present findings are especially relevant since they underscore the potential for finding new active compounds that work against this microorganism in M. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether the methanolic extract of Sonchus asper ameliorates the hepatorenal toxicity induced with gentamicin in rat model. Lipid peroxidation of renal tissues induced with gentamicin was prevented with SAME treatment.

Finally, 28 patients were excluded immediately after randomization because of rapid pain reduction. The ananase enzyme reduces the inflammatory response; and helps the breakdown of necrotic tissue. Amerindians also named their hunting dogs after ants and a wasp called "warribisi" that caught prey. Amelioration of oxidative stress with green tea and grape seed extract was determined in previous studies [8, 10, 11].
However, it would clearly have been unethical to enforce these patients in a strong analgesic therapy as well as acupuncture.
It is felt that dogs bitten on the head have a better chance of survival since there is less vascular absorption of the venom.Hunters' ethnoveterinary medicinesSeveral plants are used in an attempt to improve hunting success. Costus species is called poivre ginet in Dominica, while Aframomum melegueta is called guinea pepper in most of the Caribbean.
Green tea constitutes epicatechin, epicatechingallate, epigallocatechin gallate and proanthrocyanidine potent antioxidants possibly decrease the oxidative stress induced with gentamicin [8, 10, 11].
Notably, and expectedly, the latter patients were younger and had very intense pain in only 2 cases.
For this purpose the odour and other physical characteristics of the plant are very important.
Another respondent claimed that dogs had a stronger constitution than humans and should be given the equivalent of twice the human dose per body weight. It is not known if the original Amerindian practice was for both plants to be used for hunting dogs.Plants are given symbolic payments if they are considered to have supernatural owners who require such payment [23].
Dilutions of hydroalcoholic extracts were streaked on BHI agar plates and the MBC was determined.
Biofilm models are more relevant than studies which use planktonic cells because of the different growth of biofilm cells, their altered metabolism as a result of a high population density and their generally higher resistance to antimicrobial agents [43].Despite the significant in vitro antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine against S. Similarly the possible preventive effect of SAME, may be due to the presence of myricetin, quercetin, catechin and rutin [21, 22] very active antioxidants and are known to play diverse biological roles [35, 36].
This is the reason why it would have had very little sense to use an intention-to-treat analysis, which is usually the gold standard analysis for RCTs [56], in this case. The payment is placed on the ground near the plant before it is picked and can be recovered later by the person who picked it [23]. The MBC was defined as the lowest concentration of the extract that inhibited bacterial growth [28].The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the geopropolis-based gel, against S.
The results obtained with SAME for protection of lipid peroxidation are consistent with previous studies [8, 11, 12].In the present study alteration in the biochemical markers of oxidative stress was estimated as a response to gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rat. In other terms, the 28 patients with rapid pain reduction represent a separate group of patients, not needing long term analgesic therapy; they therefore may not carry the potential for selection bias. Much of the plant use is based on the Doctrine of Signatures which claims that plant morphology suggests the medicinal use for a plant.
As a final remark on sample size, it should be noted that the results of the 2 interventions were very similar and, using a one-tailed non-inferiority approach, the statistical power of our analysis is acceptable for all outcomes, ranging from a minimum of 81% for the change in VAS score, up to 86% for the change in McGill score.A third limitation is represented by the lack of both a control arm with short acting analgesics only, and a control arm with mock acupuncture [57a€“59]. Steaming is also carried out with one type of insect (an unidentified solitary wasp that hunts spiders). One example is the use of leaves from various species of Aristolochia to treat snakebites [24, 21]. However, in certain situations, this microorganism can cause opportunistic local or systemic infections that are often severe and difficult to control, especially in hosts with specific predisposing factors [45, 46]. Gentamicin enhances the generation of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion in renal tissues [3] causing oxidative stress.
