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High energy 1064nm Q-switched pulsed lasers , nd yag laser. Nd YAG laser is optically pumped using a flashtube or laser diodes, one of the most common types of laser, and are used for many different applications. High Energy 1064nm Q-switched Pulsed Infrared LaserHigh energy 1064nm 20-170mJ Q-switched (EOM) Pulsed Near Infrared Laser System.
High Energy 1.064um Q-switched Pulsed LaserHigh energy 1064nm 100-170mJ Q-switched (EOM) Pulsed Near Infrared Laser System. The Nano TRL PIV lasers are dual head high energy laser systems with output energies of up to 425mJ at 532nm. The Nano TRL PIV lasers have been designed to suit demanding industrial applications with a sealed laser head machined from solid aluminium, ultrastable mirror mounts and industry leading lamp lifetimes. In Capacitor Power Supplies we use a Voltage Dropping Capacitor in series with the phase line. This is a step by step guide to modifying the disposable camera flash unit that powers the Geiger tube in the last post.
The schematic diagram come from circuit: Stable Power Supply for High Voltage -100V to -1000V power supply. The circuit is use to regulation dual power supply that provides +12V and -12V from the AC mains. This Precision Power Supply is a nice addition on your workbench as primary, or in my case, a supplementary power supply.
A very simple high efficiency switching mode buckboost power supply circuit can be designed using the LTM4609 switching regulator IC. Using a single 7812 IC voltage regulator and multiple outboard pass transistors, this power supply can deliver output load currents of up to 30 amps..
I have designed this high voltage, low current power supply for various experiments in systems & synthetic biology. Using the LTC3810-5 synchronous step-down switching regulator controller can be designed a very easy and simple 12 volt switching power supply electronic project using few external electronic parts.
This LM723 variable power supply circuit design is a very simple variable power supply that will provide an output voltage between 8 and 30 volt at a maximum output current of 3 ampere. This RS232 power supply circuit diagram is an simple RS-232 Line Driver Power Supply, that operates from an input voltage as low as 4.
For the best advantage as a low noise high input impedance device, the preamp and tone control uses JFET. The following information pertains to experiments presently being conducted in the laser collisions lab of the above laboratory.
In these experiments atoms and molecules excited by electron impact are studied when they are in a metastable state following the collision.
Many different processes can occur in this reaction, depending upon the energetics and kinetics of the reaction. The experiments described here look at the process of inelastic scattering, where the target is left in a metastable state.
The experiments are precursors to measuring stepwise laser excitation of metastable atoms and molecules.
An electron which has well defined energy Einc, and momentum Pei is incident on either an atom or a molecular target which is in its ground state. The velocity of the gas is constrained to a narrow distribution by the supersonically expanding shock wave. The target beam enters a second vacuum chamber where it travels ~ 100mm prior to interacting with a well defined beam of electrons.
These electrons are produced in an electron gun that controls both the direction and energy of the electrons. Only a very small number of these electrons will interact with the target beam, the majority passing through the interaction region and being collected by a Faraday cup 200mm downstream.
The majority of the target beam is also unaffected during the reaction, and passes through the interaction region.
The majority undergo an elastic collision where only the direction of the incident electron may change and the target remains in its ground state.
A small number of targets will be excited, and depending upon the energy that can be exchanged between the electrons and the target, excitation to various states can occur. Depending upon the cross section for the state, which is a function of both the energy and the angle through which the electron is scattered, a small number of these targets will be excited to the metastable state.
Since these metastable excited targets cannot decay by photon emission, and since there are very few collisions between targets in the gas beam (their relative velocity is close to zero in the beam and therefore their relative position to each other does not change markedly), most of these will remain in the excited state as they pass out of the interaction region. Scattered Atoms (Molecules) in a Metastable State with internal energy Eexc and which carry momentum Paf away from the reaction.
Studying the momentum of the targets that have been deflected by the electron collision, since these are related to the electron momentum by conservation of momentum. It should be noted that in conventional electron scattering experiments which measure excitation cross sections, the target momentum is not usually considered.
There are a number of complications that can arise in these experiments where the target momentum is exploited for measurement. If the incident electron is of sufficient energy to excite not only the metastable state but also higher lying states which through photon emission can decay to the metastable state, there will be a contribution to the target signal due to these cascades. For a significant number of targets there is more than one metastable state, and these may be sufficiently close in excitation energy to be unresolvable when exploiting their individual momentum transfer contributions. This effect is particularly significant when the target is a molecule since the metastable vibrational and rotational states will be much closer together than can be resolved by even the highest resolution electron impact studies. The difficulties associated with cascading can be overcome by confining the study to the region close to threshold for excitation of the metastable state. For studies of excitation at energies where contributions from cascading become significant, a time resolved coincidence experiment between the scattered electrons and the deflected targets becomes necessary. Unlike conventional coincidence studies, the direction of the coincident scattered electron is known since the momentum of the excited target is known, and hence the collection rate of the experiments can be enhanced by placing the electron detector at the appropriate point in space.
The difficulties associated with state selectivity can be overcome by employing a further stepwise laser excitation step from the metastable state to an upper state using a high resolution laser probe. Since the laser radiation transfers information about the metastable state to this upper state, measurement of the upper state can in principal yield information about the lower state once the laser excitation mechanism is well understood. Allows the electron excitation mechanism to be studied by analysing the stepwise excited state.
Field Ionisation if the laser excited state has sufficiently high principal quantum number (high yields, in principal 100% efficient).
The latter Field Ionisation technique is adopted in these experiments, although photon detection can be easily installed into the vacuum system if this proves advantageous to measurement of the signal. Molecular Vibrational & Rotational states can be studied in detail for a wide range of targets.
A detailed analysis of the laser excitation process is required to fully characterise the electron excited state. The processes where the linear momentum transferred from the electron to the target is exploited to determine cross sections for excitation of the state are now considered. The square root in the above expression shows the origin of the two different momenta at any given deflection angle of the targets as described in figure 4. Note that for each atom detection angle qa there are 2 contributing momenta Paf1, Paf2 excepting the case of Forward & Backward scattered electrons, as shown in figure 5. Hence with sufficient time resolution and detection angle resolution the experiments should reveal 2 distinct peaks at any given detection angle.
It should be noted that the lifetimes of the low l highly excited helium Rydberg targets, typically only a few microseconds, exclude them from being detected in the present experiments where the targets drift for around 300 microseconds from the interaction region to the metastable detector. The chamber is lined with a double layer of m-metal which reduces external magnetic fields to < 5mG at the interaction region. Fast output deflector circuit only allows electrons to exit electron gun, preventing any ions created in field free region or other high potential region from reaching interaction region. Angle selectivity is achieved using 1mm apertures 1 & 2 spaced 60mm apart prior to a 719BL CEM metastable detector at end of detector (LHS). Electrostatic deflection plates remove unwanted electrons and ions from entering the detector and possibly reaching the detectors. Visible Laser Diodes (VLD's) align the detector to the interaction region formed by electron beam, gas beam and rotation axis of detector. A control pulse (0 - 150Hz) drives the gas nozzle HT pulse & the electron gun Grid following an appropriate delay.
The Turbo-MCS is gated to either sweep over ~100ms for each gas pulse or is set to count events for a set number of gas pulses at each detection angle. The following graphs show the metastable angular distribution when the target gas is excited using a continuous electron beam, rather than a pulsed electron beam for four different excitation energies from 20eV to 50eV. As the incident energy increases forward scattering starts to dominate over backscattering as a collision mechanism as might be expected.
The evolution from single atom momentum at q'a = 4A°through double momentum peaks at intermediate energies then back to a single peak at the highest scattering angles can clearly be seen as is discussed in figure 4. Gaussian profiles have been fitted to the peaks to establish the amplitude, width and position of each peak as a function of the deflection angle. Note that a 4ms electron excitation peak is visible at higher detection angles, which is thought to be due to either photon or stray electron contributions. This accurately yields the time difference between excitation of the target and collection of the metastables.
