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Many solutions exist to improve the energy efficiency of these motorized systems, as described below.
Those wishing to improve passive energy efficiency often consider replacing motors as a starting point, especially if the existing motors are old and require rewinding.
This trend is reinforced by the determination of major countries to stop low-efficiency motor sales in the near future. Based on the IEC60034-30 Standard’s definition of three efficiency classes (IE1, IE2,IE3), many countries have defined a plan to gradually force IE1 and IE2 motor sales to meet IE3 requirements. Depending on their rated power, high-performance motors can improve operational efficiency by up to 10% compared to standard motors. In the past, designers tended to install oversized motors in order to provide an adequate safety margin and eliminate the risk of failure, even in conditions which were highly unlikely to occur.
Knowing that energy costs account for over 97% of the lifecycle costs of a motor, investing in a more expensive but more efficient motor can quickly be very profitable.
Improving active energy efficiency by simply stopping motors when they no longer need to be running.
Monitoring and correcting all the components in drive chains, starting with those on the larger motors, which may affect the overall efficiency. For a constant speed application, motor starters provide cheap, low-energyconsumption solutions.
Example of starter applications: ventilation, water storage pumps, waste water treatment stirring units, constant speed conveyors, etc.
When the application requires varying the speed, a Variable Speed Drive (VSD) provides a very efficient active solution as it limits the speed of the motor to limit energy consumption. It competes favourably with conventional mechanical solutions (valves, dampers and throttles, etc.), used especially in pumps and fans, where their operating principle causes energy to be lost by blocking ducts while motors are operating at full speed. VSDs also offer improved control as well as reduced noise, transient effects and vibration. As VSDs are costly devices which generate additional energy losses and can be a source of electrical pollution, their usage should be limited to applications that intrinsically require variable speed or fine control functions.
To handle loads that change depending on application requirements, starters, VSDs, or a combination of both with an appropriate control strategy (see cascading pumps example Fig. One situation that is absolutely stuffed with the opportunity to improve your own carbon footprint and pay down some of the environmental debt your lifestyle racks up is moving house.
No matter how energetic you were in making your new home environmentally-friendly before you moved, your work isn’t done after you move in. For example, even if you replaced everything with energy efficient appliances, install a standby power switch like an EcoSwitch in every room and run every conceivable appliance or device through it.
No house is going to be perfect, but a little planning before you buy and move and a little thought put into the way you’re going to live in the new house can have a tremendous impact on the carbon footprint you create in your new house and the energy costs you have to deal with.
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As well as contributing to operational efficiency by avoiding lost production, these measures avoid the energy losses associated with frequent restarts and the extra work generated when batches of products go to waste. Motorised systems are one of the potential areas where energy savings can be made.Those wishing to improve passive energy efficiency often consider replacing motors as a starting point. Motors operating for long periods are obvious candidates for replacement by high-performance motors, particularly if these existing motors are old and require rewinding.Depending on the power they generate, high-performance motors can improve operational efficiency by up to 10% compared to standard motors. As well as being inefficient, oversized motors are more expensive to buy than correctly sized motors.
Larger motors also tend to have lower power factors, which can lead to charges being levied for reactive power.
Monitoring and correcting all the components within the drive chains, starting with those on the larger motors capable of affecting overall efficiency. Every time a fan or a pump is installed with a view to achieving specific flow or pressure levels, sizing is based on maximum demand. Pressure or head is proportional to the square of the shaft speed; halving the shaft speed reduces pressure by a quarter. Halving the shaft speed reduces energy consumption by an eighth and, by implication, halving the flow reduces energy consumption by an eighth.In light of this, energy consumption can be reduced in cases where the fan or the pump does not have to generate 100% of the flow or pressure. Control valve: a valve is used to control flow by increasing frictional resistance at the pump’s outlet. Energy is wasted, as the flow produced by the pump is subsequently reduced by the action of the valve. Bypass device: with this method, the pump turns continuously at full speed and excess fluid at the pump’s outlet is channelled upstream, causing flow to be reduced without the risk of outlet pressure increasing.
The system is very inefficient, as the energy used to pump excess fluid is completely wasted. Multiple pumps or fans: these configurations support ad hoc increases by activating extra pumps or fans, making control difficult. There is usually a loss in efficiency, as the actual need is often somewhere between the different speeds available. Damper: a similar technology to the control valve in systems with a pump, this reduces flow by partly obstructing the fan’s outlet. Energy is wasted, as the flow generated by the fan is subsequently reduced by the action of the damper.
The system is very inefficient, as the energy used to propel the air or gas is completely wasted. Energy is wasted, as the flow generated by the fan is subsequently reduced by the action of the blades. Inlet guide blades: fins are used to obstruct or facilitate gas flow inside a fan, thereby determining its efficiency. When changing the dimensions of the pulleys enables fans or pumps to turn at their optimal speed.
