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Plasma-arc centrifugal treatment vitrification technology has advanced from the first experiments in 1985 to occupy a niche in the waste-treatment market. Waste streams that have shown substantial benefit from the PACT process are low-level nuclear waste (LLW), paints, pharmaceutical sludges, pyrotechnics, military chemical agents, blast media, and solvents. The PACT system (Figure 1) was designed to produce a homogenous final waste form, safely treating waste at high temperatures with high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for toxic components.
The estimated 6,000°C temperatures generated by plasma and the centrifugal action allow one PACT system to treat a variety of heterogeneous wastes with different melting points. The availability of energy at high temperatures is much greater for electric arcs than for combustion energy. A transferred plasma arc is chosen for the system, principally because energy is transferred into the waste material to be heated more efficiently than with a nontransferred arc. Material feeding is important to minimize handling and to control the feed rate into the centrifuge. Feeders for unopened 200 liter drums minimize pretreatment handling and are designed for either vertical or horizontal loading directly into the system.
Solidified slag closely resembles igneous rock in appearance and strength and offers a final waste form that is durable and insoluble in water (Figure 2).7 A homogenous slag is very important to slag-sampling reliability, predicting leachability, long-term durability, and strength. The force exerted by the plasma gas on the surface at the arc-termination point (repeated 15–50 times per minute) mixes the slag effectively.
The centrifugal mixing that produces uniform chemistry is also important to slag durability. Another centrifugal advantage is that waste spreads out on the hot rotating slag and melts faster as a thin-film layer (no piling). The most commonly used method of testing leachability is the EPA toxic characteristic leachate procedure, which uses mild acid to leach crushed slag for 24 hours at room temperature. Slag is poured, by reducing the centrifuge rpms, through an axial throat into a mold within a collection chamber. A system in Muttenz, Switzerland, processes pharmaceutical sludges in 200 liter drums and recovers copper and zinc from brass dross. Zwilag, a Swiss organization that stores and treats nuclear waste, is installing a system to treat low- and medium-level beta and gamma production waste from Swiss nuclear power plants. A system is planned for Norfolk Naval Base (Figure 4), subject to obtaining the necessary permits and completing an environmental impact statement. The Retech system was originally slated to treat low-level transuranic waste, including metals, sludges, and soils, in a waste pit at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.
A contract is underway with Toyo Engineering Company of Japan for the Tsuruga nuclear power plant. The Embassy of the Czech Republic has announced a design for a new building to replace an aging facility on Tilden Street in Northwest Washington. Gehry has tamed his own style is tamed for this project, although the ring of stones exemplifies the blockish forms he had been experimenting with since the opening of Walt Disney Hall.
Beginning with the generous setback along 42nd street, the architects attempted to hide the building as much as possible, so as not to intrude on the neighborhood.
For the 2007 plan to build a library with several floors of condominiums on top focused on the loss of recreation space (the rightmost field in the image above) for Janney Students.
In the recent controversy over the energy efficiency of LEED-rated buildings, most commentary placed blame on glass, users, the LEED credit system, ASHRAE, expectations, models, etc.  Few people mentioned simple design decisions. To make an unwarranted generalization, DC architects like their buildings heavy and somber. AbstractGeckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1?m?s?1. The centrifugal action, the force of the plasma gas, and the water-cooled walls work together to generate a durable, homogenous, vitrified waste form coupled with the safe confinement of the hazardous feeds and high organic removal efficiency.
The subsequent development of a rotating system with oxidant introduction resulted in patent status2 in 1988. Common features among these wastes are the presence of heavy metals and often heterogeneous mixtures of organic materials, soils, metals, and water. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)'s requirements for air emissions through high-temperature treatment and system design. In the system, wastes are fed into a tub rotating at 10–40 rpm and melted by a plasma arc, forming a molten pool of metals and oxides.
It also means that PACT systems can treat their own fly ash plus filtration media, minimizing secondary wastes.
Slag generated in the PACT process meets all applicable EPA disposal requirements, and ranks well in long-term durability (PCT) tests.
Only about 23% of the theoretical heat of combustion is available above 1,200°C when combusting methane with air at 140% of stoichiometric oxygen. A further advantage of plasma is that temperature can be increased at full system capacity without affecting the system off-gas volume. The negative primary chamber operating pressure is maintained at about –50 mbar by induced draft fans. Results of seven-day product-consistency tests for (a) silicon and (b) sodium, designed to evaluate the long-term durability of the slag matrix.
