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For the present paper we have reviewed articles on homeopathic cancer treatment published during the last five years in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Homeopathic cancer treatment has great promise, given the exceptional safety of the treatment and the relatively frequent observation of beneficial clinical effects.2 However, in our last review we had noted a remarkable confusion among researchers on key concepts in homeopathy and we attributed this to editorial control. Within a month of the publication of our previous review, professor Edzard Ernst published an article3 that lamented the serious lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on homeopathic cancer treatment, noting that “all of the existing RCTs are in the realm of cancer palliation and supportive care.” The paucity of RCTs in homeopathic cancer research is indeed troublesome.
Ernst began his article with defamatory remarks on homeopathy and homeopathic practitioners. Aside from the biased views espoused by the hired guns against CAM5 there are substantial reasons why human trials in homeopathic cancer research are rare. Meanwhile, government and professional organizations continue to endorse chemotherapy drugs, radiation and surgery as the sole “approved treatment” of cancer. Homeopathic treatment of cancer is so effective that this fact can no longer be hidden from the public.
One of these clinics2 has been conducting case studies that led to the publication of their treatment results. The Banerji protocol deviates from the strictly homeopathic method in giving preference to homeopathic drugs that have shown efficacy in significant numbers of clinical cases and in state of the art evidence-based research for a given condition diagnosed by current medical technology28 rather than on strict individualization of symptom similarity as is the case in classical homeopathic prescribing. Since 1991, the NCI has had a process for evaluating data from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners that involves the same rigorous methods used in evaluating treatment responses with conventional medicine. According to the article by Banerji et al.2 the protocol for conducting this study was approved by the NCI Special Studies institutional review board and an application for approval of the project has been submitted to the Indian Council for Medical Research.
One recent unusual method to demonstrate effects of potentized drugs was demonstrated in a 2010 study.34 Professor Dr Wilfried Dimpfel from the Justus Liebig University in Giessen, Germany, showed that the impact of low-dosed (potentized) drugs can be observed on an EEG.
Habitual attacks on homeopathy because of the use of some homeopathic drugs in dilutions so high that “nothing remained of the starting materials” may soon be a thing of the past. The researchers claimed that no hypothesis which predicts the retention of properties of starting materials had so far been proposed nor had any physical entity been shown to exist in these high potency medicines. In his paper Satti reviewed literature about metronomic therapy and discussed hormesis; both phenomena occur in low dose ranges.
At the Amala Research Center, Kerala, India, Kumar et al.38 examined the anti-cancer and inhibitory effects of several potentized homeopathic remedies. Preethi et al39 of the same group had previously tested Ruta graveolens 200c and the methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens. One might further conclude that treatment with these homeopathic remedies could potentially be useful in preventing the development of liver carcinoma and sarcoma in humans exposed to carcinogens such as those used in this study. In another trial, Amala researchers Sunila et al.43 reported on their investigations of the antitumor and antimetastatic activity of selected homeopathic medicines against transplanted tumors in mice.
The researchers concluded that “dynamized medicines inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells” and Thuja occidentalis, Hydrastis canadensis and Carcinosinum in high potency “induce apoptosis in DLA cells.” They showed that Carcinosinum induced the expression of p53 (a tumor-suppressor protein) while Thuja occidentalis produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA.
Preethi et al.45 (2008) presented evidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta graveolens 200c. Preethi et al.46 studied the action of Ruta graveolens 200c, Carcinosinum 200c, Hydrastis canadensis 200c, Thuja occidentalis 200c, and Thuja occidentalis 1M for their ability to induce apoptosis as seen by morphology, DNA laddering, expression of genes related to apoptosis, and TUNEL assay.
Ruta graveolens 200c produced morphological changes in the Dalton’s lymphoma ascites tumor cells and induced DNA laddering. Banerjee et al.,47 of the Kalyani group at the Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of Kalyani, India, examined the efficacy of the homeopathic drug Chelidonium majus 30c and 200c in ameliorating experimentally induced hepatic tumors and hepatotoxicity in rats.
The researchers found that chronic feeding of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) and phenobarbital (PB) elevated the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine and bilirubin and lowered the levels of glutathione (GSH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), catalase and HDL-cholesterol. Bhattacharyya et al.48 of the Kalyani group investigated an encapsulated plant extract of Gelsemium sempervirens poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles’ capability to enhance cellular uptake and increase bioactivity. Bhattacharjee et al.49 examined whether the homeopathic (potentized) drugs Natrum sulphuricum and Carcinosinum prevent azo dye-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. The researchers sacrificed the animals at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days for assessment of genotoxicity through cytogenetic end-points like chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index and sperm head anomaly and cytotoxicity through an assay of widely accepted biomarkers and pathophysiological parameters.
