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In het begin is het netvlies nog niet helemaal ontwikkeld en is het gezichtsvermogen nog slecht.
Duitstalig overzicht van bewezen erfelijke oogafwijkingen en van rastypische oogproblemen zonder aangetoonde erfelijkheidsfactor.
Deens- en Engelstalig artikel over Noorse boskat Leo, die een operatie moest ondergaan om zijn oogaandoening te verhelpen.
Engelstalig artikel geillustreerd met foto's“Uveitis is inflammation of the uveal tract, which is the pigmented, vascular part of the eye. Engelstalig artikel, opgedragen aan Joep the One Eyed“RD, or Retinal Dysplasia is a genetic " fault" , the retina is not as it should be, some parts seem to have " folds or wrinkles" Through the special equipment it is seen as cloudy spots. Bij de kat kan een lymfosarcoom (kwaadaardige tumor), ter hoogte van de borstingang of in de borstholte zelf, oorzaak zijn van een Horner syndroom. Most cases of Herpes Simplex Virus Conjunctivitis are self-limiting and have an excellent outcome with supportive management of the condition. In Conjunctivitis the white part of the eye turns red or pink, and hence it is also known as Pink Eye. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. Most individuals are exposed to the herpes simplex virus early in their life, which causes a very mild infection, such as a sore throat or a cold.
When conditions are conducive for their resurgence (like due to a fever, stress, exposure to sunlight, trauma, hormonal changes), or when there is an underlying disorder that diminish the body’s immune system quality; the virus is activated causing an acute form of Herpes Simplex Virus Conjunctivitis.
Herpes Simplex Virus can also cause a severe form of Conjunctivitis in newborn children during delivery, known as Neonatal Keratoconjunctivitis. Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus Conjunctivitis is mainly supportive, and based on underlying health factors. Prevent aggravation of the condition by staying out of the sun, keeping away from dust and smoke. Many alternatives medicine therapies, natural therapy, or home remedies are available to ease the discomfort of Viral Conjunctivitis. Please sign up by creating a DoveMed account to receive periodic notification on information updates. At DoveMed, we believe that reliable healthcare information helps you make better choices for yourself and your loved ones. The most common form of FHV is acute conjunctivitis with discharge, redness and some degree of discomfort. Treatment generally utilizes topical corticosteroids and other options are available in certain situations.
A corneal ulcer is a scratch or abrasion on the outside clear part of the eye and is usually caused by trauma. Preventing infection and controlling pain are the two most important features of treatment. Your pet may want to rub or scratch at its eyes or face, especially after applying the medications. Disclaimer: Medical information located on this website is intended to supplement information from your veterinarian. Always phone your vet to check which eye drops to use, as the wrong eye drops can damage your pet’s eye. The most common causes of conjunctivitis in cats are Feline Herpes virus or Feline Chlamydia infection. Ulcers on the eye can be caused by a direct injury to the eye but can also be caused by feline Herpes virus.
Ulcers that are small and shallow pose no real threat to the eye and uncomplicated uninfected ulcers heal with antibiotic eye drops over about a week. Tears are normally produced by the eye to wash away dirt and bacteria on the surface of the eye, as well as to lubricate the eye’s surface so the eyelids can open and close more easily.
Avoid: Missing any treatments of drops as missing treatment can lead to a lot of pain for your pet. If animals live at a high altitude or are exposed to lots of ultraviolet radiation, it can cause pannus to develop as well.  It isn’t painful and is quite easily treated with eye drops, either cortisone based drops such as “Pred Forte” or immunosuppressive eye drops such as Tacrolimus or Cyclosporin. The torn tissues round the eyeball and the poor drainage out of the eye (the vein is also stretched and cannot drain blood out the eye) make the eyeball swell up very quickly.
In certain dog breeds that have a lot of facial folds, such as the Shar Pei, the Boerboel, the Bulldog, Retriever and the Mastiff, the folds are so excessive that even the eyelid literally folds over into the eye. The hairs ands eyelashes rub continuously on the eye causing tearing, eye infections and ulcers to form on the eye’s surface. Glaucoma is an increased pressure within the eyeball itself, which makes the eyeball swell up and appear larger than the other eye and also bulge more out of the socket.
There are two elements to treating glaucoma – with primary glaucoma, medications are given in the form of eye drops to decrease the pressure of the eye.  Example so drugs that are used to treat glaucoma include “Trusopt” (Dorzolomide Hydrochloride) or “Cosopt”. Besides the obvious clinical sign of glaucoma, your veterinary ophthalmologist may test the pressure inside the eye with special instrumentation placed on the surface of an anesthetized eye. This occurs in white animals with non pigmented eyelids who live in climates with a lot of sunlight and ultraviolet radiation.
Melanomas of the eye can be malignant and usually if they are inside the eyeball the entire eye has to be removed.
Tumors behind the eye push the eyeball forward, and can look very similar to a glaucoma of the eye or an abscess behind the eye.
