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Second half of this rant covers the latest in waffling by Da Fed WRT raising interest rates, which supposedly they were going to do but didn't.
Greece cannot make debt repayments to the International Monetary Fund next month unless it achieves a deal with creditors, its Interior Minister said on Sunday, the most explicit remarks yet from Athens about the likelihood of default if talks fail. Shut out of bond markets and with bailout aid locked, cash-strapped Athens has been scraping state coffers to meet debt obligations and to pay wages and pensions. People who have spoken to Mr Tsipras say he is in dour mood and willing to acknowledge the serious risk of an accident in coming weeks. The finance ministers that make up the Eurogroup will have to get approval from their own national parliaments for any deal, and politicians in the rest of Europe seem less inclined than ever to be lenient. One possible alternative if talks do not progress is that Greece would leave the common currency and return to the drachma. Things are about to get extremely interesting, and if I am right, this is the start of something big.
The chart below might be the most powerful indictment of the Federal Reserve and our corporate fascist empire of debt ever created. It is no coincidence since Nixon closed the gold window in 1971 and unleashed greedy bankers, feckless politicians, and self serving corporate executives to utilize easy money and prodigious amounts of debt to financialize our economic system and deform capitalism. You can see exactly when the Maestro assumed command at the Fed and proceeded to introduce the Greenspan Put, encouraging speculation, borrowing and mal-investment. The Fed orchestra kept the music playing and Wall Street kept dancing the rumba with their corporate CEO dates. The $800 billion gift to bankers and mega-corporations by the Washington DC Party of captured politicians was chicken feed compared to the $3.5 trillion of newly printed fiat handed to Wall Street and corporate America by Bernanke and Yellen.
Is it a coincidence that corporate profits as a percentage of GNP are at record highs while employee compensation as a percentage of GNP is at record lows?
From the end of World War II until the mid-1970s employee compensation as a percentage of GNP was consistently between 49% and 51%.
From the moment Nixon closed the gold window, employee compensation as percentage of GNP relentlessly declined for the next quarter of a century from 51% to 44%.
Unequivocal proof that Bernanke’s sole purpose of QE and ZIRP was to benefit his Wall Street owners can be seen in the continued decline from 44% to 42% since 2008. The mouthpieces for the Deep State insist corporate profits have reached a permanently high plateau. Even though you hear constant propaganda from the corporate MSM, corporate CEOs, and captured politicians about the dreadful level of corporate taxes, the truth is that mega-corporations are paying record low levels of actual taxes.
The short term oriented casino mentality of corporate CEOs can be plainly seen in the fact depreciation expense as a percentage of revenue is at 25 year lows, resulting in short term profits but long-term decline. As the world moved increasingly towards the idea of shareholder-value maximization, time horizons for management and the shareholders have shortened. Cutting SGA expenses and postponing capital investments — actions that carry positive short-term earnings impact at the expense of a business’ competitiveness in the long-term — look promising to managers whose payoffs depend on stock prices in the short-term. The financial, economic and political system has been captured by corporate fascist psychopaths. One example of such steeply rising costs is the sharply rising cost of oil extraction since 2000 (about 12% per year for “upstream costs”). The sharp shift in the cost of extraction wreaks havoc with economic models based on a long period of very slowly rising costs. In the past 100,000 years, humans have been able to “win” this competition by harnessing external energy of various types–first burned biomass to cook food and keep warm, later trained dogs to help in hunting. Human population has soared, especially since the time fossil fuels began to be used, about 1800.
Even now, human population continues to grow (Figure 4), although the percentage rate of growth has slowed.
Because the world is finite, the greater use of resources by humans leads to lesser availability of resources by other species. Also, because of the tight coupling of human population with growing energy consumption historically, even back to hunter-gatherer days, it is doubtful that decoupling of energy consumption and population growth can fully take place. Individual humans acting on their own have very limited ability to extract and control resources, including energy resources. This networked economy has a tendency to grow, in part because human population tends to grow (Item 4 above), and in part because greater complexity is required to solve problems, as an economy grows.
Another reason that the economy cannot shrink is because of the large amount of debt in place.
There are a number of ways an economy can reach a situation of inadequate resources for its population. In the past, there have been civilizations that were confined to a limited area that grew for a while, and then collapsed once resource availability declined or population outgrew resources. We began an economic growth cycle back when we began using fossil fuels to a significant extent, starting about 1800.
Most models put together by economists assume that the conditions of the growth period, or the growth plus stagflation period, will continue forever. We also know from the analysis underlying the book The Limits to Growth (by Donella Meadows and others, published in 1972) that growing demand for resources because of Items listed as 6a to 6g above will take an increasingly large share of resources produced.
The 1972 analysis does not model the financial system, including debt and the repayment of debt with interest. As an example in today’s world, there seems to be a huge amount of very heavy oil that can be steamed out of the ground in many places including Canada and Venezuela. One reason for being concerned about collapse is the similarity of the problems our current economy is experiencing to those of prior economies that collapsed, as discussed in Item 7. Another reason for this concern is based on the observation from physics that an economy is a dissipative structure, just as a hurricanes is, and just as a human being is. Concern about future collapse is very different from concern that one or another resource will decline in a symmetric Hubbert curve. The link between energy and the economy comes both from the supply side and the demand side. With respect to supply, it takes energy of many types to make goods and services of all types.
Back in pre-fossil fuel days, the warm areas of the world predominated in economic development.
A common belief is that our concern should be oil prices that are too high, and thus strangle the economy.
The issue we are now seeing is the reverse–too low oil prices for oil producers, including oil exporters. We seem now to be at risk in many ways of entering into the collapse scenario experienced by many civilizations before us. One of areas of risk is that interest rates will rise, as the Quantitative Easing and Zero Interest Rate Policies held in place since 2008 erode.
Clearly loss of oil production because of conflict in the Middle East or in other oil producing countries is a concern. In a lecture to the Columbia University Center on Global Energy Policy in February of 2014 Steven Kopits, who is the Managing Director of the consultancy, Douglas Westwood explains how conventional “legacy” oil production peaked in 2005 and has not increased since. More specifically the total spend on upstream oil and gas exploration and production from 2005 to 2013 was $4 trillion. Further to this, unfortunately for the oil industry, it has not been possible for oil prices to rise high enough to cover the increasing capital expenditure and operating costs.