Both the wasp and its spider prey are put into rum with guinea pepper (Aframomum melegueta) on a Friday. The triangular head of a Bothrops viper is similar in size and shape to many Aristolochia species leaves [24]. Depletion in the CAT and SOD after gentamicin exposure has been reported in other studies suggested that oxidative stress is one of the cause of renal injuries induced with gentamicin toxicity in rat [8, 11, 12]. However, as the access to alternative drugs and complementary medicine techniques for acute pain control is on the rise in our area and elsewhere in the world, we felt that the design of this nested trial, investigating "real life" differences in therapeutic potential between ST and AC as presently used in severely ill HZ patients, might still add to the knowledge on the analgesic efficacy of acupuncture. This solution is then given to the dog, or included in the bath water, and it was claimed to have a stimulant effect on the dog.The second category comprises plants placed in the dog's nose. The serpentine coloration of the flowers of the Aristolochia vines also suggests the use as tourniquets to prevent the spread of snake venom and the use of the leaves in anti-snakebite potions [25]. Treatment of SAME to rats in combination with gentamicin reversed all these alterations suggesting that SAME rendered its antioxidant properties by preventing or scavenging the ROS induced with gentamicin toxicity. Indeed, proper stratification of patients between arms rather than blinding might have influenced the assessment of the efficacy of either intervention, that is taking into account - when distributing patients between arms - the main factors that may influence the efficacy of either intervention, such as age, pain intensity and missed antiviral prescription. Here it is expected that this action will act as a nasal and chest decongestant and the dog will subsequently have a better sense of smell and improve its ability to follow a scent.The third category is based partly on the Doctrine of Signatures in which a plant characteristic is considered to have a desirable quality or to have a physical property that resembles the desired game.
The Doctrine of Signatures is also seen in the plants used as "beenas" or "turals" which are supposed to have patterns on their leaves resembling different forest animals [3].
Our results are in accord with other studies where antioxidant effects of other plants have been reported against gentamicin induced renal damage [8, 11, 12]. This desirable quality is claimed to be transferred to the dog after the plant is used in a bath. The beena for lappe had typical white markings similar to those of the lappe, while the beena for quenk had a leaf with a small secondary leaf under the surface that resembled either the scent gland of the quenk or its nostril tip [20].
The chemical composition of geopropolis produced by stingless bees in Brazil varies according to species. Similar protective effects of SAME were reported in our previous study where carbon tetrachloride was used as toxic agent [20]. A direct comparison between ST and AC for acute pain in HZ is the object of another three-armed, partially blinded randomized trial, known as ACUZoster, whose design was recently published and which is still ongoing [60]. Medicinal plants are collected on Good Friday in AlmerA­a, Spain [26].Hunting successThe characteristics that dogs need for hunting success are scent-accuracy, speed, enthusiasm and stamina.
Both carbon tetrachloride and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity are considered to be due to the accumulation of free radicals.
For example one respondent claimed that after the hole of an agouti was dug out Piper marginatum was found in the hole and it was claimed that it was being used as a bed. The negative control well contained only 1% peptone broth and chlorhexidine (0.12%) was used as the positive control [31]. The protective mechanism of SAME could be similar in both kinds of xenobiotics.The scavenging activity of polyphenolics was postulated to be governed by the position and number of the hydroxyl groups. Therefore hunting dogs bathed with this plant would recognise the smell of the agouti, which would carry traces of the strong smell of Piper marginatum.The fourth category is called "cross".
Medicinal properties in the plants used for baths may help alleviate any subclinical infections these dogs might have due to their poor condition.Agouti feed by day on fallen fruits [5]. The treatment solution was removed by aspiration at 1-h intervals for 4 h, and the biofilm was gently washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, scraped off, and suspended in 1 mL 1% peptone broth.
In this situation the hunters complain that the dog goes in the opposite direction from the game.
During the hunts they were observed to be running within particular territories when chased but had a habit of running and doubling back or crossing water to disguise their scent. The suspension was sonicated twice in a Model T7 sonicating water bath (Thornton, Brazil) at 50 W with three pulses of 10 s each at intervals of 5 s [30]. However, preliminary chemical analysis performed did not permit clear demonstration of such variation. The dog is faced upstream and bathed in a river and rubbed with the crushed leaves of seven different plants (sometimes the plants used have no other distinguishing characteristic).
Differences in its chemical content may have been influenced by its ecosystem because it originated in a savannah area, whereas HAE-2 and HAE-3 were prepared with geopropolis from an ecosystem whose vegetation comprised mangrove swamps, floodplains, lakes, and babassu palm forests.Qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of propolis have an important influence on its biological activity [48]. Flavonoids can also inhibit the activity of many enzymes such as xanthine oxidase, peroxidase and nitric oxide synthase, which are supposed to be involved in free radical generation, thereby resulting in decreased oxidative damage of macromolecules [38]. The hunters chose smaller dogs as "agouti dogs" so that they could follow agoutis through dense bush to their hiding places. Among biologically active substances present, flavonoids are the main group contributing to the antimicrobial effects observed [21, 49].