For these experiments the atoms excited by the incident electrons are counted and fitted to a Gaussian of width w and height h as shown in figure 14. Figure 15 shows the results of these least squares fit calculations at 40eV Incident Energy, showing the amplitude h and width w together with the associated peak positions.
Note that this method allows the DCS to be determined over the complete set of scattering angles from forward to 180A° backward scattering of the electrons. Note that some discrepancies exist between the calculations from the fast and the slow atoms.
This effectively acts as a high resolution timing probe of the target gas beam which for helium has a time spread of the order of 6ms from the interaction region to the detector. If you look out your window but cana€™t see the masts because they are obstructed by other buildings then the power density will be mainly absorbed by those buildings and too low to worry about.
If the substation is immediately next to your home there is little in a practical sense you can do to reduce the magnetic fields.
Unless the substation is immediately adjacent to your house the EMFa€™s from these small street substations fall to background levels within about 3 meters. WI-FI and DECT phones are overwhelmingly the main contributors to household electro pollution with power densities far above any nearby mobile phone mast. If your internet connection is by telephone you will need the Netgear DG834 model opposite. If your internet connection is via a cable connection you would need the Linksys wired modem opposite. These alarms use the same technology as DECT cordless phones and will continuously pulsate microwave energy throughout the babya€™s room and beyond. Best to change your old cathode-ray monitors (the ones with the deep backs) to any type of flat screen monitor as these give of far less Electromagnetic fields than the old type which thankfully you cana€™t buy any more.
In order to get your body back to its proper earth bound resonance you need to be sleeping earthed.A  Explanation of what is sleeping earthed and how you can do it is found on my website. Geobiology explores the relationship between life and the Eartha€™s physical and chemical environment. The history of geobiology in this respect dates back to 1929 when a German aristocrat Baron Gustov Von Pohl, an eminent dowser, made the extraordinary claim that cancer was caused by a€?energy linesa€™ that ran under the beds of the people that had died from the disease. Underground Streams: a€?Water will flow through any underground passage, fracture of fissure. The dark square with flashing white lines is a photographic print of microwaves radiating in the space above an underground watercourse taken in total darkness.
Diagram depicts the flow of underground water and consequential chemical reactions within certain geological features that could be the origin of geopathic stress issues. The dipolar nature of water molecules can also be part of the origin of electromagnetic fields originating from ground contained water. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.a€?These are usually sorted by the frequency. For visual explanation, NASA have a simple but useful diagram, and there is a far more detailed diagram available from thinkgeek (purchase required).
We believe that one of the main reasons that EMFs (particularly microwave frequencies) are potentially bioactive is due to the nature of the signal itself. We have evolved with the natural levels of EMFs produced by both the sun and world around us.
Power frequency (50Hz in the UK) is given off by any appliance or transmission of AC (alternating current) electrity. Childhood leukaemia has been internationally accepted as linked to powerfrequency exposure magnetic fields, with a wealth of literature finding increases in risk to this and other illnesses.
It is well documented and generally accepted that over-exposure to ultraviolet rays can cause burning and skin cancer. There are internationally accepted guidelines by the International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) that have been designed to limit both residential and occupational exposure to levels that are safely below those that can heat up tissue.
However, recently there has been a number of studies showing very specific biological effects far lower than these levels (see our Studies list), and as yet there is no international guidance that has taken any of these studies into effect.
Powerfrequency electromagnetic fields are generated by any appliance running off AC (alternating current) power - anything plugged into a main power socket will generate them to some degree. At the moment, health effects primarily associated with powerfrequency EMFs are due to the magnetic component - these include, but are not limited to, Childhood Leukaemia, Adult Leukaemia, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Miscarriage, and Clinical Depression. There is a fairly brief overview of health risks and evidence in the health concerns section of the electric power transmission article on Wikipedia. The last type of geopathic disturbance that I want to talk about before we have a look at man-made electromagnetic energies concerns the earth's natural geomagnetic field (the one that makes a compass needles pointA  north).
The first geomagnetogram (G1) typically represents the values of the Earths normal geomagnetic field taken by me in a farmer's field near Poynings village not far from where I live.
The second geomagnetogram (G2) was taken above a sprung mattress from a lady suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome and severe depression, and has a magnetic anomaly of 22,435.4 nT. The Cliff of Tears a€?It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live. Unnatural Alterations in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field a€?A second and equally important influence on the sequence of mitosis is the role in which the normal earth's geomagnetic field (DC field) influences the formation and production of a healthy pregnancy. Health risks due to exposure to electromagnetic fields EMFa€™s in the home were first suggested in America by Wertheimer and Leeper, when they estimated the levels people were exposed to, using a€?wire codesa€™, and the local incidence of childhood leukaemia. Stress sensitive hormones such as prolactin and thyroxide have been found to be elevated in people at work in high electromagnetic environments.A  Prolactin plays a key role in moderating parts of the neuro-immune system and may also be an important precipitator of auto immune diseases. It has been scientifically proven for the first time, with a double blind study by means of an electrocardiogram, that the detrimental effects of a€?water veinsa€? and other geopathically disturbing phenomena can cause serious health problems to persons exposed to them. This presentation took place in March 2003 in the large auditorium of the Saint Johanns-hospital Landesklinjken SalzburgA  Germany. At locations where Geopathic stress zones are present, subsurface water plays a predominantrole, either as lakes, slowly moving underground water, or as water streams.
Technical electromagnetic fields can also drastically affect the human body, as soon as certain field strengths are reached. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.These are usually sorted by the frequency. The Cliff of Tears It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live. The purpose of this page is to detail the Atom trapping and Cooling experiments being conducted at Manchester. The new apparatus which has been developed is aimed at providing a high density source of atoms for several different experiments in cold atoms. In these experiments, new types of collision processes are to be studied, including electron collisions from cold atoms, BEC's and from slow atomic beams.
The Cold Atom Facility which has been developed in Manchester is a bright source of cold atoms, and is shown in Figure 1. Atoms emitted from the source can be laser collimated in the second stage of the experiment, which consists of a 6-way 200mm 316LN cross attached to the source chamber.
Laser collimation can be accomplished either using an optical molasses, through a 2D MOT or by exploiting the transverse momentum transferred to the atomic beam as it traverses this region using angled mirrors. Atoms from the collimated source that enter the Zeeman slower (figure 5) are longitudinally cooled and compressed in phase space using a blue detuned laser which passes along the axis of the Zeeman slower.
The design of the apparatus in Manchester allows atoms to be cooled, trapped and accumulated very rapidly from the source, which operates continuously. It has been demonstrated that the trap density reaches saturation (where no more atoms can be trapped due to radiation trapping and other restrictions) within 1 second. The MOT1 chamber has been designed with numerous CF-70 ports to allow additional experiments to be connected to the chamber. Since the ratio of accumulation time to trapping time is 400:1, the apparatus will be able to continuously load different cold atom experiments from the main source while maintaining the maximum trapping density which can be achieved in each of these experiments. One of the goals in the design of this apparatus was to produce a well-collimated beam of atoms from the atomic beam source prior to laser collimation (see figure 1). There are several different types of atomic beam oven that can be used in these types of experiments, ranging from a simple crucible that directs atoms through a hypodermic needle (and hence produces a beam that is quite divergent) through capillary array sources (which are unsuitable for metal vapour targets as needed here), on through passively collimated sources as is used in Manchester for super-elastic scattering experiments from calcium and finally on to the most sophisticated (and most complex) sources which use a recirculating arrangement for collimation and recycling of the material under study.
Recirculating oven sources have several advantages over other sources (if they are suitable). Firstly, since the source only produces atoms which enter the atomic beam, there is very little waste of material. As an example, the potassium source used in these cold atom experiments in Manchester has been operating for over 2 years without the need to refill the crucible.
