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New cancer targeted therapies that make use therapeutic antibodies or small molecules have made treatment more tumor specific and less toxic. Antibodies, which initially were viewed as “targeting missiles”, have proved much morecomplex in their targeting and biologic properties than the field’s pioneers envisioned them. Murine antibody can be readily transformed into human or humanized formats that are not readily recognized as foreign by the human immune system. Targeted therapy refers to a new generation of cancer drugs designed to interfere with a specific target protein that is believed to have a critical role in tumor growth or progression.
The first antibodies studied were murine, rabbit, or rat proteinspurified following immunization of the animal with atarget antigen. Monocytes, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, killer cells, and granulocytes express Fc receptors and can exert cytotoxic effects.
As acoes de medicina preventiva constituem-se em procedimentos importantes para prevenir as doencas ou para diagnostica-las em fases iniciais, orientando apenas para o tratamento correto. Varias Ong’s, vem desempenhando o seu papel junto a comunidade rural, ensinando aos produtores, aos trabalhadores e a seus familiares as medidas mais importantes na prevencao de doencas, para se obter a saude fisica e mental desejada.
O cancer ginecologico e uma doenca grave que pode atingir qualquer orgao do aparelho reprodutor feminino. O Cancer do colo do utero, junto com o da mama sao responsaveis por 25% das mortes de mulheres que ocorrem no Brasil. O seu aparecimento nas mulheres brasileiras ainda e muito alto, dependendo da regiao e das condicoes de vida das pessoas.
Os procedimentos para prevenir ou auxiliar no diagnostico e tratamento constituem em armas muito importantes, destinadas a se obter a saude reprodutiva.
Um componente do orgao (aglomerado de celulas) comeca a crescer sem controle, formando um tumor.
Se nao for tratado no inicio, esse tumor pode invadir orgaos vizinhos, ou ate mesmo orgaos distantes (metastase), podendo levar o individuo a morte. A doenca, Cancer do Colo, localiza-se no colo uterino, permanecendo ai nas fases iniciais e, se nao for tratada logo, pode se espalhar pelo corpo e levar a morte.


Na fase inicial, pode nao produzir sintomas, o que nos alerta para realizar sempre o exame ginecologico de rotina. O Cancer no Colo pode acarretar corrimento pela vagina e sangramento, principalmente no momento da relacao sexual. Esta doenca pode ser diagnosticada precocemente em fases ainda pre-malignas (lesoes pre-malignas).
Neither the service provider nor the domain owner maintain any relationship with the advertisers. Nevertheless, there remain several challenges to the treatment of cancer, including drug resistance, cancer stem cells, and high tumor interstitial fluid pressure.
MoAbs have emerged as important therapeutic agents for several different malignancies [4]; they have been found to be well-tolerated and effective for the treatment of different cancers, and were consequently approved by theFDA of the US (Table 1). In addition, novel antibodybased structures with multiple antigen recognition sites, altered size, or effector domains have been shown to influence the targeting ability of antibodies.
This approach contrasts with the conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics that have been used in major cancer therapy in past decades.
Patients often generated antibodies to these foreign antigens; these host antibodies are often referred to as HAMA (human anti-mouse antibody) or HARA (human anti-rat antibody or human anti-rabbit antibody). In case of trademark issues please contact the domain owner directly (contact information can be found in whois).
In many solid tumors, for example, increased interstitial fluid pressure makes the uptake of therapeutic agents less efficient.
In addition to their own role as anticancer agents, their ability to target tumors also enables them to improve the selectivity of other types of anti-cancer agents, some of which cannot be applied effectively alone. Coupled with the identification of appropriate cancer targets, antibodybased therapeutics are finding increasing number of applications in cancer treatment, and they can be effective alone, in conjunction with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or when conjugated to toxic moieties such as toxins, chemotherapy agents, or radionuclides. The molecular identification of cancer antigens has opened new possibilities for the development of effective immunotherapies, antibodies therapy and ligand-targeted therapy for cancer patients. The host antibody reduces the effectiveness of therapy by prematurely clearing the treatment antibody and limiting the possibilities for future immunotherapy.


The Fab portion of the antibody attaches to the malignant cell while the opposing Fc region binds to Fc receptors on NK cells. One of the most promising ways of meeting such challenges is ligand-targeted therapy that may be used to make targeting more specific and carry higher dosages of anti-cancer drug to tumor tissue.
Ligand-targeted therapy is a successful means of improving the selective toxicity of anticancer therapeutics. HAMA or HARA responses can be associated with immune complex-related adverse events such as serum sickness and anaphylaxis.
The problem of immunogenicity of murine and chimeric MoAbs could be solved quickly with the progress in MoAb engineering and the generation of fully human antibodies. In solid tumors, the therapeutic agent must overcome several obstacles, including the vascular endothelium, stromal and epithelial barriers and high interstitial pressure [6].
The half-life of the chimeric anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab, is 76 h after a single infusion and 206 h after four infusions, compared with 28 h for the murine counterpart, ibritumomab [12,13]. In addition, solid tumors are quite heterogeneous and it is, therefore, difficult to target them completely. When trying to target them, smaller recombinant MoAb structures such as single-chain antibodies should be able to penetrate into the tumor with higher efficacy than the parental antibody [7]. However, this advantage is accompanied by the disadvantage that small structures such as these are more rapidly cleared from the plasma, and therefore they have shorter half-lives [8]. One promising approach to solid tumors is to target the tumor microenvironment in general and the endothelium of tumor blood vessels in particular [9], because several tumor endothelial markers are well characterized [10]. Murine, rabbit, and rat antibodies are not always able to recruit human immune effector functions, such as antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement- dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), which are needed to facilitate destruction of a malignant cell.



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