So the present results suggested that the probable mechanism of SAME for hepatorenal protection may be attributed for its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of its phenolics and flavonoids components [20, 35].
One respondent claimed that when dogs are "crossed" and seem to be "climbing trees" they are really chasing spirits in the forest.One hunter who hunts quenks claimed that dogs are trained to hunt small game first. In this study, HAE-2 displayed the highest antimicrobial activity and had the greatest flavonoid concentration. Similar protective effects of Sonchus asper have been recorded in other studies [39].Another effect of SAME is the protection of DNA of hepatorenal tissues which was significantly increased with gentamicin treatment to rats for 10 days. For example the dog is bathed with congo lala (Eclipta prostrata) and it will start hunting matte (Tupinambis negropunctatus), then it is bathed with caraaili leaf (Momordica charantia) and barbadine leaf (Passiflora quadrangularis) so that it will hunt larger game. Although the antimicrobial action of flavonoids is still controversial and conflicting results have been reported because of inter- and intra-assay variations in susceptibility tests, a link between flavonoids and inhibitory activity on microorganisms has been consistently demonstrated [50]. SAME probably reduces the oxidative damage to DNA by its putative antioxidant activities [16].As the SAME is derived from herb, that is commonly used as vegetable and salad. Eventually the dog is bathed with the plants for quenks.Plants are also used for emergencies such as snakebites.
Therapeutic effects of SAME may be attributed by the presence of different dietary polyphenolics.
Plants used for snakebites are typically made into tinctures with alcohol or sweet oil (olive oil) and kept in 150 ml flasks called 'snake bottles'. Total phenol concentration was assayed by spectrophotometry with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (Merck, Brasil) and 20% sodium carbonate solution for 2 h at room temperature in the dark. In fact, compounds like flavonoids, caffeic acid, and their esters present in propolis appear to prevent against membrane fragility in organs such liver and kidney, decreasing the level of urea and the leakage of liver enzymes into the circulation [54, 56, 57].The reduction observed in the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides can be associated to the presence of antioxidants and flavonoids. Due to the low solubility of flavonoid aglycones in water, to the short residence time of flavonoids in the intestine, and to the low coefficient of absorption, it is not possible for humans to suffer acute toxic effects from the consumption of flavonoids, with the exception of a rare occurrence of allergy [40]. Apparently, these compounds can act as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation (LPO) by scavenging polyunsaturated fatty acids' peroxy radicals and interrupt the chain reactions [58].Despite not having shown signs of toxicity, the increased production of IL-4 and IL-10, cytokines associated with a Th2 response, suggests an anti-inflammatory activity for the product [59]. We are of the opinion that the use of SAME in clinics may not cause any kind of side effects.
Measurements were made in a spectrophotometer (Cary 50 UV-VIS, Agilent, USA) at 760 nm and the results were expressed as a percentage of gallic acid [33]. In fact, the histopathological assessment of the tongue corroborates these data, since tissue changes were significantly lower in the GP group, possibly because of the anti-inflammatory effects of the geopropolis. Plants used in snake medicines are often collected during Lent or specifically on Good Friday. Lappe, tatou and manicou are nocturnal, living in hollow fallen trees during the day and they forage at night [5].
In normal years this period corresponds to the Dry season and the concentration of plant chemicals may differ from other times of the year. Dogs pursing this game would ideally have good night vision, a good sense of smell and cannot be afraid to dive into hollow logs or into water, since lappe often enter their burrows from under water [5]. Known concentrations of quercetin were used as standards and measurements were made at 425 nm. However, we did not find any reports describing the effects of geopropolis from native bees on the production of cytokines, specifically IL-4 and IL-10.The potential use of propolis (or geopropolis) in dentistry is promising not only due to its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens, but also due to its other biological and pharmacological properties, which include anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, hematostimulative, and immunomodulatory properties [2, 4, 64, 65]. Tref (Aristolochia trilobata) has to be rewarded with silver coins as a symbolic payment before removing some of its parts, or the respondents claim that the entire plant or clump of plants will die. Hunters claim that the plants used to bathe dogs so that they will hunt lappe have similar markings.