The situation can be understood by reference to the nursery story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears. For several years however there have been some countries that have been able to afford the higher prices. Over the last few years central banks have had a policy of quantitative easing to try to keep interest rates low – the economy cannot pay high energy prices AND high interest rates so, in effect, the policy has been to try to bring down interest rates as low as possible to counter the stagnation.
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Will usually dispatch within 1 working day of receiving cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. By submitting your bid, you'll be contractually committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By submitting your bid, you're committing to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you're committing to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. An open fracture can be defined as a broken bone that is in communication through the skin with the environment.
Open fractures are classified according to their severity.(33,42) In a first-degree open fracture, the bone fractures and then penetrates the skin from within. When an animal presents with an open fracture, diagnosis of the fracture has already been made and hopefully the wound covered with a dressing.
The history surrounding the injury is of great importance when dealing with open fractures. Following evaluation of the patient, including blood work and any stabilization necessary, radiographic examination of the injured extremity should be undertaken. The use of antibiotics in the irrigation solution has been shown experimentally to reduce the incidence of infection in contaminated wounds. The use of a cast or splint in the treatment of an open fracture depends on the stability of the fracture after reduction (it must be inherently stable) and on the amount of soft tissue damage. Intramedullary devices can be used with first- and second-degree open fractures, but the introduction of an intramedullary device in a contaminated or infected fracture may spread the contamination to the entire medullary cavity, where it is difficult to treat.
Plates and screws for fixation in open fractures of the first-and second-degree type have found widespread use in veterinary orthopaedics (Fig.
The implant should be placed away from the open wound, although sometimes it must encompass it. Proper management of bullet wounds requires a working knowledge of physical factors involved in the creation of such injuries and the way in which they interact. The creation of a ballistic missile wound is a very complex phenomenon that results from the action of the missile and the reaction of the tissue. Finally, the clinician must know the destructive effects of the various rates of retardation (deceleration) to projectile flight offered by tissues of varying density. Early military weapons used black powder as a propellant, were loaded through the muzzle, and delivered a round lead ball at low velocity (see Fig.
As early as 1848, some observers noted the explosive nature of some wounds and associated wound severity with the tissue water content. While working with contemporary modern smallcaliber bullets driven by nitrocellulose propellants, Woodruff,(55) in 1898, confirmed the extreme variation in degree of tissue damage and was the first investigator to use the term "cavitation" to describe the formation of a temporary cavity in the wake of bullet passage.
During the two world wars, lighter, shorter, pointed bullets of similar caliber driven at velocities between 2400 and 2700 feet per second (fps) dramatically magnified tissue damage. Until recent years sports writers and army ordnance personnel judged the wound-producing potential of various bullets by their ability to penetrate 1-inch thick pine boards spaced 1 inch apart. Modern cartridges are single units that bring together in one container all the components needed to launch a bullet through the air to its intended target.
As increasing volumes of gas are produced by combustion of the progressive burning powder, the increasing pressure is transmitted equally in all directions.
Kinetic energy, which equals 0.5 times mass multiplied by the square of the velocity, is the relationship best able to explain all the physical factors associated with the wound and its formation. Power is the rate at which the work is done and is a function of mass times velocity cubed. Note that kinetic energy varies with the square of the velocity but varies directly with the mass. Although velocity and mass determine the bullet's kinetic energy, its wounding potential depends on the transfer of that energy to tissues. Where tissue resistance is sufficient to cause total dissipation of the projectile's kinetic energy, the bullet remains within the tissues and the wound is called penetrating. Bullets of different shapes, weights, and calibers do not behave alike in passing through the air. The shape of the bullet is important to its performance while passing through the atmosphere and when it makes the transition into a material more dense than air. Soft-point bullets are jacketed, but the lead core exposed at the tip so that they will mushroom or expand upon impact (Fig. Some design features used to control expansion are varying the thickness of jackets, the hardness of cores, v {a and the amount and shape of the exposed lead tip (Fig. Hollow-point bullets are jacketed bullets in which the jackets are not completely closed at the tip and no lead is exposed (Fig. Partition-core jackets are designed to maintain the base portion intact as the point expands or fragments (Fig. If any elongated bullet were fired from a barrel with a smooth bore, it would tumble end over end. Any deviation of the longitudinal axis of the bullet from the line of flight is called yaw.
In the early stages of flight the bullet usually wobbles considerably, which is further aggravated by disparity between the center of gravity and the center of form. After the initial phase of instability there is a second stage in the trajectory in which the bullet is most stable.
As the projectile moves through the tissues, the tissues that are penetrated offer a resistance proportional to their elasticity, cohesiveness, and density. Another and less severe kind of fracture occurs when a high-velocity bullet passes near the bone but does not contact it directly.
Damage to the flat bones and contained structures of the skull varies with the muzzle energy and with the angle of presentation (yaw) of the projectile, especially after its deformation. Most veterinarians who treat hunting dogs are familiar with incidental radiographic findings of multiple "bird-shot" pellets scattered throughout muscular tissues, the abdominal cavity, and thorax.
Shotgun wounds may be considerably less severe than the "magnum" injury described above because of the great variety of barrel lengths, muzzle constrictions (chokes), distance from muzzle to target, weight and size of shot, energy level to which the shotshell is loaded, and the shot pattern at the target range. Even though it has been shown repeatedly that bullets are not sterilized by the gases of combustion upon being fired, it is stir a firmly held and widespread belief Contamination must always be suspected in gunshot injuries and may occur in the following ways: The bullet punches out a small piece of skin and hair and carries it into the wound.
Military surgeons established the time-tested classic technique of managing gunshot injuries. When military surgeons, trained in these precepts, returned to civilian life, they encountered a class of firearm injuries with which they were unfamiliar.
With its future as a member of the 19-nation euro zone potentially at stake, a second government minister accused its international lenders of subjecting it to slow and calculated torture. Snyder is a graduate of the McIntire School of Commerce at the University of Virginia and has a law degree and an LLM from the University of Florida Law School. His easy money boom led to the dot com bubble that doubled corporate profits from their 1987 low.
Five years of 0% interest rates have impoverished senior citizens and savers, but they have done wonders for Wall Street and mega-corporation profits, along with executive bonuses.
Is it a coincidence that employee compensation as a percentage of GNP peaked at 51% in 1971? The middle class saw their standard of living rise as wages outpaced inflation, savings rates were high and led to capital investment, debt was used for long term purchases like a home or automobile, and bankers accepted deposits and made safe loans. The relentless decline resumed after the dot com collapse, even as Greenspan and Bernanke blew their epic bubble. The Fed’s gift to banks and mega-corporations of zero interest rates have allowed S&P 500 corporations to refinance their existing debt and take on new debt at below market interest rates. When profits are at record highs and tax payments at record lows you know they have captured the system.