Uveitis is inflammation inside the eye itself.  The eye from the outside looks red and inflamed and cloudy or blue. Cherry eye is when the tear gland in the corner of the eye has become inflamed and sometimes everts, causing a red swelling in the corner of the eye. Treatment is with anti inflammatory eye drops, but may also need surgery, to replace the gland.

Small hairs that grow inside the eyelid and scratch the eye, causing constant tearing and ulcers on the eye. Poes met pigmentafzetting in iris, opgelet: geregeld controleren of er geen evolutie is naar een melanoom.
Vergroeid derde ooglid en pigmentafzetting na vroeger doorgemaakte herpes infectie bij een Sfynx kat. De ooguitvloei is oorspronkelijk waterachtig maar verandert na ongeveer 1 week in etterige uitvloei.
Mogelijk is er een verband tussen de vorming van een corneale sekwester en het voorkomen van bv. Een artikel met inzichtgevende foto's in wat een operatie bij entropion inhoudt.“When we moved we also changed our vet and he saw Leo for the first time in Januray for his annual shots. This includes the iris (this is the colored part of the eye that forms the pupil), ciliary body, and choroids. Unlike humans where medication resolves over 80% of the cases of glaucoma, surgery is usually required in veterinary patients. Het wordt veroorzaakt door beschadiging(en) van zenuwbanen, zowel centraal (in de hersenen) als perifeer (in het ruggenmerg en in de zenuwen die het oog aansturen). The infection may affect either one, or both the eyes, and is accompanied by inflammation, irritation, with watery discharge from the eyes.
A risk factor increases ones chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors.
It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider. Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. DoveMed urges their users to consult a qualified healthcare professional for diagnosis and answers to their personal medical questions.
The clinical signs vary and range from mild conjunctivitis to severe corneal ulceration with perforation and loss of the eye.
In the initial infection, signs of upper respiratory tract infection usually occur, with remission in 10-14 days. Antibiotics may be used to prevent secondary bacterial infection, especially if an upper respiratory tract infection is present. The first option is to medicate the eye with topical antibiotics and lubricants to prevent infection while waiting for the sequestrum to slough (fall off).
Eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, can invade the cornea causing a vascular appearing mass to arise. The typical appearance of eosinophilic keratitis is a white-pink plaque-like lesion that often has a gritty texture. Topical antibiotics will be used to prevent infection and topical atropine may be used to help control pain. There are a number of tear glands around the eye and excess tears drain through the tear duct or lachrymal duct in the corner of the eye down into the back of the nose and throat. Dry eye is diagnosed by doing a tear test –  a soft piece of filter paper with dye marks on it is put into the eye and kept there for up to a minute. It is a slow inflammation of the cornea that leads to a membrane growing over the eye and eventually causes blindness. Animals on these eye drops are on treatment for life.  Often the cortisone eye drops are used initially to clear the pannus up, and followed by the immunosuppressive drops, to keep it at bay. This usually happens in breeds such as the Pug, Shih Tzu and Pekingese because they tend to have eye sockets that are a lot shallower than for example, the Bull Terrier.
If this happens to your dog, and you manage to get your dog into a vet quickly, there is a fair chance that the eye might be saved.
When puppies are a few weeks old, a tacking stitch may be put in the eyelids to encourage them to grow correctly. The eyeball is filled with fluid – there are two types of fluids in the eye – aqueous humour which as watery and vitreous humour which is like jelly. The cancer starts off as what looks like a small sore on the eyelid or even on their third eyelid (fleshy part of the corner of the eye), which doesn’t heal and gradually gets bigger and bigger, crusted and starts to irritate the dog or cat, and they rub the eye a lot, leading to tearing of the eye.  These cancers tend to get bigger and spread locally. Veterinary ophthalmologists can remove the lenses and also replace the lenses with plastic lenses.  It is recommended that both eyes be operated on as if one is done, disorientation with vision can occur.
He saw him again one week ago, when Leo's eye started to have some fluid coming from it once again. The uveal tract (or "uvea") is all in one piece, and is shaped like a hollow ball with a large slit in it, that fits inside the eyeball. Because of the nature of the disease, many pets are presented at a time when it is not possible to restore vision to the first eye affected. The goal of the veterinary ophthalmologist in treating a pet with glaucoma is to restore vision when possible and, if vision is not possible, to help your pet remain pain-free. Recurrent conjunctivitis and scleritis secondary to coexistent conjunctival pemiphigus vulgaris and cryptic herpes simplex infection: a case report. Signs of upper respiratory tract infection (sneezing, runny nose) may or may not accompany the ophthalmic problem. Sometimes signs persist in the form of chronic conjunctivitis or keratitis (inflammation of the cornea). After several weeks this frequency may be reduced to 1-2 times daily or even 1-2 times weekly to maintain control.