After linear regression analysis (CI 95%), both gallic acid and quercetin showed linear responses with different concentrations in the residue analysis. For example Candlestick is the name of Piper hispidum, Piper marginatum (species collected), Piper amalgo and Piper dilatatum. The bristles on the mid-dorsal line from crown to rump of the quenk raise when the animal is excited and the musk glands emit a musky odour [5].
Monkey step refers to either Bauhinia exisa or the more commonly found Bauhinia cumanensis. All closely related species will be dealt with in the ethnomedicinal literature review.The plants used to influence success in hunting are presented below in Tables 1 and 2. The plants used for snakebites, mange and other skin conditions, and injuries are listed below the tables. Of an original pack of nine 'native curs' trained in quenk and lappe hunting, two received deep flesh wounds inflicted by the tusks of two quenks during a hunt. Four others were bitten by a Lachesis muta muta that one dog pulled out of a hollow tree [27]. Two of the bitten dogs ran off before they could be treated and died within fifteen minutes. The two other dogs bitten by 'his snakeship' (7 ft, 10 ins) on the neck and paw were held and treated with the local folk medicine of roots, barks and seeds in a tincture with rum [27]. The samples were transferred to conical plastic tubes, with or without EDTA, and centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 10 minutes.
Biochemical assessment consisted of a micro-assay to determine the serum concentrations of calcium, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and glucose. The author did not indicate if the three uninjured dogs of the nine were the 'bravest', 'least brave' or the most 'alert', 'agile' or 'lucky'.Olfactory considerationsThere is literature establishing that native Amerindians participated in hunts with Creole hunters [27]. The analysis were performed by means of automated procedures on an Architect - C8000 apparatus (AbbottA®), using reagents from Labtest (Brazil). This may explain not only the symbolic aspects of the plant use by modern hunters discussed above but also the olfactory considerations discussed in this section. The concentrations of IFN-I?, IL-4, TNF-I± and IL-10 were determined by immunoenzymatic assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA), according to the manufacturer's instructions (eBiosciences).
Both sections show parallels between the practices of current Trinidad hunters and the indigenous knowledge of native South American groups.The Mixe in Mexico consider that the odour and taste of a plant are important criteria in deciding what plants to use for an illness [1]. The Waorani in Amazonian Ecuador consider that plants with strong, or repulsive odours will force symptoms to flee from the body and this belief guides their use of Renealmia alpinia and a Philodendron for snakebites [28]. The Warao in eastern Venezuela consider 'bad air' to be pathogenic and 'good' or perfumed air to be therapeutic [29].The acute sense of smell in dogs is due to a large area of olfactory epithelium [18]. Smells have the advantage of remaining in the environment for a long time and are a useful means of communication in dense vegetation where verbal and visual communication is impaired. When hunters bathe dogs with strongly smelling members of the Piper species they may be imitating animal behaviour or trying to mask the individual body odour of their dogs so that they remain un-detected by game animals.
For the histopathological analysis, all organs were fixed in 10% formol and embedded in paraffin.
The intention of the dog may be to eliminate or dilute the odour since this type of rolling is frequently associated with sneezing and running [30].
The following parameters were analyzed: the presence of vascular congestion, edema, inflammatory infiltrate, and hemorrhage.
One is that the dog is attempting to take on the odour like a perfume, the other is that the odour is too strong to cover with a urine mark so the dog tries to cover it with its entire body surface [30].There are indications that South American Amerindians were aware of animal behaviour in relation to smells.
For example, the bristles on the mid-dorsal line from crown to rump of the quenk elevate when the animal is excited and the musk glands emit a musky odour [5]. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations in the extracts as well as bactericidal effects of geopropolis on S. Data obtained with animals were expressed as mean A± standard deviation (X A± SD) for the immunological and biochemical results, and as mean A± standard error for the histopathological data. If a veterinarian removes a quenk from the herd for treatment, it will be killed when it is replaced, since it will no longer have this herd odour (Dr.
Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Newman-Keuls test.