Instead of investing in capital to increase efficiency or expand their business, greedy myopic CEOs have chosen to buy back their own stock at all-time high prices. As Montier shows, the average lifespan of a company in the S&P 500 in the 1970s was about 27 years and is down to about 15 years now.
Not surprisingly, the renters (there are hardly any owners any more) clamor for just such actions. Because of this, the extraction of energy resources and of resources in general operates in a way that is not at all intuitive as we approach limits. Particular problems include the huge investment required for such substitution, impacts on the financial system, and shortages developing simultaneously in many areas (oil, metals such as copper, rare earth metals, and fresh water, for example). As we approach limits, diminishing returns leads to growing inefficiency in production, rather than growing efficiency. Another is the steep rise in costs that occurs when a community finds it must use desalination to obtain fresh water because deeper wells no longer work. In a period of slowly rising costs, technological advances can easily offset the underlying rise in extraction costs, leading to falling total costs. Once limits are approached, technological advances can no longer completely offset underlying cost increases. There is evidence that the Sixth Mass Extinction of species started back in the days of hunter-gatherers, as their ability to use of fire to burn biomass and ability to train dogs to assist them in the hunt for food gave them an advantage over other species.
Energy consumption is needed for such diverse tasks as growing food, producing fresh water, controlling microbes, and transporting goods. The only way such control can happen is through a self-organized economy that allows people, businesses, and governments to work together on common endeavors.
This networked economy gradually adds more businesses and consumers, each one making choices based on prices and regulations in place at the particular time.
It can grow, but it cannot easily shrink, because the economy is constantly optimized for the circumstances at the time.
If the economy shrinks, the number of debt defaults will soar, and many banks and insurance companies will find themselves in financial difficulty.
While all of these may not happen at once, the combination makes the result worse than it otherwise would be.
Diminishing returns (that is, rising production costs as depletion sets in) for resources such as fresh water, metals, and fossil fuels. Declining soil quality due to erosion, loss of mineral content, or increased soil salinity due to poor irrigation practices. Rising population relative to the amount of arable land, fresh water, forest resources, mineral resources, and other resources available. A need to use an increasing share of resources to combat pollution, related to resource extraction and use. A need to use an increasing share of resources to maintain built infrastructure, such as roads, pipelines, electric grids, and schools.
A need to use an increasing share of resources to support government activities to support an increasingly complex society. Declining availability of food that is traditionally hunted (such as fish, monkeys, and elephants), because an increase in human population leads to over-hunting and loss of habitat for other species. Our current problems are worryingly similar to the problems experienced by earlier civilizations before they collapsed.
Such issues led to a situation of diminishing returns, similar to the problems we are experiencing today. We know from studies of these prior civilizations how diminishing returns manifested themselves. This occurred for two reasons: As wages dropped and needed taxes rose, workers found it increasingly difficult to obtain an adequate diet. Rather a long period of growth was succeeded by a period of stagnation, before a crisis period of several years took place. We began a stagflation period, at least in the industrialized economies, when oil prices began to spike in the 1970s.
Modeling underlying the book Limits to Growth shows why depletion can be expected to lead to declining economic growth. This dynamic makes it very difficult to produce enough additional resources so that economic growth can continue. The closest it comes to economic modeling is modeling industrial capital, which it describes as factories, machines, and other physical “stuff” needed to extract resources and produce goods. Our real concern should be collapse caused by reaching limits in many ways, not the slow decline reflected in a Hubbert Curve. The view that resources such as oil will gradually decrease in availability once 50% of the resources have been extracted reflects a best-case scenario, where a perfect replacement (both cheap and abundant) replaces the item that is depleting, so that the economy is not affected. If a country’s economy uses an expensive source of energy (say high-priced oil or renewables) it must compete with other countries that use cheaper fuel sources (such as coal). This solar energy is not evenly distributed: the warm areas of the world get considerably more than the cold areas of the world. The cold areas of the world “surged ahead” when their own forests ran short of the wood needed to provide the heat-energy they needed, and they learned to use coal instead. When energy costs rise, the rise in energy costs puts pressure both on wages and on interest rates (since interest rates determine financing costs), because businesses need to keep the total cost of goods and services close to “flat,” if consumers are to afford them. A much bigger concern should be that oil prices will fall too low, discouraging investment. The salaries of consumers go “less far” in buying basics such as food (which is raised and transported using oil) and transportation to work.
These ultra-low interest rates are needed to keep products affordable, since the high cost of oil (relative to consumer salaries) has not really gone away.

One example occurs when student loan borrowers find it impossible to repay these loans on their meager wages. All the increase in oil production since that date has been from unconventional sources like the Alberta Tar sands, from shale oil or natural gas liquids that are a by-product of shale gas production.
This is because high oil prices lead to recessionary conditions and slow or no growth in the economy. Goldilocks tries three kinds of porridge – some that is too hot, some that is too cold and some where the temperature is somewhere in the middle and therefore just right. The countries that have coped with the high energy prices best are the so called “emerging non OECD countries” and above all China. In a presentation to the All party Parliamentary Group on Peak Oil and Gas Charles Hall showed a number of diagrams on slides to express the consequences of depletion and rising energy costs of energy. As we seen the increasing needs of the oil and gas sector implies a transfer of resources from elsewhere through rising prices but the rest of the economy cannot actually pay this without crashing.
However, this has not really created production growth – it has instead created a succession of asset price bubbles. If the item comes direct from a manufacturer, it may be delivered in non-retail packaging, such as a plain or unprinted box or plastic bag. Find out more about your rights as a buyer - opens in a new window or tab and exceptions - opens in a new window or tab.
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The amount of communication can vary from a small puncture wound in the skin to a large avulsion of soft tissue that leaves bone exposed. Firstdegree open fractures have very small wounds and following surgical debridement can be treated in the same manner as a closed fracture. Contamination can occur at the time of the injury and anytime thereafter while the wound is exposed to the environment.
The purpose of the physical examination is to determine the status of the patient, to stabilize the patient, and to assess all injuries. 36-1 (A) An undiagnosed open fracture of the proximal femur was referred for internal fixation. It is important to know, for instance, whether the automobile struck the animal or ran over it.
