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Signs herpes outbreak is coming

Feline viral rhinotracheitis is a respiratory infection caused by a type of virus called feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). Cats catch feline herpes by coming into contact with discharge from an infected animal’s nose, eyes or mouth. Cats with feline herpes are also at risk of developing secondary infections as the disease weakens their immune system.
Cats infected with FHV-1 usually carry the virus for the rest of their lives. Vets focus on getting rid of the symptoms.
Most cats will recover from feline herpes, but they remain at risk of the symptoms returning at times of stress or ill health.
There is a vaccine against FVR, which most cats will receive as standard alongside their jabs against rabies.
Wamiz is a new site for pets and their owners, featuring news, tips, videos and everything you need to keep you informed and your animal happy! Although herpes is a main cause of feline conjunctivitis and URI, other viruses and diseases create similar symptoms. In conjunctivitis, herpes infects cats' eyes, making them swollen, irritated, red, itchy, dry, cloudy and painful. Cats without symptoms still carry the contagious herpes virus, and may have outbreaks throughout life. L-lysine is an amino acid similar in structure to the amino acid arginine, which feline herpes virus requires for reproduction.
In their 2008 study at the Humane Society of Indianapolis, Tina Rees, PhD, and veterinarian Janet Lubinski found L-lysine supplements did not prevent feline conjunctivitis or URI. In 2001, veterinarian Mike Richards stated L-lysine supplementation interferes with feline herpes virus reproduction and may be helpful for treating conjunctivitis in some cats.
Effectiveness of L-lysine for preventing and treating feline herpes, proper dosage and whether long term L-lysine use is safe for cats are still subjects for debate. According to veterinarian Wendy Brooks, it's important to ensure your cat's L-lysine supplement is free of the preservative propylene glycol, which may cause feline blood disorders.
One of the most common viruses in cats is herpes, which is different than the herpes viruses that infect humans. What is feline viral rhinotracheitis?-->-->Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an infectious disease caused by feline herpesvirus type-1. We also offer free, instant access to over 1,500 related articles on your pet's health including preventive medicine, common and not so common diseases, and even informative case studies. It belongs to the same family of viruses that cause herpes and other infectious diseases in humans, but the strains are different. They might do so by directly touching an infected cat, or simply by sharing food and water bowls or litter trays. Depending on the case, treatment may involve antiviral medication, antibiotics to tackle secondary infections and drops or creams to soothe irritated eyes.
If your cat has been infected with FHV-1, try to keep her environment as calm and consistent as possible to reduce the likelihood of flare-ups. Feline herpes virus infects up to 90 percent of cats, causing flu-like upper respiratory infections (URI) and conjunctivitis, a painful eye disorder that may lead to blindness. URIs cause discharge from nose or eyes, sneezing, mouth or throat sores, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, lethargy, appetite loss, panting or difficulty breathing, dehydration, congestion and discomfort.
When stress (illness, crowding, fleas, poor diet, temperature extremes) undermines your cat's immune system, the herpes virus emerges from hiding within your cat's nervous system to cause illness. Theory supporting L-lysine supplementation suggests that feline herpes viruses connect more readily with L-lysine than with arginine. They suggested infection control (isolation) and stress reduction as more effective alternatives.
She recommends L-lysine only as a supplement, not a substitute for medication or veterinary treatment for herpes-induced illness in cats. As with other herpes viruses, the virus is very species specific, and is only known to cause infections in domestic and wild cats. We encourage you to read any of these popular articles below or search our extensive pet health library. With over 600 hospitals and 1,800 fully qualified, dedicated and compassionate veterinarians, we strive to give your pet the very best in medical care.