Secondly, the use of a condensation chamber surrounding the emitting nozzle means that vapour from the oven is re-condensed onto the inner walls of this chamber, to be fed back to the crucible. Figure 2 shows the recirculating oven that has been designed and commissioned in Manchester. The condensation chamber is held at a temperature ~340K so that the potassium on the walls is in a liquid form. Potassium vapour that is directed through the output aperture of the condensation chamber becomes the atomic beam which is used in the experiments.
Close control of the recirculating oven temperature is achieved by using several constant current supplies which feed the tungsten heaters as shown in figure 2.
Although not yet tested with Rb, it is fully expected that this atomic beam oven can be used with equal success using Rubidium (melting temperature 312K) as the chosen source. Rubidium will be used for the production of Bose Einstein Condensates (BEC's) and for other experiments in the near future. Details of this recirculating beam source are currently being written as a paper for submission to an appropriate journal. Following laser collimation using an optical molasses (figure 1), the atomic beam enters the Zeeman slower.
The effective way to slow atoms down using lasers is to adopt the process of laser cooling where the spontaneous emission process is used as a mechanism to provide a dissipative force.
An atom initially travelling with momentum pA = MAv is subjected to laser radiation directed in the opposite direction, where MA is the mass of the atom and v is the velocity of the atom. Since linear momentum must be conserved, absorption of a photon from the field means that the atom must slow down. Firstly it is possible for a second photon from the laser field to stimulate the atom to decay back to the ground state.
Secondly, the atom may relax back to the ground state spontaneously (spontaneous emission process). IF the photon is emitted in the same direction as the incident photon, then the momentum of the atom will return back to it's initial value prior to the interaction pA = MAv, and so the atom velocity does not change. By repeating this process many thousands of times, the atoms will slow down until they are stopped.
The process of compression of the velocity distribution occurs since atoms with different velocities will only come into resonance with the laser beam at certain times during the cycling process. The method adopted here changes the internal states of the atoms by application of a magnetic field, which perturbs the atomic transitions which are coupled together by the laser radiation field. Figure 4 shows the type of magnetic field that is required to ensure the atoms can be effectively slowed and cooled. Figure 5 and figure 1 shows Zeeman slower that has been designed for the experiments in Manchester. 3,500m of rectangular section aluminium wire is used to provide the field, wound onto the flight tube as 5 individual coils. These coils are operated by 5 x 20A constant current supplies whose current can be tailored so as to produce the required field profile along the flight tube. Four additional coils are located at the exit of the Zeeman slower which disrupt the field so as to release atoms into the MOT chamber. The Zeeman slower dissipates ~5,000W when operated at full current, and cooling of the slower is implemented by the external copper coils and by an internal water jacket next to the flight tube. Six laser beams of appropriate polarization are directed at the centre of the coils (the trapping region) which act as an OPTICAL MOLASSES to the atoms which enter this region, as shown in Figure 7.
The laser interaction acts as the velocity dependent frictional force that slows the atoms down, in the same way as inside the Zeeman Slower. Since the molasses component is velocity dependent, as the atoms slow down they will gradually stop moving (within these approximations).
The magnetic field from the anti-Helmholtz coils in combination with the laser beams ensures that the force acting on the atoms also has a restoring component that drives the atoms back to the centre of the trapping region (this force depends on the distance from the centre of the trap). Since the restoring component is distance dependent, atoms subjected to this component will perform simple Harmonic motion (within these approximations).
This does not happen, as the atoms may still absorb and emit photons from the laser field, leading to a minimum velocity that is given by the recoil momentum of the atoms undergoing these absorption and emission processes (the quantum limit). For potassium atoms in the experiment in Manchester, the temperature of the atoms in the trap has been measured to be ~250 micro-Kelvin. The success of the apparatus in producing a bright rapidly accumulating source of cold atoms means that new experiments now become possible. The first experiments to be attempted will scatter low energy electrons from the cold atoms either produced from the Zeeman slower, or inside the MOT.
For these experiments, a pulsed electron gun has been constructed and installed in the AC-MOT chamber to produce a low energy electron beam of up to 10 microamps current at energies from 2eV to 100eV. Electrons from this source are directed at the trapped or slow atoms, so that they are ionized by the electron collision as shown in figure 11. In this case, momentum of incident electron beam is known, as is momentum of cooled or trapped atoms.
By measuring the recoiling ions, it is then possible to measure differential cross sections for ionization of these cold targets over the complete scattering geometry as shown in Figure 12.

The graph shows the momentum which is transferred from the electron to the ionized potassium target as a function of the momentum of the neutral target, where both outgoing electrons are scattered symmetrically wrt the incident beam direction.
By detecting one electron in coincidence with the ion momentum, it is possible to completely determine the cross section for all scattering geometries. This technique is also used in COLTRIMS experiments which exploit supersonically prepared target atoms, however by using cold atoms the sensitivity of the technique is enhanced many times.
Further, since the momentum of the initial target can be controlled by the Zeeman slower, it is possible to take sensitive measurements at different angles so as to ensure accuracy in the data.
Other experiments being considered include super-elastic scattering of electrons from trapped atoms, study of interaction of electrons with BEC's, and interaction of fermions with ultra-cold ensembles. Watch this space for new results and developments in these collision experiments, including details of the AC-MOT! The Cold Atom Facility developed in Manchester has potential to deliver a high density of cold atoms to different experiments so as to allow multiple experiments to be performed from the one source. This page describes the atom trapping and cooling experiments being conducted in Manchester. A Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices                                                                             Author: Patrick J. Note: If you are not at all familiar with basic electronics, you might find it easier to understand this chapter if you read chapter 12 first. The pulsed devices mentioned so far have had moving parts but rotating or fluctuating magnetic fields can be created without moving parts. Here, a laminated soft iron frame has a powerful permanent magnet positioned in it’s centre and six coils are wound in the positions shown.
The full patent details of this system from Charles Flynn are in the Appendix, starting at page A - 338. However, if the input coil is pulsed so that the current flowing in the coil produces a magnetic field which reinforces the magnetic field of the permanent magnet then it is possible for the output power to exceed the input power. There is a limitation to this as the amount of magnetic flux which any particular frame can carry is limited by the material from which it is made.
As an example of this, one of the people replicating Lawrence's design found that he did not get any power gain at all and so he asked Lawrence for advice. Thane has developed, tested and applied for a patent for a transformer arrangement where the output power of his prototype can be thirty times greater than the input power. When a pulse of input power is delivered to Coil 1 (called the "Primary winding"), it creates a magnetic wave which passes around the frame or "yoke" of the transformer, passing though Coil 2 (called the "Secondary winding") and back to Coil 1 again as shown by the blue arrows. This is what makes current scientific "experts" say that the electrical efficiency of a transformer will always be less than 100%. This style of transformer has got quite complicated magnetic flows when it is operating, although the diagram above only shows some of the flow paths generated when the input coil “Coil 1” is pulsed.
The LED associated with the power being fed to the primary winding is so low that no light is visible.
This simple and elegant modification of the humble transformer, converts it into a free-energy device which boosts the power used to drive it and outputs much greater power. Professor Gennady Markov, General Director of STC "Virus" and author of many inventions and discoveries, received an international patent for a new a transformer design which he created.
I dared to do the opposite: take a coil with two identical windings and operate them towards each other.
Conventional transformers tend to be very bulky because they contain a great deal of iron with the weight of a standard 4 MW transformer being 3670 Kg. Several types of transformers are proposed which may be used as the main electrical engineering equipment of electric power stations, substations, power lines, in radio engineering, in devices for measuring, automatic control and regulation. The transformer comprises (Fig.2) a magnetic circuit, a primary winding consisting of two sections having an identical number of turns, wound in one direction on a core of the magnetic circuit. The developed embodiments of the transformer are distinctive in that the sections of the primary winding are wound on one core of the magnetic circuit (3 embodiments) or on two cores of one magnetic circuit (4 embodiments), in that the direction in which the sections of the winding are wound is different (in one or opposing directions), and consequently there is a different connection of the windings, and are also distinguished by the presence of a secondary winding (in one embodiment there is no secondary winding). Transformers are electromagnetic static converters of electrical energy which have two or more inductively coupled windings and are designed for the conversion of a sinusoidal alternating current of one voltage into an alternating current of another voltage with the same frequency.