Surgical preparation of the limb is carried out through clipping and scrubbing of the area around the wound before removal of the bandage.
Casts and splints make wound care difficult and usually allow excessive movement of the fracture during the frequent cast changes that are necessary to deal with open wounds. Therefore, intramedullary rods are used in first-degree open fractures in the dog with results similar to those that would be expected with open treatment of closed fractures by the same methods. External skeletal fixation is my first choice for treating severe third-degree open fractures (Fig. 36-2 (A) This comminuted second-degree open fracture of the femur occurred in a Great Dane that was hit by a garbage truck. The decision to close a wound or leave it open often will determine success or failure of the fracture repair. These wounds can be managed with a massive cancerous bone graft after the wound bed is covered with granulation tissue, usually within 10 to 14 days. Thus, the veterinary surgeon must know the wound-creating capabilities of the firearms and ammunition available and in general use in his area (Tables 36-1 through 36-3). 36-4 Nonmilitary type projectile fragments resulted from abrupt deceleration on striking the proximal humerus. These long bullets were well stabilized by the rifling and maintained a point-on flight before and after impact. Actual tissue damage produced by the bullets so tested showed these studies to be imprecise.
Since the only movable component of the cartridge is the bullet (I), which is held in the cartridge neck by friction, it is forced forward at increasing velocity, engaging the rifling (A) cut into the barrel. The initial velocity, measured at a point approximately 15 feet from the muzzle, is the speed transferred to the projectile by the combustion of the propelling charge. Impact velocity is the speed at which the bullet meets target tissue and determines the wound character. Residual (remaining) velocity is that velocity retained by the missile after it has passed through the tissues. It is seldom necessary to compute this energy because convenient tables are readily available for all commercially produced cartridges (Table 36-2). Thus, doubling the velocity increases the kinetic energy fourfold while increasing the mass produces a much smaller effect.
This potential is realized by the rate and degree of bullet deceleration by tissue elasticity, cohesiveness, and density.
Military projectiles have a lead core fully surrounded by a copper zinc alloy jacket except for a small exposed lead area at their bases (Fig. 36-9 (A, B) Military fulljacketed rifle bullets recovered from tissue show distortions resulting from deceleration..
Under optimum conditions of bullet design and manufacture associated with the appropriate twist of rifling, the bullet: follows its trajectory and penetrates the air with least retardation.
While the bullet is passing through the rifling and receiving its rotation, it is supported on all sides by the barrel and is forced to rotate around its center of form. It is not merely the projectile's energy upon impact but rather that which is transferred to the tissues that determines wound extent. Skeletal muscle fibers are organized into distinct bundles within connective tissue envelopes. Although muscle tissue may be displaced a considerable distance radially, damage to muscle fibers themselves does not extend very far peripherally.(1,11)Most of the damage is done by the capillary disruption and compromised blood supply. There are two types of bone structure discernible in various proportions in the long and flat bones. The effects of such contact depend on the type of bone structure that is struck, the surrounding and supporting structures, and the physical characteristics of the missile.
36-6, B) at a muzzle velocity of 850 fps, and the kinetic energy at the muzzle is 370 ftlb (see Table 36-1).
This has been called an "indirect fracture." Such injuries are caused by the high pressures suddenly launched against the bone by the leading particle edge of the rapidly expanding temporary cavity.
36-10 (A) Cranial-caudal view of a large-caliber revolver bullet shot at low velocity, at rest against the distal radius. At low velocities small holes of bullet diameter or slightly larger are present at entry and exit sites.
The temporary cavity, which continues expanding after the projectile perforates, creates a negative pressure that sucks contaminated material into the wound track through both the entry and exit holes.
It emphasized wide surgical debridement with enlarging incisions, removal of devitalized tissue, thorough irrigation with physiologic solutions, and delayed primary or secondary closured Antibiotics were routinely employed.
Few of the combat wounds were created by low-velocity handgun bullets, but this type of injury was most common in urban civilian medical practices.(24) These wounds usually involved bullets with velocities less than 1200 fps (see Table 36-1). Foreign bodies such as shotshell wads must be removed, but probing of the wound is avoided. Almskog BA et al: Local metabolic changes in skeletal muscle following high energy missile injury. Alsoform DJ et al: Shotgun pellet embolization from the chest to the middle cerebral arteries. Burkhalter WE et al: Experiences with delayed primary closure of war wounds of the hand in Vietnam. Chapman MW, Mahoney M: The role of earlyinternal fixation in the management of open fractures.
Dziemian AJ et al: Comparison of the wounding characteristics of some commonly encountered bullets.
Gross A, Cutright DE, Bhaskar SM: Effectiveness of pulsating water jet lavage in treatment of contaminated crushed wounds. Hampton OP: The indications for debridement of gunshot (bullet) wounds of the extremities in civilian practice. Patzakis MJ, Harvey JP, Ivler D: The role of antibiotics in the management of open fractures. Petty W: Quantitative determination of the effect of antimicrobial irrigating solutions on bacterial contamination of experimental wounds. Spiegel PG, Vander Schilden JL: Minimal internal and minimal external fixation in the treatment of open extremity fractures. He is an attorney that has worked for some of the largest and most prominent law firms in Washington D.C. Nixon toady Arthur Burns created an inflationary boom in corporate profits to 8% of GNP in the late 70’s followed by the collapse to 3% caused by Volcker having to raise rates to extreme levels to crush the Burns created runaway inflation.
Technological progress over the thirty years was constant, but did not result in declining wages. Our iconic mega-corporations fired Americans and hired Chinese slave laborers, lobbied for tax breaks, invested in their own stock, kept wage increases below the level of true inflation, and paid extravagant compensation packages to their Harvard MBA executives.
Their financial engineering machinations on behalf of Wall Street did nothing for the average worker on Main Street. In tandem, the average tenure of CEOs is down from about 10 years in the 1970s to about 6 years now. Economists have put together models of how the economy can be expected to act based on how the economy acts when it is distant from limits.
In other words, as more resources are extracted, extraction becomes increasingly expensive in terms of resources required, including human and other energy requirements. The types of energy harnessed include human slaves, energy from animals of various sorts, solar energy, wind energy, water energy, burned wood and fossil fuels, and electricity from various sources.
Development of a self-organized economy started very early, as bands of hunter-gatherers learned to work together, perhaps over shared meals of cooked food. As new products are developed (such as cars), support for prior approaches (such as horses, buggies and buggy whips) disappears.
