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Signs herpes outbreak is coming

O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuarios. Genital herpes in women symptoms, signs, home remedies, medication, transmission, tests, and more. The medications typically used are acyclovir (Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), or valacyclovir (Valtrex). Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Recortar slides e uma maneira facil de colecionar slides importantes para acessar mais tarde.
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1(HSV-1), which causes cold sores, is transmitted by direct contact with body fluids, such as saliva (through kissing). Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2(HSV-2), or genital herpes, is transmitted by sexual intercourse or direct contact with a herpes sore. A periocular herpes outbreak occurred around the eye of a 7-year-old child with a history of recurrent herpes labialis.
This patient has a characteristic vesiculopapular herpes simplex lesions on his anterior thigh.
A micrograph picture of the herpes simplex virus, within tissue taken from a penile lesion of a patient with genital herpes.
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Sexually transmitted infections (also called sexually transmitted diseases) are contracted through sexual intercourse or other sexual contact with an infected person. Adolescents and young adults, particularly females between the ages of 15 and 29 years, have the highest reported cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea.
Women are more easily infected by unprotected sex because the delicate tissues of the female reproductive tract can become scratched or irritated. Women can transfer the virus to their unborn children during pregnancy, birth, or through breastfeeding.
Symptoms that women have when they are HIV positive frequently differ from the symptoms men have. In keeping with Standard Precautions, nurses wear gloves when coming in contact with any body fluids to protect themselves against the possibility that their clients might be HIV positive or have hepatitis or any other communicable disease.
Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacterial species that is the leading cause of preventable infertility in women and the most common STI in the United States. For men, the symptoms of chlamydial infection include painful urination, a watery penile discharge, and pain and swelling in the testicles.
Women initially may have dysuria (burning, painful, or difficult urination), vulvar itching and burning, grayish-white or abnormal vaginal discharge, or spotting between menstrual periods.
Diagnosis is made with a stained smear test that includes urine or specimen collection from the penis or cervix. Nursing Alert etracyclines (doxycycline) are contraindicated in pregnancy or in infants because they permanently stain teeth. Gonorrhea is caused by invasion of the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (GC).
Typical symptoms in men when initially infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae are a burning sensation during urination and a yellowish-white discharge from the penis. Nursing Alert Having gonorrhea once does not confer immunity; the person is particularly susceptible to reinfection. A smear of the discharge is cultured and examined microscopically, obtaining a Gram stain of the gonorrhea bacterium, often referred to as a GC Gram stain (Fig. With an advanced infection, the client needs bed rest and may require sitz baths and massive doses of intravenous antibiotics. Syphilis is caused by a destructive bacterial spirochete (Treponema pallidum) that can have grave consequences throughout the body. Syphilis is spread by direct contact with a syphilitic lesion (sore) via vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Nursing Alert During the first and second stages of syphilis, the client is highly infectious, although he or she may show no symptoms. The lack of muscle coordination with syphilis, called tabes dorsalis (locomotor ataxia), involves the nervous system. FIGURE 70-3 · (A) Gonococcal urethritis is the most common symptom of gonorrhea seen in men.
Rapid, simple test used for first-line screening; results are not conclusive until at least 2 weeks after infection. Used to confirm a syphilis infection after another method tests positive for the syphilis bacteria.
Checks for antibodies and can be used to detect syphilis except during the first 3-4 weeks after exposure; more difficult to do and may be used to confirm a syphilis infection after another method tests positive for the syphilis bacteria. Used to diagnosis syphilis using fluid sample from chancre (open sore) to see the corkscrewshaped bacteria on a microscopic slide. A common treatment for syphilis at any stage is large doses of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (Bicillin LA).
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 ) and the more common STI, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), are the causes of genital herpes, sexually transmitted viral infections.
Pregnant women can shed the virus at the time of delivery, causing potentially fatal infections in the newborn. HSV-1 is more commonly associated with common canker sores, “cold sores,” or “fever blisters” of the mouth and lips.
In women, the lesions begin on the external genital labia approximately 6 days after exposure.
Systemic flu-like symptoms, such as headache, general malaise, fever, and node tenderness, often exist concurrently. In men, the major symptom is a painful lesion, usually on the penis, which may be mistaken for the chancre of syphilis. We aim to empower and inspire our readers with the tools needed to understand the world and appreciate its everyday awe. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Certain birth control methods—such as withdrawal, IUDs, and oral or implanted contraceptives— factor into the spread of STIs.
A person who has an STI and is exposed to HIV is two to five times more likely to acquire HIV than is a person who does not have an STI.
Women with HIV can often prevent the transfer of HIV to their unborn children with proper prenatal care. HIV treatment is delayed because the initial symptoms often appear as common female problems.


