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Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by four different strains of Ebola virus; these viruses infect humans and nonhuman primates. Symptoms and signs of Ebola virus disease include an incubation period of two to 21 days, starting with abrupt fever, headache, jointand muscle aches, sore throat, and weakness; progression of symptoms include diarrhea,vomiting, stomach pain, hiccups, and rash with more devastating symptoms of internal and external bleeding in many patients. Ebola viruses are mainly found in primates in Africa and possibly the Philippines; there are only occasional outbreaks of infection in humans. Early clinical diagnosis is difficult as the symptoms are nonspecific; however, if the patient is suspected to have Ebola, the patient needs to be isolated and local and state health departments need to be immediately contacted. There is no standard treatment for Ebola hemorrhagic fever; only supportive therapy is available.
There are many complications from Ebola hemorrhagic fever; the prognosis for patients ranges from fair to poor since many patients died from the disease (death rate equals about 25%-100%). Prevention of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is difficult; early testing and isolation of the patient, plus barrier protection for caregivers (mask, gown, goggles, and gloves), is very important to prevent others from getting infected. Researchers are trying to understand the Ebola virus and pinpoint its ecological reservoirs to better understand how outbreaks occur. Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease caused by Ebola virus that results in nonspecific symptoms early in the disease and often causes internal and external hemorrhage (bleeding) as the disease progresses.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever was first noted in Zaire (currently, the Democratic Republic of the Congo or DRC) in 1976. The cause of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is Ebola virus infection that results in coagulation abnormalities, including gastrointestinal bleeding, development of a rash, cytokine release, damage to the liver, and massive viremia (large number of viruses in the blood) that leads to damaged vascular cells that form blood vessels.
The risk factors for Ebola hemorrhagic fever are travel to areas where Ebola infections (see current CDC travel advisories for African countries) have been reported. Unfortunately, early symptoms of Ebola virus disease are nonspecific and include the following: fever, headache, weakness,vomiting, diarrhea, stomach discomfort,decreased appetite, and joint and muscle discomfort.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is diagnosed preliminarily by clinical suspicion due to association with other individuals with Ebola and with the early symptoms described above.
According to the CDC and others, standard treatment for Ebola hemorrhagic fever is still limited to supportive therapy. Ebola hemorrhagic fever often has many complications; organ failures, severe bleeding, jaundice, delirium, shock, seizures, coma, and death (about 50% to 100% of infected patients). The prognosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is often poor; the death rate of this disease ranges from about 50% to 100%, and those who survive may experience the complications listed above. The main way to prevent getting Ebola hemorrhagic fever is to not travel to areas where it is endemic and by staying away from any patients who may have the disease. Research on developing a vaccine against Ebola viruses is ongoing; successful vaccines have been developed that work in experimental animals (mice and guinea pigs but not against macaques monkeys).
The Ebola virus has been in the news due to the recent outbreak in certain regions of Western Africa.
Did You Know?The Ebola virus is named after the Ebola River near Yambuku in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly called Zaire), where one of first outbreaks occurred in 1976. The Ebola-Bundibugyo, Ebola-Zaire, and Ebola-Sudan viruses have been linked with large outbreaks in certain parts of Africa. Of Ebola's five subtypes, the Zaire strain, which was the first to be identified, is believed to be the deadliest. In case of the first outbreak of Ebola in Zaire, 280 deaths were reported out of a total of 318 cases. Initially, the consumption of gorilla meat was believed to be the contributing factor for an outbreak, but it was ruled out by scientists, as infected apes were found to be more likely to die than humans.
Not an airborne and water-borne disease, Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurs through direct person-to-person contact. These nonspecific early symptoms can be mistaken for other diseases, such as malaria, typhoid fever, meningitis, etc.
The Centers for Disease Prevention and Control has provided guidelines for anyone who is traveling to an area where the Ebola outbreak is occurring.
CDC acknowledges the possibility of the transmission of the virus in the event of infected individuals traveling from West Africa to another country. CDC is also providing assistance with exit screening and communication efforts on the ground in West Africa, so that sick travelers are prevented from getting on planes.