Organ weights were subjected to Tukey's test and the histopathological data were analyzed by unpaired and single-tailed Student's t-tests. If hunters bathe dogs with a plant that quenks eat the temporary smell dogs obtain from this bath may be similar to the smell of a quenk that feeds on this plant.Roucouyennes (Caribs) rubbed their dogs with Hibiscus abelmoschus with the expectation that its pungent smell would prevent jaguars from biting their dogs [21]. Tukanoan tribes in South America also believed that deer had an inoffensive body odour that was linked to their diet of "pure" foods such as fresh sprouts, young green leaves and sweet fruits [31]. Tukanoan tribes also believed that people and animals have smells related to the food that they eat and the environment that they lived in [31].
This association of animal smells with their environment is perhaps what the informant was referring to in his reference to an agouti and the smell of its Piper marginatum "bed". There is evidence that some of the plants used by hunters are eaten by deer and possibly by other game animals (these are Costus species, Eschweilera species, Piper species and Pithecellobium species [32].
Tukanoan tribes also recognise the complex pheromonal system of chemical communication that deer and other animals use. For example they claimed that when white-tailed deer are frightened suddenly from close by, they run off and repeatedly break wind.
These tribes interpret this behaviour as an attempt to mask the odour trail left by the deer's interdigital glands and thus mislead predators and hunting dogs [31].PoisonsCaterpillars may accumulate chemical compounds from the plants that they feed on, which may explain their usefulness as part of a remedy. Some hairy caterpillars have urticating hairs, which can cause severe skin reactions and pain [9].
Any effect of the plants claimed to be efficacious against scorpion stings may be due to symptomatic relief a€“ analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipruritic effects, in addition to other biological activities [11].While proteases, phospholipase A2 and nucleotidases are responsible for the haemorrhagic lesions induced by Bothrops jararaca venom, most crotalid myotoxins are phospholipases and some exhibit proteolytic activities [12].
Crotalid snakes have a wide geographical distribution, this may contribute to differences in their venom composition [8]. Differences in venom composition may play a role in the effectiveness of the medicinal plants used for snakebites. Unfortunately no research on the venoms of Trinidad's snakes was discovered so the following review is of the closely related South American and Caribbean snakes and scorpions. Phospholipase A2 was purified from Lachesis muta venom in Brazil, the venom also showed procoagulant and proteolytic activities [33]. High proteolytic activity was found in venom of Lachesis muta and no platelet pro-aggregating activity, low inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation and low procoagulant, proteolytic and phospholipase activity for Botrops atrox in Brazil [34].Studies in South America detail the pain and oedema at the bite site and manifestations of autonomic nervous system stimulation (vomiting, diarrhoea, sweating, hypersalivation, bradycardia) that may be attributed to serine protease in Lachesis muta venom which causes hypotension by releasing kinins from plasma kininogen [8]. There are also cases of bleeding distant from the bite site such as gingival haemorrhage, epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematuria, uterine bleeding, soft tissue haematomas and very infrequently intrathoracic or intrabdominal bleeding [35].
Complications in the bitten limb can include secondary infections by Gram-negative organisms and acute renal failure among others [8]. Bothrojacarin forms a non-covalent complex with thrombin, blocking its ability to induce platelet aggregation and fibrinogen clotting [8, 36]. Haemostatic effects in Lachesis muta venom are attributable to an alpha-fibrin(ogen)ase and haemorrhagic metalloproteinases (LHF-1 and LHF-II) which have alpha-fibrin(ogen)ase activity [8].The severity of envenoming depends on the species and length of the snake, the toxicity of the venom and the amount inoculated [37].
Also important are physical activity after the bite and the physical characteristics of the victim [37].
The severity of bites from Bothrops laceolatus in Martinique is increased due to the primary bacterial infection from bacteria present in the oral cavity of the snake (Aeromonas hydrophila, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris and Clostridium species) [37]. This means that antibiotic treatment is sometimes necessary [32].Scorpion venom when injected exerts a strong inflammatory response [11].