The principle of operation of a transformer is based on the effect of electromagnetic induction found by M.
Power transformers, which are a necessary element of an industrial power network, have attained the most widespread use. The part of the magnetic circuit upon which the windings are arranged, is called the ‘core’, the remaining part, closing the magnetic circuit, is called the ‘yoke’. Known inventions are concerned with the creation of special transformers or with changes of particular structural elements of the transformer; realisation of magnetic circuits from certain materials and their structural appearance, connection of magnetic circuits to each other where there is a number of magnetic circuits n, use of different types of insulation and cooling systems, realisation of the windings, additional elements in order to enhance noise immunity. A current transformer with strip insulation is known [RU, C1, 2046425] comprising a single-turn or multi-turn primary winding and secondary windings which are placed in a damping screen and have terminals. A high-voltage transformer is known (RU, C1, 2035776] comprising a porcelain housing mounted on a socket on which an active portion enclosed in the housing, is positioned on compressing posts. A heavy-current transformer is known [RU, C1, 2027238] comprising a primary winding disposed on a toroidal core and a secondary winding encompassing the primary winding.
At the base of the invention lies the object of creating such a transformer in which the possibility of winding the secondary winding with wire, including wire with a cross-section equal to the cross-section of the primary winding, is realised, and the reduction of the number of turns in the secondary winding of high-voltage transformers and expansion of the number of variants of existing transformers are attained. This object is achieved in that a construction of a transformer is proposed which comprises a magnetic circuit, at least two windings, inlets for a power supply, outlets for a load, wherein the primary winding consists of two sections with an identical number of turns, the sections being connected to each other in a series circuit.
A transformer is proposed in which two sections of a primary winding are wound in one direction on one core of the magnetic circuit, the sections are connected in a series circuit by connection of the outputs of the windings, and the point of their connection serves as an outlet for the load, while the inputs of the windings of the sections serve as inlets for the power supply. The above technical result is achieved by creating a transformer, two sections of the primary winding of which are wound in one direction on one core of the magnetic circuit, the outputs of the windings of the sections are connected in a series circuit, while the inputs of the section windings serve as inlets for the power supply. The aforesaid technical result is achieved by creating a transformer, two sections of the primary winding of which are wound in opposing directions on one core of the magnetic circuit, the output of the winding of the first section and the input of the winding of the second section are connected to each other in a series circuit, while the input of the winding of the first section and the output of the winding of the second section serve as inlets for the power supply. The indicated object is achieved by creating a transformer in which both sections of the primary winding are wound in one direction on two cores of one magnetic circuit, the output of the winding of the first section and the input of the winding of the second section are connected to each other in a series circuit, while the input of the winding of the first section and the output of the winding of the second section serve as inlets for the power supply. The same technical result is achieved when both sections of the primary winding are wound in one direction on two cores of one magnetic circuit, where the input of the winding of the first section is connected to the output of the winding of the second section, the output of the winding of the first section is connected to the input of the winding of the second section, the points of their connection serve as inlets for the power supply. The indicated object is achieved by creating a transformer in which two sections of the primary winding are wound in opposing directions on two cores of one magnetic circuit, both sections are connected to each other by connection of the inputs and outputs thereof respectively, and the points of their connection serve as inlets for the power supply. The following lies at the base of the invention: sections of the primary winding are wound and connected to each other in such a manner that the magnetic flux created by one of such sections during operation of the transformer compensates the magnetic flux created by the other section of the primary winding.
If the two sections of the primary winding of the proposed transformer are connected to an alternating current network having a voltage U1, then a current io will flow along them.
When the network current drops during half-cycles, restoration of he permeability occurs in the magnetic circuit, and consequently, an electromotive force (emf) is induced in the primary and secondary windings. In the case where both windings are wound in opposing directions with an identical number of turns, but are connected to each other in a series circuit by opposing leads (the output of the winding of the first section and the input of the winding of the second section), the magnetic flux in the primary winding io will also be equal to zero, i.e. 3) the secondary winding having a number of turns either greater or less than the number of turns in the primary winding, depending on the necessity of a high voltage at the output of the transformer. A transformer in accordance with the invention, according to the embodiment shown in Fig.1 comprises a magnetic circuit 1, a first section 2 of a primary winding, a second section 3 of the primary winding, a1 and x1 - the input and output of the winding of the first section, a2 and x2 - the in and out of the winding of the second section of the primary winding, RH1 - the resistance of a load connected to the first section, RH2 - the resistance of a load connected to the second section of the primary winding.
The inputs a1 and a2 of the windings of sections 2 and 3 are separately connected to a power supply U (not shown), the outputs x1 and x2 of the windings of those same sections are connected to each other in a series circuit. Thus, a change of the current passing through the sections of the primary winding in time results in a change of the permeability, while a change of the latter causes an emf to appear in those windings between the point of connection of the sections and the inputs of the windings, but shifted by phase in time relative to the current passing from the supply source.
The load resistance RH1 is connected in the path of the current i from the power supply U to the first section 2 of the winding and to the point of connection of the outputs of the sections, the load resistance RH2 is connected accordingly to the second section 3 of the winding. At a low load resistance (equal to the resistance of the winding) the voltage U will be equal to the voltage drop on the winding, when the load resistance tends to increase to infinity, the secondary voltage U will increase proportionally, as a result of which the emf at the output of the transformer will increase dozens of times when there is one primary winding.
Fig.8 shows a stylised dependence of the increase of current and voltage in the primary and secondary windings of a transformer with a ferrite magnetic circuit. Fig.9 shows a stylised dependence of an increase of current and voltage in the primary and secondary windings of a transformer with a magnetic circuit of sheet steel. A ring-type magnetic circuit made from sheet steel and designed for a power of 2.5 kW was used as the magnetic circuit.
Samples of all types of transformers were made and have been working for from three to five years. This is an extract from a document dated January 2014 by an anonymous author whose ID is “Jack Noskills”. The capacitor’s value in a Parallel Resonant LC-circuit controls the attenuation level of band-stop filter. In any Series Resonant LC-circuit the frequency response has a notch at the resonant frequency. To get maximum effect it is therefore best to have high attenuation level at a primary Parallel LC-circuit (low C) and a high amplification level at a secondary LC-circuit (also low C).
Any simple helical coil wound on a core affects only another helical coil which has been wound underneath it or on top of it. A coil wound on a closed-loop core affects any coil on that same core and the coil also has a much higher inductance than an air-core coil. I used E-shaped parts from low power, laminated iron transformers and put those E parts together. Conclusion: There is something moving inside the core and the core has zero resistance to that flow. I then put three identical coils on the core, one had a load connected to it and the others were left unconnected. Conclusion: A secondary coil also creates magnetic current and different secondary coils affect each other in opposite ways. Conclusion: Magnetic current inside the core wants to loop back to itself through every possible route it can.
For the next test I used a nanoperm core, and I wound coils of about 50 turns for both the primary and the secondary. In a closed-loop core there can be a flowing magnetic current which varies with time when the core is energised using AC electric current. Below are pictures of C-I shaped and E-I shaped cores which show how coils should be wound. The primary coil is in fact a solenoid, it has no magnetic loops and it has low inductance.
There has got to be amps running in the primary LC-circuit so that the primary capacitor is filled. If you use E-I or C-I type cores, make sure that there are no air gaps between the pieces forming the core.
My input source was an audio amplifier, I expect that it outputs power at 5 volts but I really don’t know.
Now that I got it, I reduced the number of turns in the secondary coils to half and changed the capacitance from 440nF to 1000nF. Bi-filar windings should lower the total value of L and so a higher resonant frequency can be used. David Klingelhofer was impressed with the Thane Heins transformer designs and so he started experimenting with variations and improvements to the design while Thane moved on to motor design.
David places this steel screen between the primary and secondary windings of the transformer.