The results showed that administration of Natrum sulphuricum 30c alone and in combination with Carcinosinum 200c reduced the liver tumors with positive ultrastructural changes and in MMP expression, genotoxic parameters, lipid peroxidation, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood glucose, bilirubin, creatinine, urea and increased GSH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenasc, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase activities and hemoglobin, cholesterol, and albumin levels.
Another trial by this group, Pathak et al.50 found supportive evidence for the anti-cancer potential of homeopathic medicine against hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.
Additionally, the scientists made scans and transmission electron microscopic analyses of liver tissues at day 90 and 120, and immune-detection of p53 protein and performed gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases in liver tissue.
The scientists found that Lycopodium clavatum 200c reduced cytogenetic damages yielding positive modulations of all biochemical, pathological and other risk factors, cell viability and expression of p53 protein and matrix metalloproteinases as compared to controls.
Crude ethanolic extract of Thuja occidentalis (Cupressaceae) is used as homeopathic mother tincture to treat various ailments, particularly moles and certain cancerous tumors. A trial by Biswas et al.51 of the Kalyani group tested the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing properties of Thuja occidentalis and a thujone-rich fraction (TRF) separated from it.
Exposure of TRF of Thuja occidentalis to A375 cells in vitro showed more cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects as compared with the mother tincture, but had minimal growth inhibitory responses when exposed to normal cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cell). Khuda-Bukhsh et al.52 of the Kalyani group in collaboration with Dr Bellon of Boiron Laboratories, tested the hypothesis that suitable modulations of signal proteins could be one of the possible pathways of action of a highly diluted homeopathic drug, Secale cornutum 30c (Sec cor 30). Polygala senega is extensively used in traditional systems of medicine against various lung diseases including cancer. Paul et al.53 from the Kalyani group tested the anticancer potentials of ethanolic extract of roots of Polygala senega (Senega) in a mammalian model, treating mice, in vivo, chronically with benzo[a] pyrene and in vitro using lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549). The scientists observed up-regulation of apoptotic signals such as p53, caspase-3 and Bax, and down-regulation of AhR, cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1), Bcl-2 and PCNA. In addition to proving efficacy for certain cancer drugs, homeopathic cancer research can additionally help answer controversial questions remaining in clinical debate.
Bhattacharjee et al.54 evaluated whether potentized Cholesterinum (Chol) intermittently used with another homeopathic remedy, Natrum sulphuricum (Nat-sulph) can provide additional benefits in combating hepatotoxicity generated by chronic feeding of carcinogens, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) and phenobarbital (PB). Frenkel et al.,56 in a collaboration of researchers at the Integrative Medicine Program, Department of Molecular Pathology, and the Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, at The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, in Houston, Texas, studied four high potencies of homeopathic drugs commonly used in homeopathic practice for cancers (Carcinosinum, Phytolacca decandra, Conium maculatum and Thuja occidentalis) for cytotoxic effects against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE).
The authors note that the patients who come to M D Anderson’s Integrative Medicine Clinic already use homeopathy or have a marked interest in integrating this treatment with their conventional therapies because the agents have no toxicity and are easy to use. This conclusion implies that research is expected to show what the author has already admitted to be the case, that patients choose homeopathy, sometimes in addition and sometimes instead of conventional cancer treatment. Melanoma is a particularly deadly form of cancer and the most rapidly expanding cancer in terms of worldwide incidence. Guimaraes et al.59 of the Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Celulas Inflamatorias e Neoplasicas, tested a Brazilian complex homeopathic medication (CHM), used as an immune modulator, that has been recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. They found that lymphocytes co-cultured with macrophages in the presence of the CHM had greater anti-melanoma activity, reducing melanoma cell density and increasing the number of lysed tumor cells. They concluded that a co-culture of macrophages with lymphocytes in the presence of the CHM enhanced the anti-cancer performance of lymphocytes against a very aggressive lineage of melanoma cells. Guimaraes et al., researchers from the same Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Celulas Inflamatorias e Neoplasicas Depto de Biologia Celular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, and from the Federal University of Parana, in Curitiba, Brazil and from the Cell Biology Unit (CBU), Institut Pasteur de Montevideo (IPMon), Uruguay, described the in vitro inhibition of B16F10 cells invasion and the in vivo anti metastatic potential after treatment with a homeopathic drug by inhalation in the B16F10 lung metastasis model. Benkendorff et al.61 at the School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, in Adelaide, Australia evaluated the in vitro bioactivity of egg mass extracts of the Australian muricid Dicathais orbita, in comparison to the homeopathic remedy Murex pupurea, against human carcinoma and lymphoma cells. Smit et al.62 researchers at the Department of Anatomy, University of Pretoria, South Africa, reviewed immunomodulators with reference to the homeopathic product Canova. Mikhvetadze et al.63 investigated if different agents had any effect on ion transport of Ca2+ in tumor cells (Erlich’s carcinomas). Riede64 reported about a novel approach to tumor therapy with Amanita phalloides (death cap mushroom) for the treatment of leukemia, i.e. The scientists gave various homeopathic dilutions beginning with the second decimal potency of Amanita phalloides, to a patient with leukemia while monitoring the leukemic cell count.