Lack of banking and insurance services will adversely affect both local and international trade. Less industrialized countries have been able to continue growth their growth pattern longer.
It also shows why extracting all of the resources that seem to be available is likely to be impossible. It finds that inability to produce enough industrial capital is likely to be a bottleneck far before resources in the ground are exhausted. As a practical matter, we cannot ramp up all of the physical infrastructure needed (pipelines, steaming equipment, refining equipment) without badly cutting into the resources needed to “grow” the rest of the economy.
The high price of energy puts the country with high-cost energy at a severe competitive disadvantage, pushing the economy toward economic contraction.
The cold areas of the world are forced to compensate for this lack of free solar energy by building more substantial buildings and heating them more. The knowledge they gained about using coal for home-heating quickly transferred to the ability to use coal to provide heat for industrial purposes. Such low oil prices also encourage civil unrest in oil exporting nations, because the governments of these nations depend on tax revenue that is available when oil prices are high to balance their budgets.
Higher costs for basics causes consumers cut back on discretionary expenditures, such as buying new more expensive homes, buying new cars, and going out to restaurants. Low oil prices also contribute to Russia’s belligerence, since it needs high oil revenues to maintain its budget. As we reach limits, it becomes harder to mitigate the effects of a major hurricane or earthquake.
This is despite a massive increase in investment by the oil industry that has not yielded any increase in ‘conventional oil’ production but has merely served to slow what would otherwise have been a faster decline.
Because prices are not rising fast enough, and costs are increasing, the costs of the independent oil majors are rising at 2 to 3% a year more than their revenues.
The working assumption of mainstream economists is that there is an oil price that is not too high to undermine economic growth but also not too low so that the oil companies could not cover their extraction costs – a price that is just right. China has been bidding away an increasing part of the oil production and continuing to grow while higher energy prices have led to stagnation in the OECD economies.
I have taken just two of these diagrams here – comparing 1970 with what might be the case in 2030. That is what the above diagrams show – a transfer of resources from discretionary consumption to investment in energy infrastructure. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount.
In contrast, a closed fracture is one that is contained within the extremity without a break in the integument. Second-degree open fractures are more extensive than first-degree open fractures, and there is usually a larger wound that communicates with the fracture.
Therefore, it is important to provide first aid measures whenever dealing with open fractures. If external bleeding is a problem at the time of injury, usually a pressure dressing applied to the area can control hemorrhage while the physical examination is performed.
Clipping of the leg prior to surgery showed a punched-out skin lesion on the lateral thigh.
The soft tissue damage that is always a part of this injury can in great measure be a part of the prognosis regarding it. Following general preparation of the leg and donning of a cap, mask, and gloves by the surgeon, the rest of the wound may be clipped and surgically scrubbed.
The rapid penetration of the wound by pathogenic organisms was demonstrated by Petty to prevent complete sterilization by antibacterial solutions.(44) However, antibiotics are useful in decreasing the bacterial population and may reduce the surface contamination to zero.
This stable internal fixation has allowed the surgeon to reduce and stabilize the fracture, permitting the soft tissues to heal without motion at the fracture site. Although each case will present slightly different problems, some basic rules should be followed and remembered. In this instance the graft (see Chapter 39) is used to fill the entire wound with cancerous bone right up to the skin edges. He must also be aware of the energy potential of each cartridge and the types, composition, construction, and ballistic properties of the projectiles loaded into these cartridges (see Figs. Fragmentation of a bullet and further disintegration of the fragments augment its "wounding power" and increase wound severity. These firearms and early breech-loaders were of large bore (caliber) and were very effective when adversaries were at close quarters. Dimond and Rich examined these casualties and found that entrance wounds were small and related to bullet diameter, while exit wounds were devastating with much tissue loss.
The path and motion of a spinning projectile are greatly affected not only by its own physical makeup but in large measure by the properties of the traversed structures. 36-5 is a cutaway drawing showing the cartridge case (A) lying within a corresponding chamber (B) cut into the steel barrel (C). The rifling twist is calculated to be approximately one complete turn in 10 inches for the average hunting rifle in general use and imparts a spin about its longitudinal axis to the bullet.
Its only importance is that it delivers the missile to the target tissue with sufficient velocity at impact to produce injury. Wounds that occur when impact velocities are low show less tissue damage and are free from the explosive effect. Nevertheless, the kinetic energy equation should be studied to determine the contribution of each of its elements to the magnitude of tissue destruction. This affirms the status of velocity as the most important single factor in making the bullet capable of producing damage (Fig. Most hunting and military bullets vary in weight between 150 grains and 200 grains, except those cartridges used for large dangerous game.
A number is determined for each bullet that represents the ease with which it penetrates the atmosphere. Despite these innovations, some bullets fail to expand well at long range even though expansion is adequate at short range. These behave in a fashion similar to soft-point jacketed bullets, with the points expanding presumably through the wedging action of the tissues while the bases remain unchanged. The sole purpose of rifling is to give adequate rotation to the bullet to keep it stable in flight.
Inherent asymmetry occurs during the manufacture of the bullet when imperfections in the jacket or core or defects in the bonding of dissimilar materials result in an eccentric center of mass. Yaw is a major factor in explaining the apparently aberrant bullet wounds seen in veterinary practice. Vascular damage may be extensive for a considerable distance peripherally, with collections of blood filling in the fascial planes between separated muscle fibers.(36) Unless larger blood vessels are directly struck by the bullet, they remain intact when viewed macroscopically.
Compact (cortical) bone is the denser part, which forms the outermost shell of all parts of the skeleton.
The low-velocity handgun-generated fractures most often reported in civilian studies show great variability in degree. Penetration of the skin requires approximately 150 fps, and penetration of bone causes another loss of 200 fps. They are usually simple fractures instead of the dramatic comminution resulting from direct contact between rigid bone and a high-velocity rifle bullet. Cavitation is small at the lower velocities but damage may be severe because bone chips are usually driven into the brain. A third mechanism for contamination involves tissue that is temporarily forced out of either of the perforations but remains attached.
In combat situations surgeons dealt primarily with high-velocity bullets delivered from rifles or machine guns and with mortar or artillery fragments, which created similar wounds.
