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Signs herpes outbreak is coming

As per recent news, Equine Herpes Virus-1 outbreak has been reported at Post Time Farm show grounds in Ocala, Florida.
Horsemen around South Carolina have also considered important measures to keep the virus from affecting their horses. Adam Eichelberger, the Director of animal health programs at the state veterinarian's office, said that EHV-1 subtype is a non-neuropathic type of the disease. He, further, added that if the horses show neurological signs, same should be reported to the state veterinary office within less than 48 hours.
Equine herpesvirus (EHV) is a contagious viral infection which can cause respiratory disease, abortions and neurological disease.
EHV2+5 can cause uveitis (an often painful and sometimes blinding eye condition) - never ignore changes in the appearance of your horse's eyes.EHV does not stimulate significant natural immunity after initial infection and the main concern for the equine population as a whole is the way the disease persists in our horses. Swollen legsStable management and vaccination, in particular when dealing with potentially infected horses, are key to the control of the disease. The one confirmed EHV-1 positive horse and the one suspect case are both from the same stable in Rio Grande County. And that’s why all 16 horses are regularly immunized against the threat of illnesses, such as Equine Herpesvirus 1. Several horses have become sick with Equine Herpes Virus (EHV-1) and Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopahy (EHM) after attending a horse show in Utah. What do you think about Sweet Martha's Cookie Jar adding a third location at the Minnesota State Fair? Cyathostome larvae (small red worm) migrating through the gut of horses can cause severe damage to the large colon resulting in weight loss often accompanied by diarrhoea. Tapeworm causes problems by attaching in clumps to the large intestine in a specific location; the transition from caecum to colon. Pinworm (Oxyuris) is in itself quite harmless, the main problem is itchiness around the back end of the horse. Because of the severe damage to the intestines that can be caused by worms it is very important that an effective worm control strategy should be carried out. When considering a worming programme it is necessary to understand a little about the life cycle of the Cyathostome. The only wormers effective against hibernating small red worms are Moxidectin and 5-day Fenbendazole; the active ingredients in Equest and Panacur. The only wormers effective against tapeworm are double dose Pyrantel and Praziquantel; the active ingredients in Strongid-P and Equitape. Equest Pramox contains both Moxidectin and Praziquantel making it a very powerful combination. Due to concerns about the development of resistance by worms to some of the wormers currently used, a system has been devised to reduce the use of anthelmintics (wormers). If samples repeatedly come back negative on a yard with little change in horses present, the number of worm egg counts may be adjusted to twice yearly. Although the initial set up costs will be higher than the traditional system, eventually there should be a saving on the purchase of wormers.
Monitoring of the faecal egg counts gives assurance that the worm control strategy is working.
Foals are particularly sensitive to worms and will start to pick up eggs from the environment and the mare’s milk from the day they are born. Before 3 months of age only worm if infection pressure high (history of problems on yard) or if foal has potentially worm related problems (diarrhoea, coughing, poor doer). Worm according to normal worming schedule, if the infection pressure is high (history of problems, many horses on fields, no regular poo-picking); worm with Equest 2 weeks after foaling. Lungworm in horses (Dictyocaulus arnfieldi) is quite an uncommon problem in the UK but should not be forgotten about.
Oxyuris is a roundworm that colonises the rectum (the very last part of the intestine before the anus) of an affected horse. An adult female can produce huge numbers of eggs (up to 6,000 eggs a day) and horses become infested when they ingest eggs in the process of grooming an affected horse or by swallowing eggs that have dropped on to pasture, feed or drinking water. The treatment of Oxyuris is best carried out at three levels; treating worms present in the intestine, treating eggs present on the skin and treating the environment to prevent re-infection or spread to other horses. At the same time start once daily application of pinworm solution (propylene glycol and ivermectin) to the area around the anus (wearing rubber gloves, pour the liquid into the palm of your hand and apply).
Remove all bedding from the stable, power hose the walls and floor, put fresh bedding down. Over the last few years vets at Pool House Equine Clinic have been seeing more and more cases of Rhodococcus equi (R. Signs progress very slowly over a long period of time as abscesses are formed throughout the lungs.
It has led the organizers and horsemen to take precautions to check the spread of the disease and reduce the effect of the same.