If the problem continues or if severe rubbing occurs, please contact us or your regular veterinarian to obtain an Elizabethan collar. If an ulcer goes too deep, it eats through the whole thickness of the cornea and exposes the delicate parts of the eye underneath. Sometimes the tear glands can be attacked by an immune process that stops tears being produced. It starts as a pink membrane with veins in it and gradually gets darker and eventually becomes completely black.

If they are attacked by a  big dog who bites them round the eye , or struck by a car, the eyeball can literally “pop” out of its socket. Put a damp cloth or cotton wool on the eye surface and bring him straight in.  If a number of hours have elapsed or the pupil is fixed and dilated, the chances are slim that the eye will be saved. In adults, the only way to correct this, is to do a surgical “Tuck” on the skin around the eye, so that the eyelid folds back the way it should. The fluid is refreshed all the time, new fluid gets produced and fed into the eyeball and old fluid gets drained out.  Usually glaucoma occurs when there is a problem with draining the fluid out of the eye, new fluid comes into the eye but the old fluid can’t get out.
If left alone, it eats away at all the tissues in the area, gradually enlarging and may get infected.
It can be from an infection, but also as an immune response to something else happening in the body.
Most old dogs have cataracts to an extent, but some diseases cause cataracts, for example diabetes mellitis.
The slit is the cat's pupil, and the rest of the ball is the iris, ciliary body, and choroid which all "blend" together as a vascular cup. These medications can be expensive and time consuming, with the possibility of allergic reactions. Persian and Himalayan breeds are affected most frequently, but any breed can develop this problem. This can be a painful process, and occasionally results in a very deep defect and possible corneal rupture.
If the animal is not showing any other signs of illness, and only has an eye infection, the owner is usually given eye drops to put into their pet’s eyes a few times a day. Boxer dogs are prone to ulcers that will not heal with eye drops and other conservative treatments, and need surgery done on the cornea in which little striations or tiny cuts are made over the ulcer and cornea, stimulating blood flow and healing of the ulcer.  Ulcers are usually diagnosed with a dye called “Fluorescein” which is a luminous orange dye that goes bright green when it stains an ulcer up. This is an eyeball emergency and will also need surgery – a small area of the conjunctiva can be stitched over the defect in the cornea bringing blood to the area and allowing it to heal. The eye is treated initially to get rid of any infections and to heal up ulcers with replacement tears and antibiotics and then stimulated to produce tears again using  a drug that suppresses the immune process attacking the tear glands, such as Cyclosporin or Tacrolimus eye drops given a  few times a day. Your vet needs to put your dog under general anesthetic and replace the eyeball in the socket. This is a great operation to do, as it gives the animals so much relief afterward and sorts out the continual tearing and eye infections permanently. This can happen if there is inflammation or infection in the eyeball which makes clots which block the drainage duct, or a growth inside the eye or an injury to the eyeball causing bleeding in the eye.
Antiviral drugs are usually used when the cornea is affected and may also cause chronic conjunctivitis.
In over 50% of cases, a corneal ulcer or abrasion has preceded the formation of the sequestrum. However, an ulcer may become worse if neglected, treated improperly, or if normal healing becomes interfered.
If the ulcer goes right through the cornea, a pink membrane called a descemetocoele will poke out through the hole and if it goes through that membrane then the eyeball can rupture and the whole eye will have to be removed. Once the infection has cleared and the ulcers have healed, most dogs stay only on the immunosuppressive drops for life but sometimes have to use artificial tears or teargel as well. It is caused by an immune process in some cases and is also seen in eyes that take a lot of damage, such a breeds with eyes that protrude out like the Pug or in a mild dry eye that has been slightly dry for a long time.
The eyeball that is hanging out of its socket is very prone to getting damaged as it is exposed to hair and dirt that it would normally be protected from. Once the operation has been done, an Elizabethan collar is put on the dog for 2 weeks to stop him scratching the stitches out.
Sometimes with inflammation or damage to the eye, the lens moves and physically blocks the drainage duct. Treatment unusually involves antibiotic eye drops, atropine eye drops as well as cortisone containing eye drops to reduce the inflammation. Persistent latent infections often occur, with the virus becoming reactivated following periods of stress. Surgery is performed under general anesthesia and the average healing time is three to four weeks.
It is not currently known why this disease occurs, but it has been associated with feline herpes virus. Anti inflammatory painkillers such as Carprofen (Rimadyl) are often given at the same time. If the eye is infected or ulcerated, drops are given at the same time to clear those up as well. Cats may carry the virus for life, with periodic shedding of the virus and reoccurrence of ocular disease.
The large artery and nerve that supply the eye are stretched so the eye receives a poor blood supply during this time.
The cat is usually required to wear an Elizabethan collar to protect the eye until it heals. Sometimes glaucoma happens spontaneously due to genetics for example, and this is called primary glaucoma.  Glaucoma is unfortunately picked up a lot earlier in humans than in pets, because people notice their vision being affected. Most pet owners only notice a problem when it is in its final stages and  a lot of damage has already occurred inside the eye. The increased pressure in the eye pushes on the delicate retina, damaging the cells vital for vision.

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