This chart tells the story of elitist bankers supporting the agenda of a corporate fascist state, resulting in the gutting of the middle class. Greenspan and then Bernanke  proceeded to drive interest rates to record lows creating a prodigious housing bubble resulting in the greatest level of mal-investment and financial fraud in world history. Employee compensation as a percentage of GNP declined from 47% to 44% BEFORE the financial collapse. Driving up quarterly earnings per share to boost their own stock option compensation is how it rolls in corporate America today. Combine this with the incentive systems prevalent today (think stock options), and it is only logical that a CEO who is going to be around for as few as six years and is going to get a large chunk of her rewards in stock options will want to see higher stock prices. And when it does, profit margins will have no choice but to remember their long forgotten tendency to revert to mean.
Unfortunately, these economic models are worse than useless as limits approach because modeled relationships no longer hold. As the quality of the metal ore drops, the amount of waste material rises slowly at first, and then rapidly escalates as metal concentrations approaches 0%, as in Figure 2.
Systems designed for the current level of usage, such as oil pipelines or Internet infrastructure, cannot easily be changed to accommodate a much lower level of usage.
Our situation is likely to differ from that of early civilizations, because early civilizations were not dependent on fossil fuels.
A similar problem is likely to exist if we try to ramp up world oil and gas supply using fracking. They are also more inclined to use “closed in” transportation vehicles that are more costly than say, walking or using a bicycle.
Since the warm areas of the world were not yet industrialized, the coal-using countries of the North were able to surge ahead economically. In fact, pressure to keep the total cost of goods low creates pressure to reduce wages when oil prices are high (perhaps by sending manufacturing to a lower-cost country), just as it adds pressure to keep interest rates low. These cutbacks by consumers lead to job layoffs in discretionary sectors and to falling home prices.
A third example is the possibility that businesses extracting resources will find it impossible to repay loans with today’s (relatively) low commodity prices. Despite all that investment in conventional oil production it fell by 1 million barrels a day.
Overall profitability is falling and some oil majors have had to borrow and sell assets to pay dividends.
The problem is that the Goldilocks situation no longer describes what is happening – another story provides a better metaphor – that story is ‘Catch 22’. But such a transfer would be crushing for the other sectors and their decline will likely drag down the whole economy. The severity of the recessions may be variable in different countries because competitive strength in this model goes to those countries where energy is used most efficiently and which can afford to pay somewhat higher prices for energy. The old nomenclature of simple for closed fracture and compound for open fracture has largely been discontinued.

Soft tissue may be injured to greater extent, and these fractures represent a middle ground between first-degree and third-degree fractures.
The two major problems that must be overcome with open fractures are hemorrhage and protection of the wound.
Occasionally, spurting blood may require the use of a hemostat to directly control the source of bleeding. A sterile lubrication jelly can be placed in the wound to avoid contamination of the wound with the hair while clipping. When dealing with severe, third-degree open fractures in the dog, the acceptance of internal fixation with plates and screws is not universal.
The placement of the pins away from the fracture site and soft tissue injury preserves tenuous vascularity and allows for adequate wound care.
The wound is covered with Vaseline gauze and kept under a sterile bandage, which is checked by changing as needed (every 2 to 4 days).
Tissues of different densities variably influence the bullet retardation and drastically alter the manner in which kinetic energy is transferred.(29,50) It is tissue absorption of the kinetic energy shed by the bullet that is the ultimate determinant of wound severity and not the kinetic energy potential possessed by the bullet. Completing the steel envelope enclosing the cartridge is a breeching mechanism called the bolt (D). There is a transitional zone between low and high velocity injuries in which destruction becomes increasingly more extensive and the explosive effects begin to appear.
The difference between impact velocity and residual velocity forms the basis for calculating the kinetic energy expended in wound production.
This number is the ballistic coefficient and is found by dividing the sectional density (its weight divided by the square of the diameter) by a form factor related to the bullet's shape. Since these are supposed to be nonexpanding, the jackets are sometimes drawn thicker at the point than at the base ends.
The principle behind this design is to have a small caliber for high velocity with an enlarging point at impact, which greatly increases retardation and energy transfer. Some hollow-point bullets have bronze wedges inserted in the tip to facilitate expansion (Fig. The twist or pitch of rifling required depends on the sectional density of the bullet (weight divided by the square of the diameter). Because animal tissues have a density at least 800 times that of air, yaw is magnified in proportion to the sudden increase in density.
Blood vessels of this size have a good bit of elastic tissue in their walls and are stretched aside by the expanding temporary cavity only to snap back to their resting places when pressures return to normal.
Its thickness and density are determined by the stress to which the bone is exposed during its life.
This drops the remaining velocity to 500 fps and energy to approximately 120 ft-lb (see Table 36-3). Experimental studies(9) using high-velocity projectiles to create indirect fractures have shown the humerus to be much more resistant than the femur to this type of injury. This translates to a muzzle energy 2600 ft-lb, almost exactly the energy level of the .308-caliber Winchester cartridge with 150grain bullet.
As impact energies increased, the size of temporary cavities and associated forces increased in proportion. You can follow his work on The Economic Collapse blog, End of the American Dream and The Truth Wins.
Anyone who views this chart in a positive manner is either a Federal Reserve banker or their paycheck is dependent upon the continuation of the pillaging of the working class. Corporate profits as a percentage of GNP skyrocketed from 4% to 10% in the space of six years. The collapse of the worldwide financial system was portrayed by the corporate mainstream media, bankers like Dimon, corporate CEOs like Immelt, billionaires like Buffet, captured government bureaucrats like Paulson, and politicians like McCain and Obama, as a systematic risk that required a taxpayer rescue of criminals. Gold’s purpose as a check on statists, Keynesians, politicians, bankers, and the military industrial complex couldn’t be any clearer.
Instead, there tends to be a steep rise in costs after a long period of slowly increasing costs, as limits are approached. This is in sharp contrast to lower costs and thus apparently greater efficiency experienced in earlier periods. These economies have gradually merged together to form the huge international economy we have today, including international trade and international finance. Pre-collapse skills tended to be useful post-collapse, because there was no real change in energy sources. The advantage of the cold industrialized countries grew as they learned to use oil and natural gas. Debt defaults are likely to rise as well, because laid-off workers have difficulty paying their loans. The next stage in this crisis has then been that investment projects are being cancelled – which suggests that oil production will soon begin to fall more rapidly.
According to Kopits the vast majority of the publically quoted oil majors require oil prices of over $100 a barrel to achieve positive cash flow and nearly a half need more than $120 a barrel.
Such countries are likely to do better but will not escape the general decline if they stay wedded to the conventional growth model.