L-lysine supplements may lead to lack of viral connections with arginine, forcing viruses to stop reproducing and sparing your cat from herpes. Veterinarian Wendy Brooks also found L-lysine useful for conjunctivitis, but ineffective against URIs. Not good toward boarding, grooming, prescription and non-prescription medication, and retail items. Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis is a major cause of upper respiratory disease in cats, and is the most common cause of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the eye, especially the lining of the lids and the third eyelid). The virus is excreted in saliva and in discharges from the eyes and nose of an infected cat. Therefore, an infection occurs when a susceptible cat comes into direct contact with an infected cat, or comes into contact with inanimate objects (called 'fomites') that have been contaminated with viral particles. How long is a cat infectious after getting the virus?Once a cat is infected with FVR, there is usually a 2-5 day incubation period before it shows symptoms of disease. All cats that have been infected with FVR will become carriers of this virus; most carriers will be latent, meaning that the virus will survive in an inactive form within the cat's body.
Stress will cause the virus to become reactivated, and if the virus becomes reactivated, the cat will again be infectious. In the majority of cases, the cat will show symptoms of a respiratory infection when the virus is reactivated. However, not all cats with a reactivated feline viral rhinotracheitis infection will show symptoms of disease. Fortunately the secretions usually dry up in a fairly short period of time, and once the secretion dries up the virus will die.
Viral particles that get onto hands or other skin surfaces usually remain infective for about half an hour, while contaminated 'fomites' such as food or water bowls, kitty litter boxes, blankets, cleaning cloths, and cat toys will be infective as long as the secretions on them remain moist - under normal conditions, the secretions will dry up in a few hours. How can the virus be killed?The virus is readily killed in the environment by disinfectants, as long as the disinfectant contacts all contaminated surfaces.
A bleach solution (1 part regular bleach to 32 parts water) is an effective disinfectant for surface disinfection or for use on objects that can be bleached. Blankets or toys can also be disinfected by regular machine washing using hot water and detergent. Objects that cannot be bleached may be decontaminated by thorough washing with plenty of soap and water. Upholstered furniture may be decontaminated with upholstery shampoo, although in most cases furniture only serves as a source of virus for a short period of time after being contaminated by an infected cat.
After touching an infected cat, hands can be sanitized by washing with soap and water (making sure to clean under the fingernails with a nail brush), followed by application of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
Which cats are most at risk for a feline viral rhinotracheitis infection?All cats can become infected with FVR infections, but infection tends to be more severe in young animals or animals that have another chronic disease. Kittens born to a cat that is carrying a latent FVR infection may become infected after birth.
In these kittens, symptoms usually develop several weeks after birth, and the infection can be very serious.
The virus may also cause keratitis, or inflammation and infection of the cornea, leading to corneal ulcers (see illustration). In chronic or severe infections, the keratitis can lead to corneal scarring or chronic 'dry eye' (keratoconjunctivitis sicca or KCS).
Other non-specific symptoms may include fever, lethargy, anorexia or poor appetite, and enlarged lymph nodes. How is this infection diagnosed?Several different infectious agents can cause upper respiratory disease in cats (see our handout on Feline Upper Respiratory Infections), with subtle differences in examination findings between the different diseases.
A presumptive diagnosis of feline viral rhinotracheitis is based primarily on a cat's medical history and symptoms combined with the findings on a physical examination, particularly if the cat has evidence of a corneal infection. Corneal staining with fluorescein dye is often performed to look for any ulcers that may have developed, and a Schirmer tear test to assess tear production may be supportive of a diagnosis of FVR, since decreased tear production has been associated with FVR conjunctivitis, Specific identification of FVR virus particles may be made by collecting samples of cells and discharges from the nose, eyes or back of the throat. Identification of feline herpesvirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR testing) is the most sensitive test available for diagnosing infection by FHV-1.
Unfortunately, if the virus is in a latent state (the patient is not showing clinical signs), diagnostic testing is usually not rewarding.
What is the treatment for this infection?Cats with an uncomplicated infection caused by feline viral rhinotracheitis will usually be treated symptomatically.


Treatment will be determined by the specific clinical signs and problems that your cat is showing.
It is extremely important to treat corneal ulcers aggressively in order to prevent permanent damage to the eyes.