Chlamydia is transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, leading to infections in the associated tissues of these areas. Untreated chlamydia infection generally causes urethral infections, epididymitis, and potential infertility. Although symptoms may begin in the urethra and cervix, which ascend to the fallopian tubes, recognizable problems may start with abdominal pain, low back pain, fever, and dyspareunia (painful sex). Notice that the nurse holds the microscope slide on the frosted portion so that the practitioner can smear the clear portion with vaginal secretions. Because of the reinfection frequency, retesting when changing partners is highly recommended (Fig. For clients who are pregnant or allergic to tetracycline (doxycycline), erythromycin is used.
Gonorrhea can spread to bones, joints, or the bloodstream, resulting in arthritis, heart disease, liver damage, or central nervous system damage. Clinical findings in women include cervical tenderness, dyspareunia, purulent anal discharge, dysuria, and a yellow-green purulent vaginal discharge. When the infection is active, teach the client about the use of Standard Precautions; that is, to wear gloves when coming into contact with his or her own body secretions. The individual is not considered disease free until cultures have been negative for at least 7 days without antibiotics. It is known as “the great imitator” because its symptoms resemble those of many other diseases. Lesions generally occur on the external genitals, the vagina, the anus, or in the rectum, on the lips, and in the mouth. After entering the body, the spirochetes immediately multiply and gain access to the bloodstream.
Within 10 to 90 days of infection, the chancre may appear on the penis, on the anus, inside the vagina, on the nipple, or in a crack at the side of the mouth (Fig.
Approximately 2 to 4 weeks after the initial infection, the secondary stage begins; it may last 2 to 6 weeks. It is accompanied by a sharp, burning pain in the legs;legs feel numb, and then cold or warm.
Note the purulent penile discharge from the meatus and the gonorrheal lesions on the foreskin (Porth, 2007).
Detects antibodies to the bacteria in all stages of the disease except the initial third to fourth week. Treatment can destroy the syphilis organisms at any stage of the disease; however, drugs cannot reverse any damage already present. It is often difficult to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2, which both appear as one or more blisters, typically around the genitals or rectum. Persons with existing HIV infection are more likely to become infected with HSV, as well as other STIs (Box 70-7).
A cesarean delivery is commonly scheduled if a mother has active, or a history of, genital herpes. HSV-1 is mainly associated with nongenital lesions, but sometimes does involve the genital tract.
The initial lesions of HSV-2 resemble HSV-1 such as fever blisters (common canker sore; see Fig. Other symptoms of primary infection in women include dysuria, vaginal discharge, perineal discomfort, and dyspareunia.
The uncircumcised man may carry the herpes simplex virus in the smegma, a secretion that collects under the foreskin.
Precipitating factors include anxiety, fatigue, excessive sexual activity, excessive vaginal or labial irritation, sunburn, tight clothes (especially synthetics), and fever. Genital herpes, with symptoms including lesions on or around the genitals and rectum and even thighs and buttocks, is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and is sexually transmitted. Some types cause warts and are usually harmless, but others may lead to cervical or anal cancer. It is not a substitute for professional veterinary advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your pet’s health. These women are more likely to have unprotected sex and to have sex with partners infected with STIs.
These birth control methods have no mechanism to prevent the spread of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. Most women tend to be occasionally annoyed by “female problems” and often self-treat symptoms at home. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an STI that results from the three strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. Because 40% to 60% of clients with gonorrhea also are infected with chlamydia, treatment with ceftriaxone may also be indicated.
Gonorrhea can be spread from one part of the body to another, such as by touching infected genitals and then the eyes. Healthcare facilities have standard criteria, such as administration of antibiotic eye drops to newborns, to prevent gonorrheal eye infections. An infant born with syphilis may be stillborn (dead at birth) or may die shortly after birth.
Within 10 days to 3 months, the first syphilitic lesion (chancre or primary lesion) appears. A macular copper-colored rash can appear on the abdomen, the soles of the feet, or the palms (Fig. The person seems not to know where his or her legs are and cannot walk without watching them closely. The blisters are loaded with the virus and are the cause for transfer of infections because they tend to break, resulting in painful ulcers. Direct contact with the saliva of an infected person, such as by kissing, can transmit the infection from one person to another. These pictures are among the least graphic and are published here in the interest of providing information to those who may wonder if they or a loved one has contracted herpes. Doctors refer to the cold sores as recurrent herpes labialis; they are also known as fever blisters.
Never ignore professional veterinary advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site.
Younger people often face barriers to receiving STI counseling and protective and treatment services.