According to a review65 by Professor A R Khuda-Bukhsh, his group of researchers has used mice as a model for homeopathic research in relation to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenesis in their laboratory for the last three decades. Bonamin et al.66 of the Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University Paulista, Brazil, conducted a systematic review of the animal models used in studies of high dilutions to analyze the methodological quality of papers and reported results, and to highlight key conceptual aspects of high dilution to suggest clues concerning putative mechanisms of action. The researchers identified papers for inclusion systematically from the Pubmed-Medline database, using “homeopathy” and “animal” as keywords. Kassab et al.67 of the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital examined the effectiveness and safety of homeopathic drugs to prevent or treat adverse effects of cancer treatments.
The study’s selection criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of homeopathic drugs in participants with a clinical or histological diagnosis of cancer where the intervention was aimed at preventing or treating symptoms associated with cancer treatments. Eight controlled trials (seven placebo-controlled and one trial against an active treatment) with a total of 664 participants met the inclusion criteria. The authors concluded that their review had found preliminary data in support of the efficacy of topical Calendula officinalis tincture for prophylaxis of acute dermatitis during radiotherapy and Traumeel S mouthwash in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis, however they stated that the trials needed replicating. Amala scientists, Sunila et al.68 examined the effects of Thuja occidentalis against damage induced by gamma radiation. The trial showed a protective effect from an alcoholic extract of Thuja occidentalis in animals exposed to radiation.
To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer, Rada et al.69 searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO (August 2008) and WHO ICTRP Search Portal. Orellana Alvarellos et al.70 of the Center of Obstetrics and Gynecology, at Ginesia, Providencia, in Santiago de Chile, Chile, published a series of case reports to conduct a clinical evaluation of a complex homeopathic injection therapy in the management of pain in patients after breast cancer treatment.
Nine patients still suffering from a high level of pain after breast cancer therapy despite use of postoperative treatment with conventional analgesics were invited to participate. Rostock M, et al.71 at the Tumor Biology Center at Albert Ludwig’s University Freiburg, Germany, conducted a prospective observational study with cancer patients to find out whether homeopathic care was of benefit for cancer patients as a complementary treatment.
Schlappack et al.72 at the Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, at the University of Vienna, Austria, studied homeopathic treatment of radiation-induced itching in breast cancer patients. Laboratory studies in vitro and in vivo show that homeopathic drugs, in addition to having the capacity to reduce the size of tumors and to induce apoptosis, can induce protective and restorative effects. Homeopathy over almost two decades of its existence has developed more than four hundred remedies for cancer treatment. Many of the researchers conducting studies?—?cited here but not discussed?—?on the growing interest in homeopathic cancer treatment have observed that patients are driving the demand for access to homeopathic and other alternative modes of cancer treatment. Thompson EA, Mathie RT, Baitson ES, Barron SJ, Berkovitz SR, Brands M, Fisher P, Kirby TM, Leckridge RW, Mercer SW, Nielsen HJ, Ratsey DH, Reilly D, Roniger H, Whitmarsh TE.
Jeschke E, Ostermann T, Tabali M, Vollmar HC Kroz M, Bockelbrink A, Witt CM, Willich SN, Matthes M. Ritchie MR, Use of herbal supplements and nutritional supplements in the UK: what do we know about their pattern of usage? Trager-Maury S, Tournigand C, Maindrault-Goebel F, Afchain P, de Gramont A, Garcia-Larnicol ML, Gervais H, Louvet C.
