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Caption: Herpes simplex virus (HSV-2, DNA virus) in cellular vacuoles and cytoplasm of peripheral blood lymphocyte (Herpesviridae Family).
Caption: Electron microscopic image of two Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) virions (viral particles) loosely surrounded by the membrane envelope. Retroviruses are a group of RNA viruses such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (HTL V), that use a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase to produce a double-stranded DNA intermediate molecule during replication. Caption: Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding (in green) from cultured lymphocyte. Caption: Gram stain of a species of Micrococcus, commonly isolated from the skin and nasal membranes of humans.
Commensal microflora (normal microflora, indigenous microbiota) consists of those micro-organisms, which are present on body surfaces covered by epithelial cells and are exposed to the external environment (gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, vagina, skin, etc.). Caption: Barnacles are highly sedentary crustaceans that must attach themselves permanently to a hard substrate, such as rocks, shells, whales, or anything else they can gain a foothold. Biological interaction between two organisms, where each individual derives a fitness benefit. The mucous membranes are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, which are involved in absorption and secretion.


Pathogens are deposited via punctures (nail, thorn, hypodermic needle), bites, cuts, stab wounds, or surgery.
Some of these viruses remain latent within the cytoplasm of the host cell, whereas others are able to integrate their DNA into the chromosomes of the host cell. However, the surface tissues (skin and mucous membranes) are constantly in contact with environmental organisms and become readily colonized by various microbial species.
The number of bacteria colonising mucosal and skin surfaces exceeds the number of cells forming human body. When they attach to the shell of a scallop, for instance, barnacles benefit by having a place to stay, leaving the scallop presumably unaffected. This relationship is also sometimes referred to as hyperparasitism which may be exemplified by a protozoan (the hyperparasite) living in the digestive tract of a flea living on a dog.
When the virus DNA is incorporated into the DNA of the host cell, it is called a provirus. Viral latency is thought to result primarily from the lack of production of specific host cell proteins that are required for the activation of the viral genes responsible for turning on viral replication.
The normal flora of humans consists of a few eukaryotic fungi and protists, but bacteria are the most numerous and obvious microbial components of the normal flora.
Commensal bacteria co-evolved with their hosts, however, under specific conditions they are able to overcome protective host responses and exert pathologic effects.


As long as these specific host cell proteins are not being made by the host cell, the virus can’t replicate.
Resident microflora contains a number of components able to activate innate and adaptive immunity.
Unlimited immune activation in response to signals from commensal bacteria could pose the risk of inflammation; immune responses to mucosal microbiota therefore require a precise regulatory control. Intracellular parasites, such as bacteria or viruses, tend to rely on a third organism which is generally known as the carrier or vector.
The mucosal immune system has developed specialised regulatory, anti-inflammatory mechanisms for eliminating or tolerating non-dangerous, food and airborne antigens and commensal micro-organisms (oral, mucosal tolerance). However, at the same time the mucosal immune system must provide local defense mechanisms against environmental threats (e.g.
An example of this interaction is the transmission of malaria, caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, to humans by the bite of an anopheline mosquito.



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