However, the construction of the toroid is completed by the two half-toroid steel pieces being connected together in a way which does not allow electrical current flow between them, possibly, glued together using epoxy resin. In my opinion, iron is needed rather than steel as steel magnetises permanently (unless it is good quality stainless steel) while iron does not become permanently magnetised, but we need to go with the recommendation of those people who have built and tested this design, and they find steel to work well in use, although it is specified as “cold-rolled” steel.
The two sets of electromagnets are wound with very low-resistance, high-current wire or possibly, even with thick foil. This arrangement creates a magnetic Bloch wall (or magnetically null point) in the centre of the yellow output coils and the position of that magnetic balance point is very easily moved if the power supply to the two sets of electromagnets is altered slightly and any movement of that magnetic balance point creates a substantial electrical output due to the alteration of the magnetic lines cutting the turns of wire in the yellow output coils. Another thing which has confused people (including me), is the drawing in the patent which looks like an electrical commutator, but which is not part of the Figuera generator design. The dotted lines indicate internal electrical connections, so for example, contact 14 is connected to contact 3, but let me stress again that this unit is not part of the design and while it is used to “explain” the actual operation, I would not be surprised if it were not intended to misdirect people from the actual operation. This looks like a very simple device but it is an item of major importance in the Figuera design.
The sliding brass contact or “brush” is dimensioned so that it connects across two adjacent wires so that there is never any sparking as the brush contact slides around the circle of wires.
When we first look at a device like this, we immediately think of the flow of electric current passing through the wire wound around the iron core. As the magnetic intensity generated by the set of “N” electromagnets increases, the magnetic intensity generated by the set of “S” electromagnets decreases. While the sketch above shows a 12-volt battery, there is no great reason why it should not be 24-volt or higher, especially if the wire used to wind the electromagnets is smaller diameter.
Alex in Russia who has shared several of his motionless pulse-charging systems for batteries, now shares his design which does not appear to have any back-EMF effect on the primary coil. Here, his chosen form of construction is a frame of twelve lengths of 20 mm diameter plastic pipes – four at the top, four at the bottom and four verticals. For this, the output coils are wound with two strands of wire side by side, in a single layer along the length of the plastic pipe.
Alex also shows how ferrite toroids can be used, even with 220V mains, to give back-EMF-free transformer operation. Here, the primary coil “1” is wound on a toroid which is horizontal in the picture above, and the secondary coils “2” are wound on toroids which are shown as vertical in the drawing.
The third arrangement uses four toroids in a more powerful arrangement where the magnetic flux carrying capacity of the transformer is doubled as the cross sectional area of the toroids inside each coil is doubled.
If these simple transformer arrangements operate as back-EMF-free devices as claimed, then the current draw from any, or all, of the secondary windings does not have any effect on the current flowing through the primary coil. The blue coil has the power input at “A” and the capacitor in series with each coil is there to get all of the windings to resonate at the same frequency. It is probably worth remembering that adding a magnet to a toroid or closed-loop core transformer can boost the output provided that the permanent magnet is not strong enough to saturate the core completely and prevent oscillation of the magnetic flux.
Alexkor has produced a simplified Lenz-law-free design, using commercial toroids already wound as step-down mains transformers.
The technique is to remove the plate covering the central opening and connecting the 220V and 110V windings in series. While the winding “D” is shown as a narrow strip in the diagram, that is only to make the drawing easier to understand as in reality, the winding “D” is continued all the way around the whole of the circumference of the toroids and it can be many layers deep to suit the desired output voltage. Toroid “A” has a tuning capacitor “C1” which is adjusted in value to achieve resonance in that circuit as that minimises the current flowing into toroid “A” from the mains. Toroid “B” has a capacitor “C2” which is adjusted to give the highest output voltage (typically 600 volts) coming from toroid “B”. The output winding “D” is free of the Lenz law effect and the input current from the mains is not affected in any way when the current draw from coil “D” is increased, or even short-circuited. In July 2013, two Brazilian men, Nilson Barbosa and Cleriston Leal, published a series of patents which appear to be very significant.
An unusual feature of this design is the fact that it has a continuous conductive loop, in which it is claimed, current flows continuously, even without the need for an applied voltage.
The inventors describe their device like this: “this electromagnetic-field-generating device, powered by a power source, produces an electromagnetic field which induces an electric current in a closed conductive circuit, creating an interaction between the magnetic poles of the equipment and the magnetic poles of the earth - through both electromagnetic attraction and repulsion.
One very interesting feature is that the continuous-loop coil formed by wire 4 in the diagram above, is literally, only two turns of wire. Here, the earth wire 5 is wrapped around the continuous loop wire 4, feeding it additional electrons captured from the ground. Here, the battery 13, is used to power an ordinary inverter 12, which produces a high alternating voltage, in this case, at very low power.
Just as there are several different ways of using an electron trap in a circuit, there are several ways of constructing and connecting an electron trap. This is the actual drawing from the patent and it presents a slight problem in that it is not physically possible to implement the number 4 wire in the way shown. With this two-frame arrangement, there is just the one earth wire 5, as before, again, it is wrapped around wire 4 rather than being physically connected to it. The methods for using the air-electrons trap are the same as those for the earth-wire electron trap. The present invention relates to a device for generating electricity, in particular self-powered equipment for generating electricity.
There are many methods for generating electricity using electromagnetism, but all of these are electromechanical devices using magnets and have limited generating capacity and an ecological impact which makes them unsuited to large scale projects.
The aim of this invention is the sustainable generation of electricity, using a generator which is able to produce large amounts of electricity from an extremely low input current, which initially is supplied by a bank of batteries, but subsequently is supplied by the output from the generator which is also able to power external loads.
An ordinary capacitor should not be used in these applications because Mains Spikes may create holes in dielectric of ordinary capacitors and the capacitor will fail to work.
A power supply like this is a very essential tool on the work bench of an electronic hobbyist. With zero to 40V and 2A with adjustable current limiting it will surely gets lots of use on your bench.
This symmetrical power supply is designed using a simple operational amplifier and some classic electronic components Resistances R1 and R2 form a high impedance voltage divider. For this reason, many designs are now required to interface with existing telephones at the subscriber`s location. It adjusts from about 3v to 24v: and has the added feature that you can limit the maximum output current. This LM723 variable power supply circuit design project has a very low output ripple voltage of 0. The electron impact occurs when a well controlled electron beam interacts with a well defined gas beam comprising ground state atoms or molecules under investigation.
Here the electrons do not lose any energy in the reaction, however the momentum of the electrons may change.
Here the incident electron loses energy in the reaction to the target, which is subsequently excited to one of its (usually discrete) states.
In these experiments the target is prepared in some way so that it has internal energy prior to interaction with the electron beam. This is here defined as a state that cannot decay to a lower state of the target via a single photon emission (dipole allowed) transition. State selectivity is obtainable by exploiting momentum transferred to the atom by the electron impact. This is brought about in these experiments by employing a supersonically expanded jet of target gas which is skimmed by an expontially flared aperture in a source chamber.
These ground state targets eventually enter the high vacuum pump located at the top of the interaction chamber from where they are ejected. They can then drift for many hundreds of microseconds before a collisional de-excitation occurs either with each other or with a surface or stray molecule inside the vacuum chamber. Note that if the targets are molecules they may share this internal energy between rotational & vibrational states in the metastable electronic manifold.
This can be achieved using conventional electron energy analysers that select electrons of a specific energy and scattering angle for measurement. As the possible target deflection angles following the collision is confined to a much smaller range than the possible scattering angles of the electrons (which range from 0A° through to 180A° in space), in principle the cross section for excitation of the state can be completely mapped out over all possible electron scattering angles.
In these experiments only the momentum of the electron is measured, both for the incident beam and for the scattered electrons using energy and angle selective analysers.
The signal will then be an incoherent summation of the contributions fom these excited states. Of particular interest in this region is the study of temporary negative ion states that show up as resonances. Measurements of energy selected scattered electrons in coincidence with measurement of the excited targets then exclude any contribution from upper states, since the electrons which excite these states are excluded from the coincidence measurement.