When the fan or pump can operate at full speed continuously without the control features referred to above being installed, or with these control features installed but unused (e.g. In reality, the potential savings will depend on the model of the fan or pump used, its intrinsic efficiency, the size of the motor, annual operating hours and the cost of electricity locally. The previous section showed how pumps and fans can benefit from the use of variable speed drives. Control based on fixed pressure and variable flow: this type of control is often used for water distribution systems (drinking water, irrigation). Control for heating systems: in heating and cooling circuits, flow should vary with temperature.
Control based on fixed flow and variable pressure: mainly associated with pumping applications (pressure differences caused by different levels) such as cleaning, watering, cooling and freezing installations. Lighting can account for over 35% of energy consumption in buildings, depending on the types of activities carried out in them.
More efficient lights may be a possibility, depending on the needs, type and age of the lighting system. A less common passive energy efficiency measure, but one which is worth considering in tandem with the use of lights fitted with ballasts, is to replace the reflectors diverting light to areas where it is needed.
Two lights can be replaced by a single light, with potential savings of 50% or more in terms of the energy costs associated with lighting. Existing luminaires can be retrofitted by installing mirror-type reflectors without having to adjust the distance between them.

Dimmable lights to provide a low level of illumination (night light) at off-peak periods (e.g.
These various technologies may be combined and can also be used to create a specific effect or atmosphere. Some of the lighting control systems currently available, such as those based on the KNX protocol, have the additional advantage of supporting integration into building management systems (see Fig. If this type of system is to produce results, the design and implementation stage must begin with an audit of energy consumption and a study of the lighting system with a view to devising the best lighting solution and identifying potential reductions in terms of both costs and energy consumption. If the energy distribution company imposes penalties for reactive power consumption, improving power factor correction is a typically passive energy saving measure.
Many types of equipment (variable speed drives, electronic ballasts, etc.) and computers generate harmonics within their line supply. Energy distribution companies can use this solution in supply contracts containing optional or emergency (involving compulsory limits) restrictive clauses whose application is determined by the consumer (based on special rates). This management strategy is an option for companies able to benefit from lower rates by scheduling consumption for all their processes where time of day is neither important nor critical. The use of generating sets to supply energy improves operational flexibility by providing the energy needed to continue normal operations during periods of peak or restricted demand. Whether it relates to measurements, operating statuses or rate bases, raw data can only be useful when converted into usable information and distributed on a need-to-know basis to all those involved in energy efficiency with a view to improving the expertise of all participants in the energy management process. The information system can then be used on a daily basis by the operators at the various locations where electricity is consumed (for industrial processes, lighting, air conditioning, and so on) to achieve the energy efficiency objectives specified by company management.
Encouraging familiarity with data and distributing it can help keep everything up to date, but electrical networks develop rapidly and are permanently raising questions about their ability to cope with such new developments.With this in mind, a system for monitoring the transfer and consumption of energy is able to provide all the information needed to carry out a full audit of the site.
Information and monitoring systems are synonymous with both intranet and Internet communication networks, with exchanges taking place within computer architectures designed on a user-specific basis. Remote monitoring and control improve data availability and accessibility, whilst offering greater flexibility in terms of servicing. In addition, these diagrams make it clear that the choice of components is determined by the choice of architecture (for example, the sensors must be right for the digital bus).
A measuring device can measure one or more parameters with or without using calculations (energy, power, cos ?). Replacing a standard circuit breaker with a circuit breaker containing an electronic control unit can provide a great deal of information on a digital bus (effective and instantaneous measurements of currents, phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase voltages, imbalances of phase currents and phase-to-phase voltages, frequency, total or phase-specific active and reactive power, etc.). When designing these systems, therefore, it is very important to define objectives for energy efficiency and be familiar with all the technological solutions, including their respective advantages, disadvantages and any restrictions affecting their application (see Fig. This method may require improvements to be made in terms of automation, training or monitoring, and operator incentives may have to be offered. Further advantages can be obtained by using these VSDs in conjunction with control devices tailored to meet individual requirements.
K12) should be considered, in order to provide the most efficient and profitable overall solution.
Most people have a certain idea of what opportunity looks like: it’s either financial or career-oriented, allowing for a better life or more money. Often, once we’re settled in to a certain way of doing things in a home it’s very difficult to make changes. The opportunity lies in being able to set up, renovate, and design your new home for maximum power saving and minimum carbon footprint. There are several things you can do lifestyle-wise to make your new home even greener – and the best time to do them is right as you move in, before you slip back into old habits.