Third-degree open fractures represent the most severe form of open fracture with comminution of the fracture and massive soft tissue damage. Many times, application of a pressure bandage with a clean dressing can solve both problems simultaneously. Rarely, if ever, should a tourniquet be applied to control bleeding in a hospital environment.
This lubrication jelly is miscible with water and is rinsed away during surgical debridement. In the past the most common combination was a neomycin-polymyxin-bacitracin solution containing 1 g neomycin, 500,000 units polymyxin, and 50,000 units of bacitracin per liter of saline or Ringer's solution. It has been shown that certain severe fractures can be stabilized and heal with the use of plates and screws, but severe unrelenting infection can also be a possibility.
The combination of interfragmentary screw fixation with a full-frame external skeletal fixation often represents the optimal method of stabilizing the fracture without stripping away vascularity that plating may demand. Wounds presented or dealt with after the 6 hour "golden period" can be considered to be infected.
When gaps exist in the fracture fragments, cancerous bone grafts should be used either immediately with good vascularity or after a 10 to 14-day delay when dealing with impaired circulation. When the firing pin (E) is released, it is spring-driven against the primer (F), releasing its flame through the 2. Controlled bullet flight is possible because of its ballistic coefficient and the spin imparted to it by the rifling.
Three major shapes are used by the military: flat base with rounded nose used in handguns (Fig. This increases the angle of presentation of the bullet by as much as 170? from point on flight, and since deceleration varies as the square of the angle of yaw, a highvelocity bullet may be stopped abruptly within the tissues, causing enormous destruction because of energy transfer. These figures will be further reduced by the retardation of any soft tissues traversed before the bone is struck. Whether this results from architectural differences, better insulation of the humerus against damage by muscle and fascia, or both is not clear.
Ricochet may occur (Kirkpatrick and DiMaio(33)) when the bullet penetrates one cortex, traverses the brain, and rebounds from or follows the contour of the inner surface of the opposite cortex.
In addition, every shotshell has a composition overpowder wad or plastic shot cup-wad combination separating the propellant powder from the shot.
In addition to the direct damage to muscle fibers, surrounding connective tissue, blood vessels, and bones were injured to the outer limits of the "explosive" cavity, leaving a significant amount of devascularized tissue at a considerable distance from the permanent wound track.
The reason corporate profits have always reverted to the mean was due to the basic tenets of free market capitalism. The decline has multiple causes, but the storyline about technology being the major cause is patently false.
Decades of declining real wages have left them virtually penniless, in debt up to their eyeballs, angry, frustrated, and unable to jump start our moribund economy by buying more Chinese produced crap. Loss of fossil fuels would considerably change the dynamic of the outcome, because most jobs would become obsolete. But once oil and natural gas became expensive, and industrialization spread around the world, the warm countries regained their advantage. Our experience in the 2007-2009 period shows that these impacts quickly lead to severe recession and a drop in oil prices. The rest of production is devoted to goods that are used in production – investment goods in the form of machinery, equipment, buildings, roads, infrastracture and their maintenance. Whatever the variability this is still a dead end model and at some point people will see that entirely different ways of thinking about economy and ecology are needed – unless they get drawn into conflicts and wars over energy by psychopathic policy idiots. Closed fractures, on the other hand, can contain devitalized skin that can be easily penetrated by bacteria resulting in the same problems that occur with open fractures. Soft tissue and bony avulsion may be part of the fracture, and often these injuries are caused by forces from without. If hemorrhage is not a severe problem, the wound should still be covered and protected by a clean dressing.
Physical examination should include all of the body systems, usually leaving the fracture until last. Complications such as tetanus or clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) are more likely in open fractures associated with high kinetic energies. Radiographs will reveal the extent of the bony injury and suggest the soft tissue involvement.
In my opinion, closure of a wound should be considered only with a well-debrided, clean first-or second-degree open fracture. High-velocity rifle wounds, for example, invariably result from the use of hunting ammunition (Fig. Expansion of hollow-point bullets is controlled by thickness and hardness of the jacket and by hardness of the cores. Imperfections or wear in the rifle barrel can distort the bullet during its flight within the barrel. The forces of spin may still be operating, and the bullet, which is point on at impact, may yaw 170? in a few inches, increasing retardation 172 times, and reestablishing point on flight in a few more inches. Spongy (cancerous) bone is preponderant in the long-bone ends and is found separating the inner and outer compact layers of the flat bones. To further detract from the legend, most such wounds seldom are inflicted at point-blank ranges, and the impact velocity is almost certain to be somewhat less than the muzzle velocity. These fractures appear, during microsecond roentgenography, as if the bone had been struck a substantial blow on the side facing the cavity radiating from the bullet track.
Young military surgeons repeatedly learned the appropriateness of excising all devitalized tissue back to fresh bleeding muscle margins and packing the wound. When a company is generating outsized profits, that industry will then attract new competitors, resulting in price competition and lower profits.
But financial engineering will not work permanently.  Baijnath Ramraika and Prashant Trivedi in their outstanding article Why Jeremy Grantham is Right about Corporate Profit Margins prove that corporate gross margins have not grown, technological advancement has not been a major factor, innovation and capital investment are non-existent, and corporate CEOs have utilized one time schemes to boost profits.
SG&A expenses as a percentage of revenue have been driven to all time lows, as outsourcing, downsizing, and working people to death have done wonders for corporate profits. Yellen, her Wall Street puppeteers, and the corporate titans should enjoy those record profits and record stock market highs. Closed fractures should, therefore, be evaluated very carefully in regard to the intactness of the integument and its viability.
Most commonly third-degree open fractures in the dog are the result of high-velocity bullet wounds. Most animals will be able to support themselves, but some animals following open fracture and severe bleeding may be in a state of shock and must be transported on a board or stretcher. If, in fact, the fracture is not covered on presentation, it should be covered immediately and bandaged with a sterile dressing. The devitalization of muscle mass and loss of vascularity, hence oxygenation of the tissues, are all important for these obligate anaerobes. The radiographic picture will allow for a plan of action to be undertaken when the animal is taken to the operating room for complete wound debridement and definitive fracture treatment. These wounds must have good vascularity, no tension or dead space when closing, and no devitalized tissue within their boundaries. If the graft does not take because of poor vascularity, it undergoes coagulation necrosis and is exuded from the wounds. The cartridge case is not merely a method for carrying all the components in one convenient package to allow ease of loading. Even if the bullet and barrel are within normal tolerance, a projectile abruptly launched into the atmosphere by 50,000 psi of gas pressure is subjected to stresses of great magnitude. It includes collagen fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers, fibroblasts, and histiocytes.