Johannessen H, von Bornemann Hjelmborg J, Pasquarelli E, Fiorentini G, Di Costanzos F, Miccinesi G. Duleba K, Wysocki M, Styczynski J [Physicians attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine in patients with cancer: preliminary report from pediatric and oncology centers]. Ben-Arye E, Ali-Shtayeh MS, Nejmi M, Schiff E, Hassan E, Mutafoglu K, Afifi FU, Jamous RM, Lev E, Silbermman M. Bell IR, Electroencephalopathic cordance patterns distinguish exceptional clinical responders with fibromyalgia to individualized homeopathic medicines.
A patient with hepatitis C with liver involvement, Mr Madhavan is presented with original documents we are treating hundreds of Hepatitis B &Hepatitis C and we make them serum negative, with minimum cost and guaranteed cure.
MRS ABITHA 69 Yrs ,was diagnosed with Bronchogenic Carcinoma Lung,with massive pleural effusion right side ,was tapped two times with no relief, After 15 days of homoeopathic treatment her pleural effusion totally relieved,Her cancer lung is being treated,Now she is totally free from her sufferings and all her CT scan& X-Ray before& after treatment.
This is the documents of a young man aged 32 who was operated for pituitary adenoma ? recurred again after 6 years and after 3 months of Homeopathic treatment. We also commented on the fact that virtually all studies of homeopathic cancer treatment are in reality investigating the effects of high potency drugs, not the efficacy of homeopathic treatment. However it has a perfectly reasonable explanation that does not warrant homeopathy-bashing. Clinical studies of cancer treatment with “unproven” therapies such as homeopathy are expensive and are fraught with legal obstacles.
More and more patients around the world are choosing homeopathic treatment,8-27 either complementary, or as an alternative, to conventional therapy. In 2008 researchers2 at the PBH Research Foundation (PBHRF) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, published their findings from several case reports on treatment of lung and esophageal carcinoma patients they had submitted more than a decade earlier to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Best Case Series (BCS) Program for review.
However, this approach could be justified in the case of cancer because of the relative lack of symptoms and the severity of the disorder, according to standard homeopathic theory.29 Conditions like cancer and tumors that are characterized by a paucity of symptoms were classified among the “one-sided disorders” by Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy. This process, called the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Best Case Series (BCS) Program, provides an independent review of medical records, medical imaging and pathology materials from patients treated with unconventional cancer therapies.31 The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) was established in October 1998 in order to coordinate and enhance the activities of the NCI in the arena of CAM. Four of the cases submitted had independent confirmation of the diagnosis and radiographic response and were accepted as sufficient information for the NCI to initiate further investigation. Using one of the homeopathic drugs produced by the pharmaceutical company Heel as an example, he measured brain waves with the help of an electroencephalogram (EEG) to characterize the impact of the homeopathic drug.
Chikramane et al.36 of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, Adi Shankaracharya Marg, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India studied extreme homeopathic dilutions from a nanoparticulate perspective. Using market samples of metal-derived medicines from reputable manufacturers, they demonstrated for the first time by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), the presence of physical entities retained in the form of nanoparticles of the starting metals and their aggregates in these extreme dilutions. In fact, according to Jahangir Satti37 at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Albany Medical Center, in Albany, New York, it is on the rise around the world in the fight against serious diseases such as advanced cancers. Hormesis is the observation that toxins in low doses can protect against harmful doses of the same toxin. The researchers used N-nitrosodiet41hylamine (NDEA) in rats to induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a difficult form of cancer to treat, along with elevated liver marker enzymes. Preethi found it possessed antitumor activity against tumor cell induced ascites as well as solid tumors in mice, including Dalton’s Lymphoma ascites and Ehrlich carcinoma ascites. They found that Ruta graveolens 200c and Hydrastis canadensis 200c significantly increased the lifespan of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma and Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites induced tumor-bearing animals.
This was evident from the inhibition of lung tumor nodule formation, morphological and histopathological analysis of the lung and decreased levels of gamma-GT in serum, a cellular marker of proliferation.

2009) evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30c and 200c potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. According to the authors, these results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.
The scientists noted various types of chromosomal aberrations were in bone marrow cells after treatment.
