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I have always worked in the energy sector and have had a long-term interest in environmental issues. As society looks at the challenge of rapidly scaling up various energy technologies with a view to displacing existing CO2 emitting infrastructure, the question of policy keeps coming up. There are some good examples of rapid scale-up in history, one of which I recently wrote about in my posting Liberty Turbines. Thanks to colleagues in our scenarios team, I have come across another such example (The Chemical Engineer, April 2010). Looking at current efforts, there are some similar examples, but not on the scale described above. In this case a much more subtle policy shift has created the impetus for change, although in comparison to total US distillate production of some 60 billion gallons per annum this is still very small and much smaller than the 1945 production of aviation gasoline in the USA – some 8-10 billion gallons. Before World War II, Major Jimmie Doolittle realized that if the United States got involved in the war in Europe, it would require large amounts of aviation fuel with high octane. Wea€™ll schedule a visit to your facility, conduct a free lighting audit, define youa€™re lighting problems and review all of the LED benefits. The economics of LED lighting makes the technology a compelling one for governments that are struggling to cut expenditures while trying to meet a€?greena€? goals.
For example, a 2013 New York State Department of Energy Conservation report says that if all state municipalities replaced existing incandescent streetlights with LED bulbs a€” which are brighter, more energy-efficient and longer-lasting a€” it would reduce energy consumption by 22.3 million kilowatt-hours annually, while cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 9,200 tons. On top of that, the report suggests that switching from traditional mercury vapor streetlights to LED doesna€™t just significantly reduceA  energy and maintenance costs (a big deal, since street lighting makes up roughly 40% of the statea€™s municipality electrical bills), but also the number of lamp posts needed is more effective as well.
SmartPlanet profiled an example of LED savings in action, telling the story of a NYC property owner who is retrofitting 21 properties with LED lighting (replacing fluorescent, incandescent and halogen fixtures) for an energy savings of $750,000. Plus, the fact that LED lighting is solid-state means it can be controlled by software, leading to a whole new avenue of growth: programmable lighting. LED Lighting is a new technology that promises to replace all other types of lighting by 2020. In short, it saves 40-90% on lighting, has a very long lifespan, and looks better than other types of lighting and is easily controlled. LED's are expensive, but they will pay offA  in about 1-10 years and save tons of money in the long run.
One LED lamp will last as long as several traditional lights, saving money on replacements.
The answer is simple: because of SSL's rapid ongoing improvements and superior energy-saving potential. That doesn't mean DOE has abandoned lighting controls and other light source technologies, however. DOE is keeping a close watch on solid-state lighting, in both the lab and the marketplace, to make sure it doesn't run into the same roadblocks that slowedA market acceptance of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) back in the 1990s. There's little doubt that solid-state lighting ultimately will emerge as the technology of choice for an unparalleled variety of applications, because, all things being equal, everyonea€”building owners includeda€”wants to save energy and protect the environment. DOE has made a long-term commitment to advance the development and market introduction of energy-efficient solid-state lighting. With three annual workshops that collectively bring together approximately 700 attendees, as well as periodic stakeholder roundtables, DOE's solid-state lighting program is open and participatory and coordinates with many lighting and standards groups, such as the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, the International Association of Lighting Designers, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, the American National Standards Institute, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Bush walks with newly crowned King Abdullah during a retreat at King Abdullah's Farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Friday, August 5, 2005, following the death of his half-brother King Fahd who passed away August 1, 2005. Bush tours the Sandia Solar Tower Complex lead by Sandia Lab Director Tom Hunter Monday, Aug. There's lots said about why climate change now confronts us, and what it means, but the real issue is what to do about it.