Many plant species used against stings contain compounds with antiinflammatory properties, flavonoids (rutin, hesperidin, quercetin), coumarins (bergapten), coumestans (wedelolactone), triterpenes, sterols and saponins [38, 11]. The mechanism of action of the flavonoids is based on the inhibition of enzymatic steps in the arachidonic acid cascade [38]. Plant compounds that are immunostimulants at very low doses are some alkaloids, quinones, isobutylamides, phenolcarboxylic acid esters and terpenoids [39]. Many polysaccharides and glycoproteins enhance the unspecific immune system by activating the phagocytotic activity of granulocytes and macrophages, or by inducing cytokine production or influencing complement factors [39].Some compounds from plants used for general inflammation also inhibit enzymes (like phospholipase A2) from snake and scorpion venom [40, 11, 42]. Stimulation of the immune system might also contribute to reducing the effects of snakebites and improvement in recovery from envemomization by contributing to a more rapid removal of the venom [11]. Chlorogenic acid acts as an antidote by binding to proteins through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds [41]. Analgesic properties like those provided by tropane alkaloids would also lessen the pain of the bite, as would compounds that act as sedatives and tranquilisers [40].Several pharmacological properties of plants reputed to be snakebite antidotes include antimyotoxic, antihaemorrhagic, analgesic, and antiedematogenic, blockage of cutaneous and intraperitoneal capillary permeability activity caused by the venom and protection from its lethality [38].
A more direct anti-venom activity would involve complexation of the compounds with venom constituents thus rendering them unable to act on receptors; or to act by competitive blocking of the receptors [11].
Phenolic compounds especially complex polyphenols like some tannins can bind with proteins [42]. Alternatively, the catecholamines released as a result of venom-receptor interaction may be antagonised or metabolised more quickly [11].Plant extracts (Mucuna pruriens var. Antivenom compounds so far isolated from plants include protocatechuic acid, a catechin-gallo-catechin tannin, caffeic acid derivatives (chlorogenic acid, cynarin), coumarins (bergapten), flavonoids (rutin, isoscutellarein, kaempferol, quercetin, hesperidin), ar-turmerone, alkaloids (aristolochic acid), triterpenoids, triterpenes, coumestans (wedelolactone), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol, beta-amyrin), triterpenoid glycosides, alkaloids (allantoin) and lignoflavonoids [43, 40, 44, 42]. Many relevant compounds are widely distributed nitrogen-free, low molecular weight compounds (except aristolochic acid, an untypical non-basic, nitro-derivative) [38]. The structural similarities of certain plant chemicals found in plants used for snakebites are an isoflavone skeleton, acidic nature and dioxygenated functionality [44].One study found total inhibition of Bothrops asper haemorrhage with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of plants containing catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins. These compounds may have played a role in the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom's haemorrhagic metalloproteinases [45].
Reduction in the intensity of the effects of envenomation could also be achieved by a neutralisation of the venom peptides, polypeptides, proteins and enzymes [38, 11]. There are plants used for snakebite that act by inhibiting the proteolytic activities of the venom and antagonising crotoxin-induced haemolysis, myotoxic and haemorrhagic activities of crotalid venoms [46].Tityus trinitatis toxic fraction was recognised by the antiserum of the Venezuelan scorpion Tityus discrepans (which has a I?-type toxin) [47]. The onset of symptoms from the time of evenomation is generally between five and thirty minutes. Local evidence of a sting is often minimal or absent but several patients report severe pain or a burning sensation with intense pruritis and local or general hyperesthesia [11].
Scorpion venoms may cause these symptoms through release of catecholamines from the sympathetic nervous system [11].
The venom exerts its effects primarily to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, but there is also stimulation of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic peripheral activities [11].
The venom is a complex mixture of phospholipase A2, low molecular weight proteins, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase, toxic polypeptides, amino acids, serotonin and neurotoxins [11, 48]. Two fatal cases suggested toxic myocarditis [48].Review of the known biological effects of the plants and their constituentsThis section reviews available literature on the plants identified in this study and compares their Trinidad and Tobago ethnoveterinary use to the folk-medicinal use in other countries (mainly Latin America and the Caribbean).
Plants used to achieve hunting success including those chosen according to the Doctrine of Signatures will be treated here as medicinal plants since supernatural emic can occasionally suggest etic efficacy [49]. For each species or genus a summary of chemical constituents will be given, in addition to active compounds if known.
This type of ethnopharmacological review and evaluation is documented in the literature [1].
No research was found on the compounds in the root.Aframomum melegueta has been previously recorded as a stimulant [50].
Caribs of Dominica used Aframomum granum-paradisi leaves on their bodies while they were bathing and the plant was also given to their hunting dogs [16].