Feed rates in nonrotating hearth tests at Retech, with the same torch model, were less than half the rate for the cement-block surrogate waste in Table II. Slag-mold volumes for the same-size PACT system can vary from one project to another, depending on customer requirements.
There are also five laboratory systems, two PACT-1 units used for laboratory studies, and three PACT-2 units and one PACT-6 that have been used primarily for pilot-scale treatability studies. The top deck of the PACT-8 system assembled at Retech for acceptance testing prior to the proposed installation at the Norfolk Naval Base. This system is designed to process the products from washing soils contaminated by military explosives and chemical warfare agents. It is currently at Retech in the final testing phase and is designed to treat waste paint, solvents, oily rags, batteries, and other nonrecyclable waste. Plasma Arc Technology Evaluation, Scientific and Technical Report (City: NDCEE, 1997), Table 6A.
Womack is business development manager for Retech Services, Inc., a Lockheed Martin Company. The current embassy is a not-quite-modernist structure at the edge of Rock Creek Park near Peirce Mill. On the faces of the ring of stones, images cast in low relief and quotations in large type speak history to those inside. Building the memorial without disrupting the viewshed of the Capitol or traffic flow were seen as the two big problems. Mercifully, Gehry has also eschewed the dismal expressionism of a younger generation of memorial designers. Although the Albemarle facade extends to the cornice line of the 1923 building, the masses of the building gently diminish into a low white structure that encloses the gym.
Even in the recent fad of light and clean glass facades, the buildings have been rather self-serious and blockish looking, a consequence of clients demanding efficient floorplans from architects who themselves were trying to be cool and modern without upsetting the polished and poised look DC has in the collective consciousness and legal structure.


Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive since it requires both strong attachment and easy, rapid removal. This technology has recently been applied to treat wastes completely while achieving maximum volume reduction. Pilot-scale tests were performed for the EPA SITE Superfund Program on wastes from Silverbow Creek and the Montana Pole plant in Butte, Montana, in July 1991.
The principal heavy-metal spikes were barium, chromium, and lead.5 Table I shows the leach rates from some of the tests and how they compare to the EPA regulatory limits. The slag cools to form a glass-like, leach-resistant slag, while organics are evaporated, treated, cleaned up, and released.
All PACT chambers are sealed, with elastomers held at near room temperature by water-cooled walls, and are designed to perform without leaking at a one atmosphere positive gauge pressure. The centrifugal action also reduces refractory erosion from the high-heat flux at the arc termination. Department of Energy also developed a test designed to predict long-term durability–the product consistency test (PCT). It is designed to feed 200 liter drums, both horizontally and vertically, and loose organic waste. The new structure will be a postmodern landscraper in a y-shape that clings to the site, in a flattened valley. The Memorial Commission selected a design by Gehry that sidesteps the issue of sightlines, by removing one of eight columns and two sections of the screens. With a few objections, I like its conception. Devrouax + Purnell, best known for the Washington Convention Center, the Pepco Building, and Nationals Park, here produced an interesting and attractive school building. Moving south along the western face, the building curves gently, from a tower to the first private residence down the block. In doing so, they have reduced the feeling of enclosure afforded by a consistent streetwall, produced an marginally useful green space, and missed an opportunity to relocate the playing field at the center of the Tenley Library Public-Private Partnership debacle. However, had the architects located the new wing closer to the property line, they might have opened up space to relocate the eastern soccer field. This fretful indecision can be a bit like the jeans and sportcoat look – crisp but comfortable, hip but conservative. Their mostly residential oevure consists of excellently-composed buildings that respond coyly to the conditions of the site.
Leachate concentrations of hazardous organics were also examined; all were below detection limits. The centrifugal action of PACT also produces homogeneity, which adds to strength and long-term durability. Loose material feeders are usually either the auger or Archimedes type and perform this function for both loose inorganic and organic wastes, dry or moist. With limited characterization of drum contents, the operator can determine the initial power and feed rates. The PCT test uses water at 90°C for a week or a month to assess the durability of the slag matrix. The architects are Prague-based Chalupa Architekti; I think this is a definite improvement. They refresh the old Modernist idea of dissolving barriers between the interior and exterior, nature and environment, by bringing it back to the original idea of passing volumes through an envelope.
This way, the design frames the primary view of the Capitol with the same structures that fit it into the grid. Instead, it is a building that can be judged for its power and for its beauty, although people will disagree.