They also measured the effect of homeopathic medicines on apoptosis by microarray analysis and compared the activity of Ruta graveolens 200c with that of the mother tincture. Carcinosinum 200c increased apoptotic gene p53 and Ruta graveolens 200c decreased anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2. There were statistically significant modulations of these parameters in the treated animals, compared to positive controls. The group had previously demonstrated anticancer activity of crude EEGS (ethanolic extract of Gelsemium sempervirens) by in vitro studies on human HeLa cells. They asked whether Carcinosinum 200c (Car-200) could provide additional ameliorative effect, if used intermittently with Natrum sulphuricum 30c (Nat Sulph-30) against hepatocarcinogenesis induced by chronic feeding of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) and phenobarbital (PB) in mice. Additionally, they conducted electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the livers at 90 and 120 days.
They concluded that intermittent use of Carcinosinum 200c along with Natrum sulphuricum 30c yielded additional benefit against genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the carcinogens during hepatocarcinogenesis, confirming observations by homeopathic clinicians. They examined if Lycopodium clavatum 200c (Lyco-200), a homeopathic drug commonly used for the treatment of liver cancer, has demonstrable anti-cancer activities in mice while they are chronically fed carcinogens, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) and phenobarbital (PB) to induce liver cancer. Furthermore, they conducted studies on blood glucose, hemoglobin and cholesterol, estradiol, testosterone and cortisol, and lymphocyte and hepatic cell viabilities.
The recommended that studies be conducted on other mammals to further investigate the potential of Lycopodium clavatum 200c in liver cancer. It is also used in various other systems of traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer.
They evaluated the drugs for their possible anti-cancer potentials in the malignant melanoma cell line A375. Furthermore, both Thuja occidentalis and TRF caused a significant decrease in cell viability, induced inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, increase in ROS generation, and release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation, all of which are closely related to the induction of apoptosis in A375 cells.
It could successfully combat DMBA + croton oil induced skin papilloma in mice as evidenced by histological, cytogenetical, immunofluorescence, ELISA and immunoblot findings. In homeopathic clinical practice it has been used primarily for the treatment of pleurisy, hemoptysis, and occasionally for lung cancer. They deployed various parameters like cell viability assay, chromatin condensation studies with Hoechst 333258 staining, and maintained suitable controls. The addition of the root extract of Polygala senega (at doses of 50 ?g and 100 ?g) into culture medium containing A549 cells induced recovery of decreased cell viability and increased chromatin fragmentation (apoptosis). The question whether two remedies administered in alternation can show additional benefits over only one remedy has been hotly debated among homeopathic clinicians.
55 studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment “Psorinum Therapy” in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Also collaborating were researchers from the PBH Research Foundation whose clinical protocol incorporates these four homeopathic drugs in breast cancer treatment.
They also report a growing interest in the Banerji protocol among patients at their clinic, even citing this fact as the impetus for the present study. In a review of homeopathic cancer research57 Dr Frenkel notes that “the positive reports from the few laboratory experiments in cancer models that are mentioned in this review are indeed noteworthy. This confirms our conclusion during this review, that the interest in homeopathy for cancer care is driven by patients, not by researchers. The scientists performed two experiments using 72 young male mice treated with 1 x 10(6) B16F10 cells and with phosphate-buffered saline (I), INF-alpha (II), Lymphomyosot (III), and both INF-alpha and Lymphomyosot (IV). They studied the interaction of mouse lymph node lymphocytes, co-cultured in vitro with macrophages in the presence or absence of the CHM, with B16F10 melanoma cells. There was also a higher proportion of activated (CD25+) lymphocytes with increased viability.
These results suggest that non-toxic therapies using CHMs are a promising alternative approach to the treatment of melanomas. Previous studies 60 in mice had demonstrated that a high diluted complex of the homeopathic drug Calcarea carbonica (M8) stimulated the tumoricidal response of activated lymphocytes against B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro.
The Murex remedy showed little biological activity against the majority of cell lines tested. Immunomodulators are substances which modify the immunity of an individual to favor a particular immunological response.
The researchers used various agents?—?ionizing radiation, the antitumor preparation vinkristin and a homeopathic drug???—???to stimulate phosphoric acid diluted at 10-14. Initially, they tested anti-radiation activities of several potentized homeopathic drugs against suitable controls by taking into consideration several cytogenetic endpoints.
They included only original full papers in English published between January 1999 and June 2009, reviews, scientific reports, theses, older papers, papers extracted from Medline using similar keywords, and they also considered, for discussion only, papers about mixed commercial formulas and books.