Now’s the time when you can run the wires cleverly to keep everything neat and hidden and yet still be able to reduce energy costs with the push of a button. Moving house is an opportunity to reinvent your lifestyle and, just as importantly, to save a lot of money over the longer term. For example, day-time activities could be performed at night to in order to take advantage of cheaper rates.
Less obvious, perhaps, are the potential savings offered by the various control devices and programmes associated with this type of equipment.
Motors are at their most effective when operating at between 60% and 100% of their nominal load. When deciding whether to replace a motor, it is essential to take these factors, as well as the motor’s remaining life cycle, into consideration. As a result, oversizing is the norm, and the device concerned will not operate efficiently at other speeds.
The savings involved are significant, even where the flow is only reduced by a small amount(see Fig. In addition, pumps have an optimal operating level and increasing resistance by this method may force the pump to operate at a less efficient level (with additional energy loss) where it may be less reliable. K12), as opposed to the technologies discussed earlier, constitutes an active energy efficiency method and provides the type of variable efficiency required for optimal pump or fan operation.
This solution does not afford the flexibility associated with variable speed drives, but it involves little work and could well be covered by the maintenance budget without the need for any additional investment.
These savings can be calculated using special software or can be estimated with some accuracy by installing temporary meters and analysing the data obtained.
Still further advantages can be enjoyed by using these in conjunction with control devices tailored to meet individual requirements.
Lighting control is one of the easiest ways to make substantial energy savings for very little investment and is one of the most common energy saving measures.Lighting systems for commercial buildings are governed by standards, regulations and building codes. For example, new fluorescent lights are now available, although ballasts also need to be replaced when lights are changed.New types of ballast are also available, offering significant energy savings compared to the earlier electromagnetic ballasts.
Advances in materials and design have resulted in better quality reflectors which can be fitted to existing lights. This has the advantage of simplifying the retrofitting process and reducing the work involved, with minimal changes made to the existing ceiling design. The aim of lighting control programmes is to give users the required levels of convenience and flexibility, whilst supporting active energy savings and cost reduction by switching lights off as soon as they are no longer needed. These are best used in areas where the typical time spent or period of activity is clearly defined (such as corridors). These are particularly well suited to areas where the time spent or period of activity cannot be accurately predicted (storerooms, stairwells, etc.).
When sufficient daylight is available, lights are turned off or switched to night-light mode. For example, programmable lighting panels in meeting areas (for board meetings, presentations, conferences, etc.) have a number of different light settings which can be changed at the flick of a switch. As far as this kind of technology is concerned, Schneider Electric also has solutions for offices as well as exterior lighting, car parking facilities, parks and landscaped gardens.
It takes immediate effect after implementation and does not require any changes to procedures or staff behaviour. The effects produced can sometimes be significant (transient overvoltages causing protection relays to trip, or heat and vibration potentially reducing the efficiency and service life of such equipment as capacitor banks used for power factor correction).
This management policy is typically used during the hottest or coldest months of the year when companies and private customers have very high requirements for ventilation, air conditioning and heating, and when electricity consumption exceeds normal demand considerably. An automated control system can be configured to manage this energy production in line with needs and the rates applicable at any given time. Data must also be explained, as people can only develop the management and intervention skills integral to any effective energy saving policy if they fully understand the issues involved.

It can also ensure these same locations make a positive contribution to company operations (in terms of product volumes, conditions for supermarket shoppers, temperatures in cold rooms, etc.). As well as electricity, this audit would cover water, air, gas and steam.Measurements, comparative analyses and standardised energy consumption data can be used to determine the efficiency of processes and industrial installations. These include control and automation systems for lighting and buildings, variable speed drives, process automation, etc. Initially created by Schneider Electric, this is now a standard protocol.In practice, electrical data is recorded on industrial Web servers installed in enclosures. This equipment can be used at a basic level within the range of monitoring systems, offering access to information on electricity throughout the site. They help to visualise and explain all the various services which can be used to promote energy efficiency. K27).To cover all the various scenarios, it may be necessary to search through various hardware catalogues or simply consult a manufacturer offering a wide range of electrical distribution equipment and information systems. But opportunity comes in many forms, some less obvious than others – especially when the opportunity is about something other than money, like the environment. Renovations are difficult to justify purely for a slow trickle of energy saving, and changing the way your home’s infrastructure and other systems are handled can be disruptive and stressful.
Even if you aren’t buying a home that has a good energy rating or that has been designed to be efficient, don’t purchase a house that’s too big for your family.
Renovations give people pause for good reason: Not only can they be expensive, they are stressful and disruptive. In general, systematic oversizing, combined with the ineffective control methods described above, allows scope for significant energy savings to be made by using control methods aimed at reducing the pump or fan’s supply current during periods of reduced demand. Lighting not only needs to be functional, but must also meet occupational health and safety requirements and be fit for purpose.In many cases office lighting is excessive and there is considerable scope for making passive energy savings. For example, T8 lights with electronic ballasts use between 32% and 40% less electricity than T12 lights fitted with electromagnetic ballasts.Having said this, electronic ballasts do have a number of disadvantages compared with magnetic ballasts. These reflectors intensify useful light, so that fewer lights may be required in some cases.