Tunable laser radiation has an energy resolution typically 1,000 to 1,000,000 times better than is possible using electron spectrometers, and so resonant excitation can individually select the metastable state for further excitation following electron impact excitation. The coplanar momentum transfer scheme, showing the relationship between the extrema of the electron scattering angles together with the corresponding extrema of the target deflaction angles. The graphs show the effects as a function of the momentum, velocity and deflection angle of the target helium atoms. Variation of the maximum and minimum target deflection angle as a function of the incident energy of the electrons. This aperture together with the 1mm exit orifice of the nozzle are aligned using visible laser diodes.
All are aligned using Visible Laser Diodes apertured to accurately define their individual axes. This is important as the detector may measure ions created as the electron beam interacts with the gas beam. The calibrated angle plate which accurately measures the deflection angle of the target beam.
This additionally allows the zero angle to be calibrated wrt the apertures in the source chamber which define the ground state target beam direction.
Since the interaction region to detector distance is accurately known, this immediately yields the value of final atom momentum Paf(qa) to substitute into the appropriate equations. Gaussian fitting parameters as a function of the Detection Angle for the time resolved metastable atom deflections at 40eV Incident Energy.
It can be seen that the DCS is forward peaked as expected, and that the DCS has been determined at the complete set of scattering angles from forward to backward scattering.
This may be attributable to errors associated with the solid angle of detection of the analyser which has not been considered in the above calculation. Or if you are addicted to cordless phones by the low energy Eco + friendly types that only emit a signal when you are using them.A  Google Siemens Gigaset Low Radiation Phones.
An example of this is a digital bedside alarm clock that only need 6 volts to operate but plugged into your 240 volt ring circuit. Click first on my a€?Studenta€™s Notesa€™ button and scroll to the end for pictures and explanation.
The term was adopted many years ago by some German dowsers, a€?geobiologistsa€™ who specialised in surveying houses for both geopathic and electromagnetic stress using both dowsing and scientific instruments. To test his theory he persuaded the Mayor of the Bavarian town of Vilsbiburg to allow him to survey the town for such energies with his dowsing rod. As it does so it produces its own electromagnetic field often high into microwave frequency. It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground.
As an extremely dialectic medium, water favours the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly.
Background levels of EMFs vary hugely depending on which part of the spectrum being looked for - natural light is an obvious example. Electrical wiring creates electric and magnetic powerfrequency fields throughout houses and other wired buildings, but these levels are usually very low unless there is a wiring fault.

Most areas of science can only deal in probabilities, and that becomes clearer as more scientific studies investigating health effects are produced.
There is more disagreement about ill health effects from radiofrequency radiation, which is newer for most of the population, though a well-established 'microwave sickness' has been described. As a result fortunes are spent on protective sun cream and information services as to prudent avoidance of such exposures. Molecules in the food are vibrated by high levels of microwave frequency Electromagnetic energy, causing it to heat up and subsequently cook.
This, coupled with misleading statements designed to imply that there is currently no published evidence showing a link from organisations such as WHO, are the primary reasons why this topic remains in such hotly-disputed contention. ICNIRP have set guidelines for residential and occupational exposure to powerfrequency magnetic fields, based primarily on electric shock responses and induced currents, currently set at 100 microtesla (AµT) - equivalent to 1 Gauss.
The evidence on these is mixed, but the link with Childhood Leukaemia is now considered to be pretty solid, with a doubling in risk at magnetic fields above 0.4 AµT (again far below the guidelines set by ICNIRP).
The bottom line is that nature neverA  intended us to sleep on such a disturbed site as shown in figure G2 which has been artificially produced by the bed being placed near to a radiator ( causing the high spike to the right of the graph)A  and the springs causing the rest of the disturbed site.
As you can see the magnetic contours of this bed size area (6a€™x4a€™) are very gentle and slightly undulating showing an overall geomagnetic anomaly of 582 nT (nano Tesla). The sprung mattresses I have measured so far over the past two years have had magnetic anomalies between 4,000 and 61,000 nT.
However there are instances in nature where abnormal magnetic anomalies exist usually due to a sudden change in mineralogy or geological structure over a short distance. It appears that the exposure of a dividing cell to an inhomogeneous DC magnetic field causes a physical force to be exerted on the chromosomes or on one of the other microscopic structures associated with mitosis, resulting in structural abnormalities in the chromosomes. Since that time, international research has increased year by year, and the potential health risks have been identified as cancer (especially childhood leukaemia, probably the most studied illness because of the original findings), depression, suicide, miscarriage, some forms of dementia, respiratory and immune system problems.
Research by scientists such as Ross Adey in the USA and Dr Cyril Smith here in Britain is moving the frontier of our understanding.
Hubank of Vienna: a€?Speaking at a conference in England paid tribute to a group of Austrian researches composed of medical doctors, physicists and biochemists. There is clear indication that a combination of technical fields and Geopathic stress zones can multiply the effect and therefore become extremely harmful to all living beings. The apparatus produces a bright, cold atom source which competes with the best in the world for speed of accumulation of cold atoms into a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT), and for the lifetime of atoms that are subsequently cooled and trapped. These experiments will exploit the momentum transferred in the collision process to ascertain new information about the target interactions, and to study collisions with cold and ultra-cold targets for the first time.
The apparatus consists of a recirculating oven source, which produces a quasi-collimated beam of atoms into the laser collimation stage.
The cold atom facility that has been developed at Manchester, showing the various components of the apparatus and the laser beams which are used to cool and trap the atoms emitted from the source.
Large windows are attached to the cross to allow the collimating laser beams to enter this region. In the present setup, optical molasses has been used to increase the collimation of the atomic beam prior to the Zeeman slower.
The aim of this design is to facilitate rapid trapping of the cold atoms, then transfer of these cold atoms to different experiments that are connected to the MOT1 chamber via these ports. In this way, experiments which have low cross sections (such as collisions experiments with electrons, neutrals or ions) will be possible in the near future. By ensuring this criteria is met, the vacuum chambers are far less polluted by unwanted atoms that are emitted from the source. This means that the source can be operated for very long periods of time without the need to refill the crucible. The physical size of the condensation crucible and the output aperture then defines the collimation of the atomic beam that exits and therefore becomes the emerging atomic beam.
The crucible is loaded with potassium (melting temperature ~337K) and the temperature of different components of the source are closely controlled.
Surface tension ensures that the liquid potassium runs down the walls of the condensation chamber and is gravity fed back to the crucible (which operates at a temperature of ~650K). The temperature of the condensation chamber is accurately controlled by passing a heated high temperature silicon oil through a sealed chamber within the walls of the chamber as shown. Since atoms emerging from the oven have a wide range of different velocities (as dictated by the Maxwell Boltzmann distribution), it is necessary to slow these atoms down so that they can be captured by the MOT.
The laser frequency (wavelength) is set to be resonant with the atomic transition so that there is a high probability of absorption of a photon from the laser field by the atom, which is then promoted to an excited state. In this case (stimulated emission process) the photon from the atom emerges in the same direction as the photon in the laser field. In this case, the atom has no 'memory' of how it was excited, and so does not know the direction of the incident photon.
By ensuring that either the laser frequency or the atomic transition frequency is time (or space) dependent, compression can occur.
One method that is used is to 'chirp' the slowing laser beam (figure 1) so that as the atoms slow down they remain in resonance with the laser beam. As the atoms slow down, the magnetic field is then adjusted so that the atoms remain in resonance with the laser beam (or they will Doppler shift out of resonance). A set of 'disruption coils' are used at the exit of the slower to ensure atoms can escape into the MOT chamber. Picture of the Zeeman slower shown with the cooling coils surrounding the current carrying coils.
Inside this chamber is a twin set of coils setup to produce zero field at the centre of the coils (anti-Helmholtz configuration), as shown in figure 6. Movie of the atoms being trapped in the MOT from the Zeeman slower (first successful trapping with an accumulation time ~1sec, and aA  lifetime ~10 seconds).