However, the location where they have chosen to place the wing results in a lost opportunity for Janney and the community in general. The architects employed the shape subtly, repeating the curve in each mass to limit its effects. In a political environment as vicious as Tenleytown’s, a mutually agreeable solution would have been a rare happy ending.
In doing so, it avoids falling into limpid styles while also carefully respecting historic and distinctive architecture elsewhere. Any material that might pass through the central pour orifice untreated is collected and fed back into the PACT system.
The front (north) facade is a beautiful composition of frosted glass formed into a curtain.
Admittedly, it is a diplomatic building, so security concerns will cause designers to skew fortress-like and the surrounding neighborhood is hilly and wooded, full of detached mansions like the Hillwood.
If the Czechs get on the same bike as the Danes and install some changing facilities (it’s not clear from the published images if they have them), then it could be a pretty forward-thinking building. Rising from just beyond the trees, large stainless steel screens supported by limestone columns enclose the space on the north and south sides. In terms of the vehicular route, the panel rejected a vehicular road through the monument and instead created a pedestrian plaza. Like too many developers and architects, they approached Tenleytown planning to not upset the status quo. The above side faces North-Northwest, with the angled shape exposing most of the wall area to due north.
As for aesthetics, the practice cleverly contrasts gentle and warm elements with bold minimalism in beautiful light-filled spaces. The safety mold also acts as a container for the centrifuge contents in case of power failure.
From the side of practicality, the east-facing facade of the office wing is fenestrated and shaded reasonably well for actual daylighting. The screens will contain some of the sculptural program through a woven scrim that hides the forgettable Department of Education Building to the south. However, any public facility should be designed with an eye to the future – and the current state of Tenleytown cannot last. The primary energy problems with glass walls cresults from solar heat gain and glare, but daylighting can also save a lot of energy. We discovered that the energy required to detach adhering tokay gecko setae (Wd) is modulated by the angle (?) of a linear path of detachment.
On the north side of the building, where there is rarely any direct light, the offices can get some daylight but not catch too much heat. This external frictional loss is analogous to viscous internal frictional losses during detachment of pressure-sensitive adhesives. Geckos are able to climb microscopically smooth surfaces as fast as other terrestrial animals can run on level ground (Autumn et al.
Key to geckos' amazing feats are millions of adhesive setae segmented into scansors on the undersides of the toes.
Gecko setae form a smart (Fakley 2001) fibrillar adhesive that is capable of strong attachment and rapid and easy detachment. The work of detachment (Wd; the integral of the forces along the detachment path during unloading) represents an adhesive's ability to resist failure (Zosel 1985).


Highly tenacious pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) such as duct tape are capable of absorbing large detachment energies (Wd) yet also require a similarly large Wd for removal. Ideally, a smart adhesive would be capable of absorbing large detachment energies (Wd) while attached, but require only a small Wd during removal.
Post-It notes contain a PSA that detaches easily from most surfaces, whereas double-sided tape is used typically for structural applications requiring strong permanent attachment (Creton 2003). Gecko setae must maintain their structure and adhesive capability over the course of the animal's moult cycle, approximately two months (K.A.
The viscous deformation typical of detaching PSAs does not seem to occur in the gecko adhesive, which deforms elastically, not plastically (Autumn et al. The long-chain polymers that make up soft rubbers are cross-linked at large intervals, thereby eliminating local elastic energy return that would otherwise occur during polymer bond rupture and thus results in large Wd (Lake & Thomas 1967). However, the comparison between rubber polymer chains and gecko setae can only be extended so far, as the elastic energy dissipation mechanism in rubbers limits the minimum energy dissipation that occurs, not the maximum (Lake & Thomas 1967). In soft rubbers, large energy dissipation (Wd??) will occur regardless of the detachment method. Thus, this elastic dissipation mechanism would not seem to satisfy the gecko's smart adhesion requirements by enabling strong attachment, yet hindering efficient detachment.
Setae have a slight curvature and branch at their tips ending in 200?nm wide spatula.The geometry and function of the tokay gecko seta suggest that to investigate the adhesive's detachment mechanics, both friction and adhesion effects must be considered. Setal attachment requires a perpendicular preload followed by a small proximal drag (towards the animal) that loads seta tensily (Autumn et al. Once setae engage, a proximally oriented shear force maintains setal tension and produces adhesion, possibly by elongating the peel zone of the spatula (Tian et al. Whole animal adhesion measurements show that the tokay gecko's adhesive detaches when the applied detachment force increases above an angle, ?=26–30° (Autumn et al. This maximum detachment force angle (?*) coincides directly with the maximum setal–substrate shaft angle at which point setae spontaneously detach (Autumn et al. Increasing the setal shaft angle or applied detachment force angle above ?=26–30° probably causes fracture of the spatula–substrate bonds (Autumn et al.