There are a number of technologies available with various degrees of sophistication, although the time taken to recoup investments is generally short at six to twelve months.
Reducing consumption in this way can prove problematic in residential and service sector environments, as they may considerably inconvenience building occupants.
When energy supplied from outside becomes more expensive than energy generated internally, the control system automatically switches between the two. Data distribution must produce actions, and these actions will have to continue if energy efficiency is to be sustained (see Fig. Recording information on effective equipment use makes it possible to determine accurately the available capacity on the network or a transformer and to establish how and when maintenance work should be performed (ensuring measures are taken neither too soon nor too late). Connection to a server and a standard Web browser makes it much easier to use data and export it to Microsoft Excel™ spreadsheets for the purpose of tracing power curves in real time.
Certain manufacturers, including Schneider Electric, offer advisory and research services to assist those looking to select and implement all these various pieces of equipment. That’s why the ideal time to consider these changes is when you’re moving: it’s an opportunity to design the way you live from the ground up.
It is also important to ensure that the new motor’s critical performance characteristics (such as speed) are equivalent to those of the existing motor.
In the past, designers tended to develop oversized motors in order to provide an adequate safety margin and eliminate the risk of failure, even in conditions which were highly unlikely to occur.
For example, the pump used may be a displacement or centrifugal pump, and the fan used may be a centrifugal or axial-flow fan. Unfortunately, the efficiency losses incurred by the various components mean that these theoretical values cannot be achieved in practice. Their operating frequency (between 20,000 and 60,000 Hz) can introduce harmonic noise or distortion into the electrical network and presents the risk of overheating or reducing the service life of transformers, motors and neutral lines. Energy can be saved without having to compromise on lighting quality.New, high-performance reflectors offer a spectral efficiency of over 90% (see Fig. Customers from industry may show more of an interest in this type of scheme and could benefit from contracts reducing unit costs by up to 30% if they have a high number of non-essential loads. K19).However, this cycle of operations requires an effective communication network to be in place.
This same principle is used by Schneider Electric to communicate data associated with promoting energy efficiency. As might be expected, installation and maintenance work requires less expertise than for Level 3, since all the electrical distribution devices are already contained in a specialised library.
Look into its utilities costs and design – that wall of windows that gets sun all day long may be beautiful, but in the warmer months they will make your home expensive to cool down and incredibly inefficient. Installing solar panels, energy efficient appliances, air conditioning systems and smart thermostats or other things to make your new home as efficient as possible won’t disturb you and can be complete by the time you move in. Studies show that at least a third of motors are clearly oversized and operate at below 50% of their nominal load. These kinds of approach are especially appropriate in areas where lighting is required constantly or for long periods and savings cannot be achieved by simply switching lights off. There is even a danger of overvoltage trips being deactivated and electronic components sustaining damage. Plus, because these efficiencies will result in real savings on your energy bills, these renovations pay for themselves. Install new power saving products like energy-efficient flooring and double-paned, energy-rated windows. The time taken to recoup investments varies from case to case, but many projects require a period of around two years.
However, these problems are mainly restricted to facilities with heavy lighting loads and a large number of electronic ballasts. The fact that enclosures are autonomous removes the need for an additional computer system. To ensure these high demands for availability are met, the system often requires responsibility to be taken for installation components as soon as the first fault occurs.
Clean out vents and switch the home’s power provider to a green-certified grid like GreenPower. Most current types of electronic ballast feature passive filtering in order to keep harmonic distortion to less than 20 percent of fundamental current, or even 5% for more sensitive facilities (hospitals, sensitive manufacturing environments, and so on).Other types of lighting may be more appropriate, depending on the conditions involved. Change out the roof if it’s older and choose materials and installers that are environmentally-friendly.
An assessment of lighting needs will focus on evaluating the activities performed and the required levels of illumination and colour rendering. In view of the substantial front-end costs, the expertise required to implement the system correctly and the update costs generated as the network develops, potential investors may be deterred and they may require highly detailed prior analyses to be conducted. Designing a new system to closely fit lighting needs makes it easier to calculate and ultimately achieve savings.Apart from the issue of savings, and without forgetting the importance of complying with the relevant standards and regulations, there are other advantages associated with retrofitting lighting systems. These include lower maintenance costs, the chance to make adjustments based on needs (office areas, “walk-through” areas etc.), greater visual comfort (by eradicating the frequency beat and flickering typically associated with migraine and eye strain) and improved colour rendering.

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