Collisional ionization of atoms from the Zeeman slower or within the MOT trap, showing the setup of the experiment which detects the recoiling ions from the interaction. The collision for ionization of cold atoms from Zeeman slower and those trapped in the MOT. The incident energy is 30eV, and the curves show the effect of the ionization process on the final ion momenta (velocity and angle) as a function of the scattering angle.
These experiments may be far ranging, depending on the apparatus that is connected to the source. This creates equal magnetic fluxes, moving toward each other, which cancel each other out, but do not destroy each other as Faraday and Maxwell claimed. A distinction is that the sections are wound in opposing directions, by the inputs a1 and a2 and by the outputs x1 and x2 the windings of the sections are connected to each other, and the points of their connection serve as inlets for the power supply. Two sections of the primary winding, one over the other, were wound on a core of the magnetic circuit assembled from four rings. Then based on the results of these tests I built the transformer which confirmed my test results. Figuera, a Forestry Engineer in the Canary Islands, and for many years Professor of Physics at St.
An endless supply of electrons is drawn from the earth into the conductive closed loop, which is connected to the ground through a conductive interconnected grid. BR1020120008378 of 13th January 2012) or alternatively, a device which extracts electrons from the Earth (as described in Brazilian patent application No. The Nano TRL is a fully birefringence compensated pulsed laser system offering both high energy and high repetition rate outputs. As you can see in the schematic circuit, this switching power supply circuit require few external electronic components. This is invaluable when (for example) you power-up a project for the first time or soak-test a piece of equipment.
Thus the electrons may be scattered throughout space from the reaction zone, the distribution of these electrons then giving information on the elastic differential cross section for the target in question. These states may be below the ionisation limit of the target, in which case the target usually remains neutral, or higher order excitation processes can occur where more than one electron in the target is excited. The interaction then removes energy from the target and so the electrons emerge from the reaction with greater energy than they had prior to the reaction. The excited target therefore has a very long lifetime, since the probability of 2 photon decay is much smaller than for single photon decay processes. For light atoms and molecules (He & H2 for example) the metastable targets are deflected through angles from ~5A° for forward electron scattering to in excess of 30A° for backward scattering depending upon the impact energy. An electron of well defined momentum Pei collides with a target atom or molecule in its ground state that has a well defined initial momentum Pai.
These experiments are conventionally limited to a range of scattering angles that does not include either the forward scattering region of the backward scattering region. These experiments do not have the spatial or temporal resolution to define either the incident or the final target momentum, since they mostly produce a target beam via continuous effusive flow from a capillary. These resonances occur since the scattered electron following excitation can remain in the region of the excited target for sufficient time to form a pseudo-stable state which has its own unique properties. As before the electron of incident momentum Pei is scattered inelastically from the target of incident momentum Pai, leaving the target in a metastable state. Electrons incident along the z-axis have a well defined energy Einc and thus a well defined momentum Pei. Electrons incident along the z-axis have a well defined energy Einc and a well defined momentum Pei. Electrons incident along the z-axis with well defined energy Einc and well defined momentum Pei can scatter throughout the range of angles from 0A° (forward scattering) through to 180A° (backward scattering) as shown in figures (a) and (b).
Amplitude h, peak position and peak width w are all calculated using a least squares fit to the data, a sample of which is presented in figure 14. The Mayor agreed and in January that year Baron Von Pohl accompanied by the Mayor and other officials measured numerous energy lines that ran through the streets and houses of the town. This field will fluctuate depending on what is dissolved in it, how fast it is flowing or whether it is interacting with any other type of earth energy. While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere. Taking its electric charge distribution in to account, turning a water molecule will result in a changed field composition.
The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents). The earth's magnetic fields are static fields, unlike man-made alternating current (AC), which has no natural counterpart.
Unfortunately the studies are not always well done, and the flaws in any given study (showing an effect or otherwise) are often not reported. Precautionary levels which will protect us from illness have not been agreed on, as some countries wish the levels to be lower than others. If you stood in front of an operational microwave with no door your insides would slowly be cooked. The reason for these abnormally high magnetic abnormalities is a result of the bed springs intensifying the magnetic flux of these fields, made worse by the interaction of high magnetic fields around the bed and house from numerous electrical appliances, extension cables running under the bed and transformers placed near to the bed. One instance of this is in the USA, at a place called Gyngywamp, near Croton, Connecticut knownA  as 'The Cliff of Tears' where visitors to this site very frequently become depressed, gums start to bleed and nose bleeds occur. Messages pass between the brain, nerves and organs and even from cell to cell by electro- magnetic signalling. In the course of several years research using classical medical methods they investigated about 1000 people for the effects of these geopathic interference zones. There were about 400 people present including numerous renowned specialists; physicians, physicists and geologists, in the all-German audience. Also, metal ions moved by water can induce small intensity broadband electromagnetic fields (EMF). Initial collimation of the atomic beam is achieved in the recirculating oven source through the use of small apertures as is shown in figure 2. In this way, atoms accumulated in MOT1 can be transferred to several different experiments where they can be recaptured for further study, or experiments can be directly conducted on the trapped atoms in MOT1. Since no atoms are emitted apart from those in the atomic beam, contamination of the vacuum chamber is virtually eliminated. In this way, atoms are emitted from the nozzle into the condensation chamber, where they are re-condensed onto the walls of this chamber. In this way, the complex temperature conditions which are essential for correct operation of this source can be maintained. Further, it is important to also compress the velocity distribution of these atoms so that they have a much narrower distribution at the exit of the slowing tube. In this case, the momentum of the atom will return back to its original value pA, and there is NO slowing of the atom by the laser beam.
The outputs of the windings of both sections were connected in a series circuit, a load resistance RH was connected parallel to each section - one end to the point of connection of the sections, the other - to the inputs of the sections, the inputs of the windings of each section were connected to the power supply. It’s twin-rod architecture ensures high beam homogeneity even at very high average power outputs. The energy required to excite these processes is usually above the ionisation limit, and so these excitation mechanisms often lead to ionisation via photon emission or through autoionisation. In these experiments the initial target state is almost always prepared by excitation with a laser beam from the ground state, since very high yields (theoretically up to 50% for CW laser excitation) of target excitation can be achieved prior to electron collision. This long lifetime (which can be up to seconds if there are no other mechanisms for de-excitation) is exploited in these experiments, which measure the quantity of metastable targets as a function of the target deflection angle following electron collision. The correspondence (via momentum and energy conservation equations) between the deflection angle and arrival time at the detector of the excited target with the electron scattering angle therefore allows differential cross sections to be measured over the full range of possible scattering geometries from forward to backward scattering.
The target is excited to a metastable state, the electron losing energy Eexc during the reaction. Any variation in cross section due to variations in the target momentum is therefore averaged out in the signal that is collected. The target is then further excited using resonant laser radiation to a higher lying state which is then studied. These electrons interact with a beam of target atoms or molecules prepared with a well defined momentum Pai travelling along the x-axis with an initial thermal energy Eai. These electrons interact with a beam of target atoms or molecules prepared with a well defined momentum Pai travelling along the x-axis with an initial energy Eai. Since momentum must be conserved in the reaction, the change of electron momentum delta Pe along the z-axis for these cases must be balanced by a corresponding change in momentum Delta Pa of the targets along this axis. The graph shows the effect discussed in figure 4, where for each deflection angle there are two distinct atom momenta corresponding to unique electron scattering directions.
These are normally pinched off from exiting the region of the filament using a -15V grid potential wrt the tip of the filament. Baron Von Pohla€™s energy lines were then compared with the towna€™s record of houses where people had died from cancer during the last ten years, which showed a remarkable coincidence. Dr WA?rst conducted experiments in several German towns, in the rooms of cancer patients and found unusual amounts of gamma radiation in the houses he surveyed using a Geiger a€“counter.