They report that homeopathic medicines are used by patients with cancer, often alongside conventional treatment.
Three studied adverse effects of radiotherapy, three studied adverse effects of chemotherapy and two studied menopausal symptoms associated with breast cancer treatment. In addition, they deduced from the data that there is no convincing evidence for the efficacy of homeopathic drugs for other adverse effects of cancer treatments and that further research is required. Ionizing radiation is toxic to organisms since it induces deleterious structural changes in essential macromolecules. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. They hand searched reference lists of reviews and included articles, reviewed conference proceedings and contacted experts. The researchers included six studies on selective serotonin (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine (SNRI) reuptake inhibitors, two on clonidine, one on gabapentin, two each on relaxation therapy and homeopathy, and one each on vitamin E, magnetic devices and acupuncture.
According to the authors, in breast cancer patients, post-treatment pain often appears after several months and strongly impairs health-related quality of life. After a follow-up observational phase of three and 6 months, pain score ratings increased slightly again in some patients but remained consistently low in others. Additionally homeopathic treatment has shown effects when used as a complementary therapy for the effects of conventional cancer treatment. So long as existing cancer treatment is fraught with danger and low efficacy, it is urgent that the research on and the provision of quality homeopathic cancer treatment be made available for those who wish to try it.
Cancer patients treated with the Banerji protocols utilising homoeopathic medicine: a Best Case Series Program of the National Cancer Institute USA. Demographic, medical, and psychosocial correlates to CAM use among survivors of colorectal cancer.
Survey of paediatric complementary and alternative medicine use in health and chronic illness. Pharmacotherapy of elderly patients in everyday anthroposophic medical practice: a prospective, multicenter observational study. Use of selected complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments in veterans with cancer or chronic pain: a cross-sectional survey. A Five-year Follow-up of Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer in Anthroposophic and Conventional Care. Complementary and alternative medicines taken by cancer patients.[Article in French] Bull Cancer.
Men with cancer: is their use of complementary and alternative medicine a response to needs unmet by conventional care? Complementary and alternative treatment methods in children with cancer: A population-based retrospective survey on the prevalence of use in Germany.
Disclosure to physicians of CAM use by breast cancer patients: findings from the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living Study. Characteristics of cancer patients using homeopathy compared with those in conventional care: a cross-sectional study. Complementary and alternative medical therapies used by children with cancer treated at an Italian pediatric oncology unit.
Integrative oncology research in the Middle East: weaving traditional and complementary medicine in supportive care. Ruta 6 selectively indices cell death in brain cancer cells that proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer. Translational research in cancer complementary and alternative medicine: the National Cancer Institute’s Best Case Series Program. The ultra low dose combination medication ULDCM-310 triggers electro-encephalographic patterns in the rat brain in a dose and time dependent manner. In our last review we already commented on Ernst’s and other researchers’ peculiar attitude, downplaying homeopathic research published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that support the position cited above.
In the United States, more than 30 states have enacted laws that severely restrict the use of unproven therapies in cancer.6 Institutional review boards face great pressure to assure the safety of their subjects and rarely approve clinical experimentation on cancer patients administering “unproven therapies” such as only homeopathic treatment.
Studies have shown that when homeopathic cancer treatment is unavailable, patients obtain homeopathic remedies and attempt to treat themselves, or their families, even without proper training.28 In India, where homeopathy is a medical therapy sanctioned by the government, clinics report2 thousands of cancer patients are regularly being treated with homeopathy, and around one fifth are reported to have complete recession of tumors and other improvements under homeopathic treatment. The reports contained records including pathology and radiology reports for 14 patients with malignant tumors treated according to Banerji’s protocol until there was complete regression of the tumors. A previous study Pathak et al.30 had found efficacy for the Banerji protocol in the treatment of patients suffering from glioma. The Practice Assessment Program within OCCAM currently manages the NCI BCS Program.32,33 Through this program, staff from OCCAM work with CAM practitioners to identify appropriate, well-documented cases.
He examined its effects, compared it to other medications and created a differentiated profile. Homeopathic drugs in high potencies such as 30c and 200c involve huge dilution factors (10?? and 10??? respectively), which are many orders of magnitude greater than Avogadro’s number, so that theoretically there should be no measurable remnants of the starting materials. In an article, Satti talked about a global trend towards an emerging low-dose therapy for advanced cancers?—?a clear departure from the conventional use of maximum dose protocol.