In the absence of a licensed vaccine, following stringent infection control measures becomes the best way to prevent this disease. All public and private hospitals and clinics nationwide have been put on high alert for Ebola, one of the world's most virulent diseases. Medical staff working with Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) prepare to bring food to patients kept in an isolation area at the MSF Ebola treatment centre in Kailahun, Sierra Leone, July 20, 2014. Doctors Without Borders (MSF) said the crisis gripping Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone would only get worse and warned there was no overarching strategy to handle the world’s worst outbreak of the disease. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) has held talks with global health officials on potential measures to halt the spread of the disease.
Australia said yesterday it was well prepared in the unlikely event that the Ebola virus reached its shores. In Hong Kong, a densely populated city previously scarred by disease outbreaks such as the 2003 SARS epidemic, health officials confirmed they would quarantine as a precautionary measure any visitors from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia who showed fever symptoms.
The Ebola Outbreak Was First Reported In Guinea In February 2014, It Then Spread To Sierra Leone And Liberia. The outbreak – the world's deadliest to date – was first reported in Guinea in February. Sierra Leone has declared a state of emergency and called in troops to quarantine Ebola victims, joining neighbouring Liberia in imposing controls as the death toll from the outbreak of the virus hit 729 in West Africa.
The WHO yesterday reported 57 new deaths in the four days to July 27 in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria, raising the death toll to 729. The World Health Organisation said it would launch a US$100 million response plan today during a meeting with the affected nations in Guinea. Fears that the outbreak in west Africa could spread to other continents grew on Wednesday, with European and Asian countries on alert and a leading medical charity warning the epidemic was out of control.
The Ebola Outbreak In West Africa Caused A Worldwide Stir On 25 July After An American Man With Symptoms Travelled On Two Flights.
Last Friday, the death of an American passenger who was allowed on two flights within Africa despite showing Ebola-like symptoms sparked fears of a worldwide epidemic, prompting the tracking down of other passengers who had boarded the same plane. The Mirror reported that those exposed to Patrick Sawyer, 40, could sparked a worldwide spread of the killer disease.
He said in Malaysia, notification of EVD was mandated under the Prevention and Control of Infectious Disease Act 1988. The Health Ministry said today that it is on the alert and is capable of coping with the Ebola virus if the disease, now confined to West Africa, reaches Malaysian shores. Noor Hisham said Malaysia already has a system for information exchange between the country’s major airports, ports, hospitals and laboratories in the event of a “public health emergency” which includes the detection of the Ebola.

If there is a sudden outbreak of the Ebola disease, rapid response teams at the national, state and district levels will carry out field investigations and work to control its spread.
Malaysians who are planning to travel to West Africa have been advised to take precautionary measures against the Ebola virus (EVD). He also advised the public to practise good hygiene such as washing their hands with soap and water or using hand sanitiser. The Ebola Virus Disease, A Severe Illness With A 90% Fatality Rate, Is Transmitted Via Body Fluids.
Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever) is a severe, often fatal illness, with a case fatality rate of up to 90%. The infection is transmitted by direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected animals or people.
Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, in Nzara, Sudan, and in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. EVD is a severe acute viral illness often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat.
Mei Mei Chu specialises in simplifying complicated current affairs, political topics, and human interest pieces for your next yum cha conversation.
Two single-stranded RNA virus genera, Nepovirus (NEPO) and Tobravirus (TOBRA), have nematode vectors.
Nepoviruses are in the Comoviridae family while Tobraviruses are not yet assigned to a family. On the basis of considerable overlap of morphological and morphometric characters among putative species, they synonymized X.