Aframomum granum-paradisi contains alkaloids (piperine), essential oils and resins [54].Aristolochia rugosa and Aristolochia trilobata are recorded in a list of plants used worldwide and in the West Indies, Venezuela, South and Central America against snakebites and scorpion stings [51, 52, 24, 43, 40, 53]. Caribs in Guatemala use Aristolochia trilobata root and tuber decoctions for stomach pains and use leaf tinctures for diarrhoea [55]. Aristolochic acid inhibits inflammation induced by immune complexes, and nonimmunological agents (carrageenan or croton oil) [56].
Aristolochic acid inhibits the activity of snake venom phospholipase (PLA2) by forming a 1:1 complex with the enzyme [56, 40, 38].
Since phospholipase enzymes play a significant part in the cascade leading to the inflammatory and pain response, their inhibition could lead to relief of problems from scorpion envenomation [11].Barleria lupulina is well known in Thai folk medicine as an antiinflammatory, and is used against snakebites and varicella zoster virus lesions and showed activity against five clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 2 [57]. Compounds found in the leaves of Barleria lupulina are barlerin, acetylbarlerin, shanzhiside methyl ester, acetylshanzhiside methyl ester, ipolamiidoside and iridoid glucosides [58].
It causes vasodilatation, enhanced permeability and has antiinflammatory and neurotransmitter activation properties [61].
Capsicum species have inhibitory effects on Bacillus species, Clostridium species and Streptococcus pyogenes[59].Capsaicin's use in the treatment of chronic pain is due to an analgesic effect that is explained by capsaicin's action of depletion of stores of substance P from primary sensory neurons as a consequence of the reduced production of prostaglandin [39, 60]. Capsaicin's antiphlogistic activity is due to the "counter-irritant effect"; which means that a local irritant effect exerts an additional more remote antiinflammatory effect [60]. This is explained by a liberation of corticoids under the influence of certain cutivisceral reflexes [60].
The counter-irritant effect on the gastric mucosa also occurs because capsaicin stimulates production of the cytoprotective prostaglandin E2[60]. Capsaicin produces analgesic and antiinflammatory effects because it inhibits both 5-lipoxygenase and cycoloxygenase [39].
This may explain why the ChocA? Indians used it to give their hunting dogs more "energy" [25].Cecropia peltata leaves boiled in water are used in a bath for rheumatism in Guatemala [63]Cecropia peltata leaves are used for aches, abscesses, coughs, pains, fever, pertussis, skin lesions and digestive problems in Eastern Nicaragua, Jamaica and Cuba [53, 64].
Free fatty acids including stearic, arachidic, behenic, lignoceric and cerotic acids were isolated from Cecropia species. Costus lasius is used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia.
An ethanolic extract of Costus lasius (leaves, branches and stem) partially neutralised Bothrops atrox venom when it was injected i.p. Costus speciosus contains diosgenin, and beta-glucosidase which converts a furostanol glycoside (protogracillin) to a spirostanol glycoside (gracillin) [69, 70].Couroupita guianensis (Lecythidaceae) fruit pulp contains sugar, gum, and malic, citric and tartaric acids. Other compounds in the leaf extract are dehydrofalcarinol, a diynene, falcarindiol, dehydrofalcarindiol, and two new polyacetylenes (dendroarboreols) [74].The in vitro myotoxicity of the crotalid venoms venoms (Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu and Lachesis muta) and myotoxins (bothropstoxin, bothropasin and crotoxin) was neutralised by simultaneous exposure of isolated skeletal muscles to an aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata or to wedelolactone, stigmaterol and sitosterol. Stigmaterol and sitosterol were less effective than wedelolactone, but interacted synergistically with it [12]. These effects were interpreted as consequences of antiproteolytic and antiphospholipase A2 activities of Eclipta prostrata and its constituents [12]. These three plant compounds have anti-inflammatory properties and are recognised anti-venom compounds [43, 40, 44, 42, 38, 11].Ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae) neutralised the lethal activity of the venom of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), as well as the myotoxic and haemorrhagic effects of B. Three plant compounds, wedelolactone, sitosterol and stigmasterol were able to neutralise lethal doses of the venom. Aqueous extracts of the plant inhibited the release of creatine kinase from isolated rat muscle exposed to the crude venom [75].
Wedelolactone reduced the myotoxic effect of crude venoms Crotalus viridis viridis (western rattlesnake) and Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (copperhead) and two phospholipase A2 myotoxins, CVV myotoxin and ACL myotoxin, isolated from them [46].

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