Interference with the earths natural energy field is particularly marked by the flow of these underground streams especially where two watercourses or other types of energy line cross.
If thus in a pipe a hydronamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and magnetic vortex and eddy current, are the result. Microwave frequency exposure is a relatively new phenomenon: 100 years ago the background radiation was millions of times lower than it is now, and it is as recent as the mobile phone boom (~1990's) that the modern, digitally pulsed signals have become ubiquitous in the Western world. Because of this, microwave ovens are stringently designed against leaks, and opening the door operates a safety mechanism which disables the oven, thus removing the risk to the operator.
Within our evolutionary history our bodies own magnetic field has integrated with this magnetic field which is responsible for controlling amongst other things, circadian rhythms, mood changes and certain hormone production such as melatonin and serotonin.
Our forefathers sleeping on straw or feathered mattresses in houses devoid of any electrical fields or microwave energy would not have experienced such geomagnetic disturbances. Much of the research in the past 35 years into EMF health effects has concentrated on magnetic fields because they are easier to measure and it was thought they were more likely to interact with our bodiesa€™ cells.
When this is interfered with by outside EMFa€™s problems begin to emerge, as the systems that control and regulate our bodies are impaired. They found that the altered electrical and magnetic field above a geographical distressed zone changed the electrical impulses passing along the nerves of the body.
In the first experiments using this Facility, potassium atoms have been cooled and trapped.
Once the atoms enter MOT1, they experience frictional force due to the laser interaction and a restoring force due to the magnetic field, so that they rapidly cool to a temperature ~250 micro-Kelvin around the centre of the trap. This homogeneity manifests itself in imaging applications where the formation of stable and uniform light sheets is of paramount importance. Some experiments have also been conducted where the target beam is prepared in a metastable state using electron bombardment, but these experiments are very preliminary. The final momentum of the inelastically scattered electron is given by Pef, whereas the final momentum of the target is given by Paf. The high resolution of the laser excitation allows details of the electron excitation to be studied in higher detail than is possible using electron spectroscopy alone. When requested the grid potential is rapildly raised so that the positive anode potential field reaches the filament to extract electrons which are accelerated and focussed onto the interaction region using 2 triple aperture electrostatic lenses.
Well this surprised the establishment at the time, and knowing Vilsbiburg to have a high degree on cancer victims anywayA  he was asked to repeat the exercise in the City of Stetten which had a far lower incidence of cancer thus ironing out any chance factors.
StA¤ngle, who had a very good reputation of locating water bearing fissures in crystalline rock with his dowsing rod developed a stintilisation counter more sensitive and accurate than a Geiger counter and carried out a scientific survey in the French town of Moulins where a local physician, Dr, J Prichard claimed that cancer victims in the town dwelt above geological faults. In a league table of radiation associated with biological damage, the outside line of a subterranean water course would be at the very top since it is found in association with many terminal and debilitating diseases. You can't see, feel or hear electromagnetic fields, apart from visible light, which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Each static magnetic field bump or sink on geomagnetogram (G2) may speed up or slow down body fluids (blood and lymphatic) in exposed areas such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, legs etc. Most scientists believe that, although EMFa€™s do not directly cause the illness in most cases, at least, living in fields above 200 nT (nano Tesla) may make a person develop the cancer or other illness, when if they didn't live in this field level, their bodies would be able to repair themselves, or cope with the daily damage from other causes in a healthier way. This wrong or confused information resulted in the dysfunction of individual organs and also explained the high number of diseases. The scattered electrons leave the interaction region with momentum Pef at scattering angles (thetae, phie), whereas the deflected excited targets leave the interaction region with linear momentum Paf at polar angles (thetaa, phia). The scattered electrons are confined to the xz plane and leave the interaction region with momentum Pef at a scattering angles thetae. In general as shown in figure (c), for a particular target deflection angle between these two extrema there are two possible electron scattering angles that can result in targets deflected to this angle, as shown. A further set of output deflectors pulsed simultaneously with the grid allows the final focussed beam to pass through the exit aperture and onto the target beam.
Whilst WA?rst and StA¤ngle thought that gamma radiation from fissures could be a significant cause of cancer, more recent studies suggest that this is unlikely as gamma radiation tends to whiz straight through the body rather than causing direct hits on DNA. Sleep time exposure to the same sharp variations of magnetic fields for years may induce some chronic health effect. Indeed, in the town nearby, doctors and nurses are familiar with this sudden onset of illness in visitors to this old Indian sacred site.
They proved a weakening in the immune system, which interacts with the wrongly programmed nervous system in persons who had been exposed. Using a randomized double blinded trial*, it has been scientifically shown that Geopathic stress zones do cause chronic stress and therefore can weaken the body's defence systems. Finally, this stress, in combination with a possible suppression of certain functions of the immune system.
The deflected excited targets therefore must also leave the interaction region in the xz-plane and are deflected to the angle thetaa.
In the example shown, electrons scattered in the lower xz-plane experience a momentum change larger than electrons scattered into the upper xz-plane. This set of deflectors also removes any ions created inside the electron gun in the high potential regions from reaching the interaction chamber, since their flight times are much slower than the associated electron pulse. Harger, chairman of the city's medical scientific association, declared that all such a€?deadly earth currentsa€™ ran beneath the beds of all the 5,348 people who had died from cancer during the last 21 years. The culprit is thought to be the more pernicious alpha radiation from Radon which is found with high levels of gamma radiation.
The World Health Organization in a health criteria report recognizes interactions between variations in static magnetic fields in cellular tissues to include an induction of electrical potentials and magneto hydrodynamic effects in the circulatory systems and by direct stimulation of nerve and muscle cells even under extremely weak thresholds. The causation seems to be that within a few meters the geomagnetic DC field varies from 330 milligauss at an 80 degree dip to 700 milligauss at a 59 degree dip. Confirmation of these experiments continue to appear and links have been, formed with the onset of cancer, Alzheimer's Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Miscarriages, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and other diseases of the central nervous system. Observation of the targets at any intermediate deflection angle will therefore display two different momenta for these targets. Research in this field continues with an increasing number of sophisticated environmental measuring instruments coming on the market to aid the geobiologist in identifying causative factors to illness and disease.
The very high electric fields associated with high voltage overhead power lines also cause air ionization, charging toxic aerosols so that they become even more dangerous. To varying degrees the health consequences of staying above one of these geopathically stressed locations can be replicatedA  in our own homes by the choice of mattresses we use.A  The bottom line is, if you suspect your sleeping site is being disturbed by an unusually high magnetic anomaly then buy a bed that has a wooden base and place there upon a mattress that has no springs and make sure it is not placed near a radiator or other heavy metal object. In the 1930a€™s a French engineer Pierie Cody who lived in the sea-port of Le HavreA knew of local a€?cancer housesa€™ in the port where many people had died from cancer over the years. This equipment known as the Genitron Felix - 3 detects ultra short and radio microwave frequencies with the ability to print them out on a [UKW- Spektrometer und Linienschreiber] This equipment is used in German universities and research institutes that confirms dowsable energy above subterranean water lines. Effects central nervous system and the brain in the ways which effect powerful hormonal mechanisms.
After checking large numbers of these dwellings, Cody concluded that the air in these a€?Cancer Housesa€™ were ionized to an unusual degree.
Important areas to be aware of are bedrooms, especially where pillows are on beds, because EMFa€™s affect an area of the brain, called the pineal gland, which works to protect the body against illness overnight. From various other tests Cody concluded that the ionization radiation consisted of positively charged Alpha Particles.
It is also a good idea to look at places like a favourite armchair, or in front of a computer or TV. The only known source of alpha particle emission in dwellings was from a radioactive gas called Radon. It is important that places like these where you are sitting or lying still for a longish period of time should have low EMFa€™s; cells tend to cope better with external fields if the person is moving around. When you are sitting still and particular cells keep being interfered with by EMFa€™s, there is an increased risk that the damage may become unrepairable.
It is worthwhile taking particular precautionary action with regard to childrena€™s living environments.

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