However, frequent female problems, such as yeast infections, abnormal Pap smears, or pelvic pain, can be early symptoms of HIV infection. PID often results in chronic pelvic pain, permanent damage to the female reproductive organs, ectopic pregnancies, and infertility.
People with chlamydia must use condoms when engaging in sexual activity, and all sexual partners must be treated simultaneously to avoid reinfection, which is common.


Douching, sexual intercourse, and menstruation may spread the infection to the ovaries and cause abscess. One treatment for gonorrhea is intramuscular injection of ceftriaxone (Rocephin) or cefixime (Suprax). The first infection can take 2 to 4 weeks to heal and, commonly, other outbreaks will appear within weeks or months.
Commonly, HSV-2 infected individuals may never develop the viral-filled ulcers or have other symptoms. The lesions often look like pimples surrounded by a reddened area; they then progress to papules, vesicles, and finally crusts. However, none of these images nor the information on this page should be construed as medical advice nor an attempt to make diagnoses. State and national Public Health Departments have requirements for healthcare providers for the reporting of STIs.
Confidentiality, embarrassment, lack of finances or insurance, and lack of transportation also factor into the high rates of adolescent infections. Chlamydia and LGV can be the cause of preterm births, newborn pneumonia, and conjunctivitis (“pink eye”).
After the initial outbreak, the following outbreaks tend to be less severe and heal more rapidly. Oral contraceptives alter vaginal secretions, enabling the virus to grow faster and to be transmitted more easily.
Anyone who thinks they may be infected with the herpes virus should seek medical attention. There is no cure, but antiviral drugs can cut down on the frequency and severity of outbreaks.
Antibody immunity does not develop in many of the STIs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, or trichomoniasis, which leads to the need for continual surveillance and lifetime problems. The frequency of outbreaks may decrease in the following decades, but the virus typically remains indefinitely. The term comes from the shape of the tiny parasites, which look very different from head or body lice. Patches of the client’s hair may come out, and he or she may have a fever, headache, or sore throat. Internal organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints, begin to show the accumulated damage of the years without treatment. HSV can also be released between episodes of blisters, from skin or mucous membranes that do not have a blister. There is no cure, but antiviral medication can reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks.
ScabiesScabies is an itchy infestation caused by a tiny mite that burrows into human skin to lay eggs. The Clap (Gonorrhea)Gonorrhea spreads easily and can lead to infertility in both men and women, if untreated. Later there may be a rash on the soles, palms, or other parts of the body (seen here), as well as swollen glands, fever, hair loss, or fatigue. In the late stage, symptoms come from damage to organs such as the heart, brain, liver, nerves, and eyes. This virus is usually not an STD; it spreads easily among household members or through kissing. But it can be spread to the genitals through oral or genital contact with an infected person. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2Most cases of genital herpes are caused by a virus called HSV-2. It's highly contagious and can spread through intercourse or direct contact with a herpes sore. People can be infected through sex, needle sharing, and at birth, as well as by sharing razors and toothbrushes.
One limitation is the "window period" of up to six months after exposure to HIV when these antibody tests sometimes do not find the virus.
People take a combination of antiviral drugs in hopes of preventing the infection from advancing to AIDS. Additional treatments can help prevent or fight off serious infections, if the immune system has weakened. ChancroidChanchroid is a bacterial STD that is common in Africa and Asia but rare in the U.S.
LGV (Lymphogranuloma Venereum)LGV is caused by a type of chlamydia that is usually rare in the U.S.
Pelvic Inflammatory DiseaseNot an STD itself, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious complication of untreated STDs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. Who's at Risk for STDs?Anyone who is sexually active is at risk for an STD, regardless of gender, race, social class, or sexual orientation. The CDC has noted that some STDs are on the rise in men who have sex with men, including syphilis and LGV. Many STDs spread through any type of sexual activity, including skin-to-skin contact and oral sex. Preventing STDsThe best ways to avoid getting an STD are to abstain from any sexual contact and be in a monogamous, long-term relationship with an uninfected partner.
These infections can spread through contact with skin lesions that are not covered by a condom. How to Tell Your PartnerIf you think you have an STD, tell your partner(s) as soon as possible. You may be able to spread the infection even if you have already begun treatment or are using condoms.
Many STDs can be passed from mother to baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or after the baby is born. STDs' effects on babies can include stillbirth, low birth weight, neurologic problems, blindness, liver disease, and serious infection. Treatment during pregnancy can cure some STDs and lower the risk of passing the infection to your baby.  Can STDs Come Back?Most STD treatments do not protect you from getting the same infection again. A course of drugs may cure gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia or trichomoniasis, but a new exposure can start a new infection. And if you're not taking the right precautions to protect yourself, you can be re-infected quickly or even pick up a second STD.



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