Given these statistics, it is not surprising that the .45-caliber automatic pistol and ammunition are not effective wound-producing agents, since the bullet may not fracture bone in the splintering, shattering manner usually seen in high-velocity rifle injuries. From 1950 through 1971, corporate profits as a percentage of GNP fluctuated in a narrow range between 5% and 7%. As a society runs up against energy depletion and other problems more and more production must go into energy acquisition, infrastructure and maintenance – less and less is available for consumption, and particularly for discretionary consumption. Since the incubation period of the clostridial organism is usually less than 24 hours, it is important to recognize quickly the conditions that may lead to its presence. A complete surgical scrub is carried out and the wound is draped; the surgeon, who is regowned and regloved after inspection of the wound during surgical preparation, begins the surgical debridement. Primary closure is also performed when closed suction drains can be used to control dead space.
When the cartridge is fired, the burning powder produces gas that builds up the internal pressure, forcing the thin walls of the brass cartridge case tightly against and gripping the chamber walls. H) Jacketed soft-point bullets with various nose shapes designed to expand in diameter but retain mass without excess fragmentation. Unequal fins formed of metal displaced by the rifling may be directed rearward beyond the base.
It is driven into the wound, adding its mass to the energy transfer and burying within the tissues a foreign body that must be removed. This was a reflection of a market driven by competition, a non-interventionist Federal Reserve, and a government not captured by corporate interests.
Short-term profits will be wiped out, as long-term consequences always arrive when you least expect it. If the dressing is inadequate, additional dressing can be applied over the existing dressing to completely cover and isolate the wound from the environment.
During the physical examination it is important not to manipulate the injured extremity to any great extent. Since copious amounts of fluid will be used in washing the wound, it is important to provide a plastic sheet or other impenetrable barrier for fluids between the extremity and the rest of the body or table.
Stabilization of the fracture allows more rapid healing of the soft tissues and seems to control infection. Manufacturers have attempted to design bullets that will expand equally at hunting ranges at all striking velocities. Figure 36-7, A and B shows a low-velocity, large-caliber projectile of expanding type that has come to rest against the caudal surface of the radius and produced such an injury. Shotgun pellets are spherical and decelerate rapidly, causing severe damage over a wide area because of devitalization secondary to vascular disruption. Deceivingly small, seemingly insignificant puncture wounds associated with a fracture may, in fact, have severe consequences brought about by penetration of foreign matter into the extremity combined with neglect through nondiagnosis or improper treatment of the open fracture (Fig. Initial physical examination should try to assess neural and vascular supply to the limb below the area of the fracture. More severe soft tissue injuries may occur through manipulation, and any lacerated vessels that have been temporarily occluded may start to hemorrhage again. When using any local antibiotic, systemic absorption may represent a problem; therefore, it is very important not to overdose the patient by this route. Following surgical debridement, the wound is lightly packed with sterile Vaseline gauze sponges.
These characteristics constitute the primary obturation that prevents gas from escaping to the rear. Wad-cutters may be flat across the entire face or may have flat surfaces surrounding a central projection. Liver, on the other hand, is covered by thin peritoneum superficially and a thin fibrous capsule which sends septae deep.
As the velocity increases, the cavitation also increases and the bone "explodes," as does soft tissue. Luckily for the oligarchs, most middle class Americans are already experiencing a depression and won’t notice the difference.
Blanching of the capillary bed or a pulse felt below the injury is indicative of adequate vascular flow. The dressing that was placed over the limb should not be removed until the animal is taken to the operating room for debridement. The effects of local antibacterial agents are local not systemic, but the ototoxic, neurotoxic, and nephrotoxic effects can be achieved through local lavage. Round-nosed bullets are retarded more rapidly in air and tissues than sharp points and consequently they penetrate less well. When a high-velocity missile (see Table 36-2) launched by a shoulder weapon strikes bone, fragments fly out into the temporary cavity.
The warmth of the extremity is also a helpful sign, but the extremity may be cool if the animal is in shock, and the capillary bed may also be affected by this situation. The unnecessary examination and probing of an open wound by one or several clinicians in a hospital environment is conducive to further contamination with pathogenic organisms of a hospital serotype. Recently, we have gone to flushing the wound during operative procedures using the antibiotic solution in a spray bottle, to allow a gentle mist to be sprayed over the entire wound once every 5 minutes. The fine reticular fibers that support the reticuloendothelial system offer little resistance to disruptive forces. Most, which remain attached to the periosteum, return to reasonable proximity to their original positions. Clipping a toenail short is another way to assess peripheral vascularity beyond the fracture site.
The spray bottle limits the amount of solution used, so that adequate concentrations are achieved with minimal volumes. If further debridement is needed, the patient is returned to the operating room and another surgical debridement is carried out. Both liver and muscle absorb the same amount of energy per centimeter of tissue, but the residual damage to the liver is greater, with.much tissue loss from the permanent cavity. Rarely, a few are detached fragments that become secondary missiles and may come to rest at some distance from the parent bone (Figs. If capillary bleeding exists, it is a positive sign for ah intact vascular supply for the foot. The antibiotic solution is not used during initial debridement and irrigation, since the fluid volumes required at this stage are so large (> 10 liters). An explanation for this phenomenon has been found in high-speed photographs taken of missiles passing through water, gelatin, and tissues. Surgical exposure should be adequate for debridement but should not devitalize more tissue. When the bed of the wound is covered with granulation tissue, the immediate threat of infection is gone.
Early workers explained the explosive cavity through the "accelerated particle theory." In this theory, the bullet's energy is considered to be transferred to the soft tissues in front and to each side. The skin incision should be through a skin surface that does not appear to have vascular compromise.
Momentum is imparted and these tissue particles are forced away from the bullet path to act like secondary missiles. Sometimes the incision can be an extension of the wound, whereas a separate incision away from the wound may be necessary in other cases.
Once set in motion, the particle movement continues until its inertia is overcome by tissue resistance, leaving behind a large cavity. This temporary or "explosive" cavity will, at its maximum size, be almost 30 times that of the permanent wound track.
It is important to remember that wound healing can take place only where the skin has adequate vascularity. The dependable features for predicting viability of muscle are listed in order of decreasing significance: ability to bleed, consistency, contractility, color.
Color, an often used criterion, is really one of least reliable and depends on the light source being used to examine it or tissue perfusion.

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