Lamberti suggests that the same mis-identification occurs with the vector of Cherry Rasp Leaf virus in California. There is a need for the application of molecular biology techniques in this problem of diagnostics. Management by rotation is difficult as several nematode species are involved, each with a differing host range. One or more of ten species of Xiphinema are present in all major grape-growing regions of the world. Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurs mainly in Africa in the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Ivory Coast, and Uganda, but it may occur in other African countries. Researchers are actively trying to establish an effective vaccine against Ebola viruses by using several experimental methods, but there is no vaccine available currently. Ebola hemorrhagic fever is considered one of the most lethal viral infections; the mortality rate (death rate) is very high during outbreaks (reports of outbreaks range from about 50% to 100% of humans infected, depending on the Ebola strain). The original outbreak was in a village near the Ebola River after which the disease was named. In addition, association with animals (mainly primates in the area where Ebola infections have been reported) is potentially a risk factor according to the CDC. As the disease progresses, patients may develop other symptoms and signs such as a rash, eye redness, hiccups,sore throat, cough, chest pain, bleeding both inside and outside the body (for example, mucosal surfaces, eyes), and difficulty breathing and swallowing. Within a few days after symptoms develop, tests such as ELISA, PCR, and virus isolation can provide definitive diagnosis. Supportive therapy is balancing the patient’s fluid andelectrolytes, maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure, and treating such patients for any complicating infections. Those patients fortunate enough to survive Ebola hemorrhagic fever still may have complications that may take many months to resolve. Medical caregivers may protect themselves from becoming affected by strict adherence to barriers to the virus (wearing gloves, gowns, goggles, and a mask).
With new and larger outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever possible, researchers are intensely working to develop an effective vaccine utilizing genetically modified viruses, recombinant viruses, and inactivated Ebola viruses.
The Ebola virus disease, which was formerly referred to as hemorrhagic fever due to internal and external bleeding, has a high fatality rate that ranges between 60 - 90%.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there have been more than 3,000 cases of Ebola, and more than 2,000 deaths since 1976.Ebola viruses belong to the Filoviridae family. Most of the outbreaks have occurred in Central and West Africa, in regions that lie close to the tropical rainforests.
Around the same time, there was an outbreak in Sudan, wherein, there were 151 fatalities out of a total of 284 cases. It is now believed that fruit bats in the tropical rainforests in Africa may be the natural host of the Ebola virus. It must be noted that 30 - 50% of the infected individuals might experience internal and external bleeding (bleeding from the nose, mouth, rectum, eyes).
Moreover, airports in the affected regions of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are screening travelers for the symptoms. Doctors who come across Ebola cases or its symptoms – vomiting, diarrhoea, high fever, liver and kidney failure – must notify the National Crisis Preparedness and Response Centre (CPRC).
In Britain, where one person has tested negative for the disease, Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond said it was regarded as “a very serious threat”. One woman arriving in the southern Chinese city from Africa, who showed symptoms including fever and vomiting, has tested negative for Ebola. It is in urgent talks with donors and international agencies to send more medical staff and resources to the region, it said. Sawyer had a stopover in Ghana and changed planes in Togo before flying to the international travel hub of Lagos in Nigeria. The Health Ministry said it is already working closely with the World Health Organization to monitor the spread of the disease and played down the likelihood of transmission via air travel. A National Crisis Preparedness and Response Centre will coordinate the government’s response to any Ebola cases, besides assessing the scale of the emergency if the virus is found here, he said. Health director-general Datuk Dr Noor Hisham Abdullah said EVD was a deadly disease with a high fatality rate.
The latter was in a village situated near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. Ebola virus was isolated from semen 61 days after onset of illness in a man who was infected in a laboratory.
She believes in the power of shaping mindsets through news, and in the power of a good chocolate cheese cake. This uncontrolled bleeding leads to blood and fluid loss and can cause hypotensive shock that causes death in many Ebola-infected patients. Ebola virus disease symptoms and signs may appear from about two to 21 days after exposure (average is eight to 10 days).
Later in the disease or if the patient recovers, IgM and IgG antibodies against the infecting Ebola strain can be detected; similarly, studies using immunohistochemistry testing, PCR, and virus isolation in deceased patients is also done usually for epidemiological purposes.

Any patients suspected of having Ebola hemorrhagic fever should be isolated, and caregivers should wear protective garments.
Survivors may experience weakness, fatigue, headaches, hair loss,hepatitis, sensory changes, and inflammation of organs (for example, the testicles and the eyes). Currently, there is no vaccine available against the Ebola virus strains that cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans. This Buzzle write-up provides information on the causes, symptoms, transmission, and preventive measures for this viral disease. According to the World Health Organization, Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to mankind. The only case in the Ivory Coast was discovered during the autopsy of a sick wild chimpanzee in 1994. Since then, there have been outbreaks in Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Ivory Coast, and Uganda. Other animals can contract the virus from the bats, and humans can contract the virus from these animals. Though this virus doesn't spread through food, contact with infected animals while hunting or processing, and consuming raw meat of infected animals (bushmeat) could be one of the contributing factors for the transmission of this virus in Africa. It must be noted that an infected person is not contagious until he or she exhibits the symptoms of the disease. The treatment consists of hydrating the patients, maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure.