However, it is not known how adhering gecko setae respond to applied displacements at varied detachment path angles (?).Climbing geckos stay attached to surfaces because they pull their limbs proximally (towards the animal) during the stance phase of the stride (Autumn et al.
Proximal shearing of the adhesive generates friction and adhesion maintaining attachment (Autumn et al.
At the initiation of the swing phase of the stride, geckos relax shear force, detaching the adhesive rapidly in approximately 15?ms with no measured reactant forces (Autumn et al.
The climbing dynamics of the gecko demonstrate the directional (proximal–distal) force control of the gecko adhesive's stickiness.
Strong attachment of the adhesive results from proximal shearing as the gecko pulls inward towards the centre of mass (Autumn et al.
Detachment of the foot probably occurs along a vertical (?=90°) or distal (?>90°) path, but this remains unknown. Here, we present the first experimental measurement of the amount of energy (Wd) required to detach isolated gecko setae over a linear detachment path of angle ?. Wd measured while detaching in the proximal direction (?<90°) represents the adhesive's ability to resist failure while trying to maintain attachment. Material and methodsWe harvested and mounted 17 setal arrays from five live non-moulting tokay geckos (G. Under a microscope, we trimmed excess lamella from isolated arrays, mounted them to scanning electron microscope stubs using Loctite 410 (Henkel Co., CT) and allowed them to set overnight. To ensure no wicking of glue occurred in setal shafts, we visually inspected samples using a DFK 31AF03 digital Firewire camera (The Imaging Source, Charlotte, NC) with an attached Optem inspection microscope (Qioptiq, Fairport, NY) prior to mechanical testing. A 100?mN force produces only approximately 312.5?nm displacement, so we considered the system effectively rigid.
The force sensor and sample mounted horizontally to a stainless steel ‘tombstone’ above a Newport RP Reliance breadboard table (Newport, Irvine, CA). Testing substrates mounted to a custom two-axis positioning system adjacent to the force sensor, composed of two Aerotech ANT-50L (Aerotech, Pittsburgh, PA) linear actuators providing nanoscale motion control over 50?mm of travel. Two Newport goniometers, GON65L and TR120BL, enabled coplanar alignment of sample stub and test substrate.
A custom LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) program controlled test parameters and data acquisition. New slides soaked in a bath of 2?M NaOH (Ted Pella, Redding, CA) for 10?min prior to testing to ensure that the surface was clean and uncontaminated.
Once adhering, setal arrays were detached along a linear path of angles ranging from 30° to 150° in increments of 10°.
A position-controlled microscope slide engaged mounted samples and then detached along the selected detachment path at a retraction angle ?. We chose the range of retraction angles to be symmetric about the vertical axis (90°), and constrained between angles that allowed for investigation of a large range of proximal and distal shear. Adhesion in setal arrays requires a vertical preload followed by a proximal shear to engage setae (Autumn et al. A preload is a compressive normal (?=270°) displacement to a set depth, while a drag is a proximal shear (?=0°) displacement.
We calibrated the preload displacement for each array by measuring the position at which point a force change of 5?mN is measured during a 10??m displacement. This position was then the sample's zero position and all preload displacements reference from it.
In the protocol LDPavg (LDP, load–drag–pull), we preloaded samples to the average normal ‘working depth’ of a typical setal array, 35??m, and then dragged 500??m (N=10 samples?5 trials?13 angles=650).
LDPavg trials produced adhesive forces prior to detachment typical of previous measurements (Autumn et al. We determined the preload depth at which adhesion was maximal by monitoring the relative increase or decrease in adhesion during each incremental preload.
In the LDPmax protocol, we preloaded additional samples to the depth that maximized adhesion force in each sample (N=7 samples?5 trials?13 angles=455). To calculate array stiffness and discard any arrays damaged during the experiments, we conducted purely normal load–unload or load–pull tests at the beginning and end of each set of trials for each sample (Autumn et al. We calculated the shear elastic coefficients for individual setae by determining a sample's total shear stiffness during the loading cycle, and then scaling by setal density ().
Average stress (?) is the time integral of the force vector magnitude during unloading, normalized to both the setal area (A) and duration (T) of unloading (). Adhering setal arrays exhibited large and relatively consistent ? for ?<110°, at which point ? began decreasing reaching a minimum at ?=130°.



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