In Florida, about seven horses have been reported with the condition, out of which, one horse is said to exhibit neurological signs of the illness.

It belongs to Herpesviridae family of virus and causes abortion, respiratory problems and sometimes neonatal mortality in horses. EHV-1 is the most commonly diagnosed cause of infectious abortion and we strongly advise protecting breeding mares.
Once a horse is infected, that individual can harbour the virus throughout its life and potentially shed the disease to other animals without showing any outward signs. Minimising the potential stresses that set off disease spread is important as well as reducing issues such as overcrowding. April 30th, 2014 Herpes Update from the State Vet Office: The blood test came back positive for a form of equine herpesvirus-1 that can cause potentially fatal neurological disease in horses.
The adult worms within the gut lay eggs which are deposited on the pasture in faeces, this occurs from early spring until the autumn. For either worming strategy to be effective on the long-term, good field management is of utmost importance; regular poo-picking can never be replaced by wormers. The problem with this approach is that worms build up resistance over time; eventually the wormer will become less effective. Under the traditional system many horses are wormed regularly even if they have no significant worm infection. Donkeys can harbour lungworms without showing any signs and transfer the infection to horses. Many horses are quite resistant to infection however and outbreaks never seem to occur, in most cases we see a single individual is affected. The most effective courses involve the combination of Rifampicin with either Erythromycin, Clarithromycin or Azithromycin. If recognised and treated early the recovery chances of the affected foals are much better and a shorter course of treatment is required. See our information sheet - Guidelines for reducing risk of EHV-1 in pregnant maresAlthough it is relatively rare, EHV-1 infection can cause a neurological disease.
Re-activation and shedding from infected horses tends to happen when they are stressed - typically when the horse moves yards or is in hard work. An outbreak of the neurologic strain of equine herpesvirus-1 began in early March 2014 in Minnesota. An outbreak of contagious disease is a nightmare at any barn, let alone a facility home to so many horses. Ohio outbreak, the respiratory outbreak of EHV-1 involved the neurological form and has been the most devastating outbreak to date. Irreversible damage can lead to permanent ill thrift and only 50% of badly affected horses make a full recovery.
The main presenting problem in a horse with a significant tapeworm infection is colic which can be more or less severe. To prevent larvae spreading onto the pasture, droppings have to be collected at least twice weekly. There are no new drugs under development nor will there be any in the foreseeable future; we have to do with what we have at the moment. The intelligent worming system relies on regularly monitoring the number of eggs in every horse sharing pasture. Horses are much more sensitive to the effects of a lungworm infection and show signs very similar to Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO, see other topic); a chronic cough, nasal discharge and shortness of breath. The male worms are small but the females may reach 4 inches long and have a long tail tapering to a point, hence the name “pinworm”. This bacterium is usually associated with pneumonia in older foals (usually 2-5 months of age) but in some cases it causes diarrhoea, uveitis, bone infections, abscesses and joint ill. Risk factors are high stock levels, dry soil and short grazing; this seems to be related to the ease with which loaded dust is flung up into the air to be breathed in by susceptible animals.
On auscultation of affected foals’ lungs adventitious sounds like wheezes and rattles are often heard which can be quite severe.
Clinical signs can be very typical but to get further evidence supporting a suspicion can be disappointing. These usually have to be given for a minimum of 4 weeks depending on improvement seen in clinical signs or other diagnostics used. This currently has to be the main focus and on high risk yards regular screening of foals (ultrasound examination of the lungs) has been advised. Horses of all ages can be affected but the disease is most common in horses less than six years of age. Alternating the grazing of pasture with cattle and sheep can be useful as the larvae are not infectious to other species and therefore are ‘vacuumed up’. A small number of worms is allowed to remain (refugia) as they will on the long run produce offspring with no resistance against the wormers we use. The most important worms in foals are the threadworm (Strongyloides westeri) and the large roundworm (Parascaris equorum) which can cause diarrhoea, slower growth, weight loss, rough hair coat, colic and respiratory disease. It can be difficult to diagnose in horses as the larvae do not always show in a fecal worm egg count.