Flight crew members are being educated about ways to deal with a suspected case of Ebola, so that there is no contact between the sick individuals and other passengers. However, there are some experimental treatments that have shown good results on a few human subjects. Meanwhile, Thai health authorities said they had ordered all hospitals to monitor patients for any symptoms, particularly nationals or foreign tourists who had been in the outbreak area. EVD outbreaks occur primarily in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests. During an outbreak, those at higher risk of infection are health workers, family members and others in close contact with sick people and deceased patients. Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes. It is unclear why some patients can survive and others die from this disease, but patients who die usually have a poor immune response to the virus.
Out of the five subtypes that have been identified, only four are known to affect the human population. In the wake of the recent outbreak, the CDC has provided guidelines for healthcare workers who are in close contact with affected patients, as they are at a great risk of getting infected. Named after Reston in Virginia, the Reston Ebola strain was discovered in monkeys imported from the Philippines.
Thus, those in close contact with infected individuals need to take precautionary measures. There is one vaccine that has shown good results on macaque monkeys, but further research is required to find out if it will be effective in humans. Since that time, there have been multiple outbreaks of Ebola virus, and five strains have been identified; four of the strains are responsible for the high death rates. During Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, health-care workers and family members and friends associated with an infected person are at the highest risk of getting the disease. According to CDC, humans have been infected with the Ebola Reston, but there have not been cases of illness or death due to this strain. Though there have been outbreaks earlier, the current outbreak is the deadliest one recorded, as it is the largest in terms of the number of infected individuals.
It began as a handful of cases in Guinea in March, but quickly spread to neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia. They have also been asked to provide a surgical mask to the affected individual, so that the virus doesn't spread through body secretions while talking, sneezing, or coughing. ZMapp is a therapeutic product that is being developed for treating individuals infected with the Ebola virus. They need to be educated about all the precautionary measures, as needles, gloves, objects, or surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids of the infected person can cause the disease to spread.
The four Ebola strains are termed as follows: Zaire, Sudan, Tai Forest, and Bundibugyo virus, with Zaire being the most lethal strain. Researchers who study Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses are also at risk of developing the disease if a laboratory accident occurs.
The five subtypes include Ebola-Zaire virus, Ebola-Sudan virus, Ebola-Bundibugyo virus, Ebola-Ivory Coast virus (now called Ebola-Tai Forest virus), and Ebola-Reston virus (found in the Philippines and the People's Republic of China). Until this outbreak, around 2,361 people had been infected since the notification of this disease in 1976. Health workers and caregivers are particularly at risk, especially when they care for infected patients during the final stages of the disease, when the patients experience hemorrhagic fever that is characterized by internal and external bleeding. In severe cases, internal bleeding affects internal organs, thereby causing multi-organ dysfunction (liver or kidney) or failure, which in turn can lead to shock and death. Many of the cases also involve individuals who have been taking care of sick relatives or have prepared an infected body for burial. According to statistics given by WHO, more than 100 health workers have been infected, and at least 50 of them have died. The strain infects primates, pigs, and humans and causes few if any symptoms and no deaths in humans.
Therefore, taking the high mortality rate of this disease into account, it becomes extremely essential to identify its symptoms and prevent the transmission of the virus to others. Most outbreaks of the more lethal strains of Ebola have occurred in Africa and mainly in small- or medium-sized towns. However, in this new outbreak that began in Africa in March 2014, some of the infected patients have reached larger city centers and have been hospitalized. Unfortunately, many people may have been exposed to the virus in the city, thus causing more infections (and deaths).
This outbreak in Africa has now spread to Guinea’s capital and has been detected in the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. The infecting Ebola virus detected this outbreak is the Zaire strain, the most pathogenic strain of Ebola.

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