Cats with recurrent FVR conjunctivitis infections will often require treatment with antiviral ophthalmic drops (see our handout on Conjunctivitis - Feline Herpes Viral). Some cats may respond to supplementation with L-lysine, an amino acid that may help prevent the replication of the FVR virus, thus decreasing the amount of viral particles that are shed during an infection. Although viral infections like FVR are not directly treated by the use of antibacterial drugs, broad spectrum antibacterial drugs are often prescribed in an effort to prevent secondary bacterial infections from complicating the disease, particularly in kittens.
Cats with nasal or airway congestion may benefit from increased environmental humidification, such as being taken into a steamy bathroom for 10-15 minutes several times per day. To minimize irritation from discharges, it is often helpful to wipe them away from the cat's face or eyes with a moist tissue. Since cats with a respiratory infection will have a decreased sense of smell, they often have a decreased appetite - feeding a highly palatable canned food may help improve their appetite. If a cat is dehydrated, depressed, or has a severe case of illness, your veterinarian will recommend hospitalization for more intensive treatment, including intravenous fluids and other supportive treatments. Are other cats in the household at risk of infection?A cat that has an acute feline viral rhinotracheitis infection will be infective to other cats during the incubation period and for up to 3 weeks after developing symptoms. The risk of infection increases in cats that are unvaccinated, are young, or have chronic underlying problems. Adult cats that have been adequately vaccinated will likely only develop a mild case of illness, which may resolve without treatment. It is always prudent to isolate any new cat from the other cats in your household for at least 1-2 weeks to minimize transmission of any infectious diseases. Is my family at risk?The upper respiratory infection that is caused by feline viral rhinotracheitis is species specific, and is only infectious to other cats. However, upper respiratory infections in cats can be caused by or complicated by bacterial infections, some of which might be zoonotic, or contagious to humans. If you follow good hygiene practices including proper hand washing after handling any cat, you will minimize the chance that you can get an illness from this or any other infectious disease.
It would be prudent to consult your family physician if anyone in your family develops signs of a respiratory infection if your cat is ill. How can this disease be prevented?-->-->The standard 'core' vaccines that are given to cats include a vaccine against feline viral rhinotracheitis. The FVR vaccine will not completely prevent an infection from occurring if your cat is exposed to the virus, but it will significantly reduce the severity of the infection and will shorten the length of the illness.
Solid immunity to these viruses is not long term, and may be overcome by exposure to a high dose of virus.
Therefore, the FVR vaccine needs to be boostered on a regular basis - your veterinarian will advise you on the recommended booster schedule for your individual cat, based on its lifestyle and risk of disease.
Susceptible cats can get an infection by direct contact with another infected cat or by environmental exposure to objects such as brushes, food bowls, litter boxes, cat toys, or blankets that have been contaminated with infectious secretions. Boarding facilities, humane societies, animal shelters, and cat shows are all places where susceptible cats can be readily exposed to these infectious diseases. If you plan on boarding or showing your cat, consult your veterinarian about the need for a booster vaccine at least two weeks before the planned event. Preventing direct contact between your cat and other cats will greatly minimize the chance that your cat will pick up an infection, while following good sanitation and hygiene practices, such as washing your hands thoroughly before and after petting another cat will further reduce the likelihood of disease spread between cats. If your cat has had an FVR infection, you should keep the cat indoors to prevent spread of this infection to other cats in your neighborhood.
What is the prognosis for a cat diagnosed with feline viral rhinotracheitis?There is no cure for herpesvirus infections. Minimizing the chance of infection, feeding a premium diet, supplementing the diet with l-lysine daily, reducing stressful situations and following an appropriate vaccination schedule are your cat's best defense against this disease.



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Comments
  1. SONIC 16.09.2015 at 12:37:47
    I when to the doctor and think of a herpes outbreak not as something disgusting and shameful, but.
  2. iceriseherli 16.09.2015 at 22:49:35
    Precaution to prevent and mucous membrane blisters, pores and skin shedding and generally recurring.