It is a potentially fatal disease but in the majority of cases can be treated successfully. It is very important to note that the infection is contracted very early in life – probably in the first couple of weeks. Many foals do not show obvious signs of disease until it has progressed to the point where they are severely ill. If started early enough and treatment has been administered correctly most foals will make a full recovery. Although overtly less serious in nature, it can cause a low grade infection - the strain on the immune system can drag your horse down for a number of weeks and cause great disruption to competition and racing yards. Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM) , a neurological disease of horses caused by Equine Herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) , is a highly infectious disease that usually affects the respiratory system. When eaten by a horse the worm larvae burrow into the gut where many encyst (hibernate) and can remain there for many months or even years. It is NOT spread directly foal to foal, but the faeces of affected foals can spread the R equi bacteria into the soil so clinical cases may be best stabled or put on grazing only normally used for adult horses.
Administration of antibiotics in the first weeks of life has been tried but not found to be very effective, it also promotes antibiotic resistance and is therefore advised against. Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is a virus of the family Herpesviridae that causes abortion, respiratory disease and occasionally neonatal mortality in horses. Large numbers of these encysted larvae then emerge from the gut during the spring and summer months, and it is this emergence of larvae which results in the symptoms of larval Cyathostomiasis. Endoscopic examination of the airways including taking a fluid sample is helpful in many cases but not always. Adult horses do not develop disease following exposure to the bacterium as they develop a solid immunity. In some cases the bacterium can be cultured from a tracheal wash; a sample of fluid is taken from the trachea going directly through the skin (not via a scope through the nose) to avoid contaminating the sample with other bacteria present in the upper airways.
Giving foals hyperimmune plasma with specific Rhododoccus antibodies during the first days of life and at 3 weeks of age has shown to reduce the number of foals that get the disease and the severity of the pneumonia. In 2006, an outbreak of EHV-1 among stables in Florida resulted in the institution of various quarantine measures. Therefore, if a horse has been kept with Donkeys and shows signs of chronic airway disease, a wormer should be administered.
One of the easier ways to diagnose the condition is by thoracic ultrasound where classic ‘comet tails’ can be seen in case micro-abscesses are present. To further confuse matters, Oxyuris eggs can be transferred to other parts of its body, often the mane and poll, causing irritation there. The neurologic form of EHV-1 is equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy and is the form of the disease in the May outbreak that was seen in the western part of the country. A severe equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) abortion outbreak caused by a neuropathogenic strain at a breeding farm in northern Germany. Depending on the yard history with relation to this disease, the presentation of the foal and other individual requirements a diagnostic plan will be made. Several cases of Neurologic Equine Herpes Virus (EHV-1) were recently reported in Prior Lake and Brownton, Minnesota, as well as Madison, Wisconsin. The neurological form of equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) is a worrying disease for horse owners on several levels. Eight farms are now under quarantine in Oregon as authorities work to contain at outbreak of equine herpes virus (EHV-1) in horses, four of which have shown neurological signs. Equine herpesvirus infections have been highlighted in many news articles since they are very common in horse populations. Nasal Shedding of Equine Herpesvirus-1 from Horses in an Outbreak of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy in Western Canada.
Detection and management of an outbreak of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection and associated neurological disease in a veterinary teaching hospital, J Vet Intern Med 24 (5) : 1, 176-1, 183.
In recent days, two cases of Equine Herpesvirus (Rhinopneumonitis) were confirmed in horses that competed at The Four SixesNational Cutting Horse Association Western Nationals, a show held in late-April and early-May at Ogden, Utah. Back in 2006, (EHV) outbreaks forced the quarantines of racetracks, training facilities and private farms in Kentucky, Maryland and Wisconsin. In addition, with the continuing threat of EHV-1 outbreaks despite regular vaccinations, the need for improved and novel vaccines that may be preferentially based on these novel EHV-1 isolates is even more pressing.
Owing to its biological properties and genomic features, it forms the genus Varicellovirus together with its close relatives Equine Herpesvirus Type 4 (EHV-4) , Varicella zoster virus, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 and Suid Herpesvirus Type 1 (Pseudorabies Virus).
2014 Cornell University College of Veterinary MedicineIthaca, New York 14853-6401 Please report problems with this page to the webmaster.

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