Should it be cap-and-trade, or a carbon tax, or direct regulation or perhaps, as some seem to be hinting at, just wishful thinking. Unfortunately all of them seem to happen in the context of conflict on a global or near global scale where the need for urgent action is extreme. Over the period 1941 to 1945 the production of aviation gasoline in the USA grew by 6000% (60x) to some 9 billion gallons p.a. In response to the escalating conflicts in Europe and the Pacific the President created the War Production Board (WPB) by Executive Order 9024 on January 16, 1942, replacing the Supply Priorities and Allocation Board as well as the Office of Production Management. The United States has increased its production of bio-diesel from 2 million gallons in 2000 to an estimated 250 million gallons in 2006. But it does show that rapid acceleration and deployment of new technology is possible, given policy instruments that are clear, focused and long term in nature. Doolittle was already famous in the aviation community as a racing pilot and for his support of advanced research and development (and would later earn even wider fame as head of the 1942 B-25 bombing raid on Tokyo). Exterior and interior general illumination, safety and security, general production and service lighting uses are just some of the financial energy savings that local businesses and municipalities can benefit from.
We will show you the energy and installation savings you will achieve while filling your buildings with the most beautiful, brilliant white light youa€™ve ever seen. Despite the higher initial investment, switching to LEDs from incandescent lighting can quickly pay off on both fronts, while avoiding the complaints and limitations associated with the compact fluorescent (CFC) bulbs that havena€™t quite lived up to their expected potential. The switch would also save on maintenance costs since bulbs would require less frequent replacement.
Even at the current, high-cost of LED bulbs, the estimated payback on the project is only three years, with the remaining lifespan of the LED bulbs (which should be at least another 10 years) representing pure savings. This has been on full public display through large scale installations like San Franciscoa€™s Bay Bridge and New Yorka€™s Empire State Building, and has begun to catch on at the home level thanks to app-controlled LED lighting systems like Philipsa€™ (NYSE:PHG) Hue wireless system.
Department of Energy has invested with industry partners in research and development of solid-state lighting (SSL)a€”including both light-emitting diode (LED) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) technologies. DOE still invests to a large degree in promoting the most efficient forms of conventional lighting technologies, through such implementation programs as Building America, the Commercial Buildings Integration Program, and the Federal Energy Management Program. Accelerating the pace of commercialization for SSL will hinge on improving cost competitiveness and quality. DOE watches closely for problems with poor-performing SSL products that are not yet ready to compete with incumbent technologies, including products that fail to meet manufacturers' performance claims. Meanwhile, all things are not equal, which is why DOE repeatedly emphasizes that SSL is right for some applications but not for othersa€”and why education and due diligence should be key elements in any lighting specification and purchasing process.
Its comprehensive national program addresses research and development, demonstrations, testing and quality control, market development support, and buyer supporta€”all in service of maximizing the energy-efficiency of SSL products in the marketplace. It's also highly transparent, publishing numerous reports and roadmaps that are posted online at this website.
Plenty is said about that too, but there's not enough discussion on the practical aspects of implementation. In such cases policy becomes a severe version of command and control with governments stepping in and directing the industrial base to produce a particular range of goods against an almost infinite order book and a similarly inflated spending programme. WPB was granted supreme authority to direct procurement of materials and industrial production programs. It also shows that even very rapid change still takes years given the scale of our energy system. By converting to LED lighting, we can reduce energy use and energy costs, improve light pollution and light quality and improve where light is directed.
All with no ballast to fail, no blinking, no bugs, no noxious mercury, no noise, no waiting for lights to restart.

The story points to LED lighting as a€?low-hanging fruita€? for commercial property owners looking to slash the 25% to 30% of their energy bill that lighting typically consumes. Today, the purchase price of LED lighting products is generally higher than that of their conventional counterparts, often by a long shot, and the energy savings often aren't enough to offset the difference within an attractive payback period.
A significant part of DOE's function is to educate consumers as well as the lighting community about those claims and other pitfalls in the SSL marketplace.
White House photo by David BohrerVice President Dick Cheney, former Secretary of State Colin Powell, and former President George H.W. Also pictured from left are, Senator Jeff Bingaman (D, NM), Senator Pete Domenici (R, NM) and Secretary of Energy Sam Bodman.
Now is an excellent time for businesses and municipalities to consider converting to LED lighting and reap these benefits.
However, DOE's program is intended to drive aggressive cost reduction, and the current rate of cost decline in LED lighting systems is about 20 percent a year. Bush are escorted from the plane by members of the Saudi delegation before meeting with the newly crowned King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Friday, August 05, 2005. Soaring demand for high-octane aviation fuel and synthetic butyl rubber (cat cracking yields butadiene) to fuel the war in Europe meant that by 1945, no less than 34 more FCC units had been built. The trend has recently accelerated, and production grew at a pace of 113 million gallons per year between 2004 and 2006.
Vice President Dick Cheney led a delegation to pay respects following the recent death of King Fahd. In fact, the demand for gasoline was so great that the construction of 32 FCC plants was underway before the first commercial plant was in operation. Krug, 1944 45) appointed by the president, the secretaries of war, navy, and agriculture, the federal loan administrator, lieutenant general in charge of war department production, administrator of the office of price administration, chair of the board of economic warfare, and special assistant to the president who supervised the defense aid program.
According to the National Biodiesel Board, there were 105 plants in operation in early 2007 with an annual production capacity of 864 million gallons. Further capacity is under construction against expected domestic demand in 2011 of some 800 million gallons (EPA). Doolittle pushed hard for the development of 100-octane fuel (commonly called Aviation Gasoline or AvGas) and convinced Shell to begin manufacturing it, to stockpile the chemicals necessary to make more, and to modify its refineries to make mass production of high-octane fuel possible. Also pictured from left are, Senator Pete Domenici (R, NM) and Secretary of Energy Sam Bodman. The rapid expansion of biodiesel production observed between 2000 and 2006 was triggered by a 1998 amendment to the 1992 Energy Policy Act and cash support from the USDA Commodity Credit Corporation’s (CCC) Bioenergy Program.
As a result, when the United States entered the war in late 1941, it had plenty of high-quality fuel for its engines, and its aircraft engines performed better than similarly sized engines in the German Luftwaffe’s airplanes. Further support was created through the American Jobs Creation Act (the Jobs Act) of 2004 and the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Engine designers were also encouraged by the existence of high-performance fuels to develop even higher-performance engines for aircraft. 6, The Energy Policy Act of 2005 at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Monday, Aug.
Also on stage from left are Congressman Ralph Hall (R, TX), Congressman Joe Barton (R, TX), Senator Pete Domenici (R, NM) and Senator Jeff Bingaman (D, NM).

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