Satti called for better mathematical models, computer simulations, process optimization and clinical trials to fully exploit the potential of low dose metronomic therapy to cure chronic and complicated diseases, and for the development of protocols to standardize metronomic dosimetry in order to answer age old questions related to the dose, hormesis and homeopathy. Pathak et al.30 showed in 2005 that Ruta graveolens 6c selectively induced cancer cell death in brain cancer cells and produced instability of telomeres. Out of the four drugs studied, Ruta graveolens 200c showed maximum inhibition of liver tumor development. These findings support other observations that homeopathic preparations of Ruta graveolens and Hydrastis canadensis have significant antitumor activity. They also evaluated the effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis (apoptosis is cell-death, a natural event in all cancer cells) and studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis.
The percentage of abnormal cells in the extract-administered group was between 21% and 31% depending on body weight. Administration of potentiated homeopathic drugs to tumor-bearing mice induced TUNEL-positive cells in the tumor, showing increased apoptosis of tumor cells. They sacrificed the rats at day 30, 60, 90 and 120; and evaluated various toxicity biomarkers and pathological parameters, as well as employing gelatin zymography for determination of metalloproteinase activity and Western blot of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins. In both treated groups, there was down-regulation of metalloproteinases, p53 and Bcl-2 proteins compared to over-expression in the positive control groups.
The analysis revealed that encapsulated EEGS was more potent than its un-encapsulated counterpart in inducing apoptosis of A375 cells (human malignant melanoma).
They analyzed physical properties of Lyco-200 and potentized alcohol 200 by using methods such as UV, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). On initial trial by S-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, both Thuja occidentalis mother tincture and TRF showed maximum cytotoxic effect on the A375 cell line while the other three principal fractions separated by chromatography had negligible or no such effect. TRF showed and matched all the anti-cancer responses of the mother tincture of Thuja occidentalis and could be the main bio-active fraction.
The analysis of several signal proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins revealed that Secale cornutum 30c suitably modulated their expression levels along with amelioration of skin papilloma. To gain an understanding of the possible signal transduction pathways, they studied expression of various signal proteins such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1), Bcl-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax and caspase-3.
Therefore, according to the authors, the results of both in vivo and in vitro studies scientifically validate the potential use of Polygala senega as an anticancer agent, particularly against lung cancer, and provide important information potentially helpful in drug design.
This collaboration between researchers and clinicians shows that increasing treatment success in homeopathy can lead to additional research activity.
Among the numerous agents tested on melanoma, cytokines have attracted much attention over recent decades, in particular interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha).
Overall, lymphocytes activated by treatment destroyed growing cancer cells more effectively than control lymphocytes. In addition, according to the authors of the study, they are attractive combination-therapy candidates, which may enhance the efficacy of conventional medicines by improving the immune response against tumor cells. In the present trial they found that M8 had at least two functions, as inhibitor of cancer cell adhesion and invasion and as perlecan expression antagonist, which have a strong correlation with several metastatic, angiogenic and invasive factors in melanoma tumors. In contrast, the Dicathais orbita egg extracts significantly decreased cell viability in the majority of carcinoma cell lines.
The researchers described immune response and the function of the immune response regulation process with special reference to cancer and autoimmune disease. They found that small doses of radiation always had a stimulating effect on ion transport even in combination with vinkristin, which separately always depressed it. The article explained the rationale for this treatment as follows: molecular events that cause tumor formation up-regulate a number of HOX genes, called switch genes, coding for RNA polymerase II transcription factors.
No leukemia-associated symptoms, liver damage, or continuous erythrocyte deprivation occurred. Subsequently, they tested anti-cytotoxic, anti-genotoxic and anti-oxidative stress effects of some homeopathic drugs against several chemical toxic metalloids and metal compounds.

They identified 31 papers describing 33 experiments for the main analysis from a total of 89 items cited. Conventional cancer treatments can cause considerable morbidity, and one of the reasons patients use homeopathic medicines is to help counter the adverse effects. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and two review authors extracted data. Two studies with low risk of bias demonstrated benefit: one with 254 participants demonstrated superiority of topical calendula over trolamine (a topical agent not containing corticosteroids) for prevention of radiotherapy-induced dermatitis, and another with 32 participants demonstrated superiority of Traumeel S (a proprietary complex homeopathic medicine) over placebo as a mouthwash for chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Agents that protect normal tissues against radiation damage can increase patient tolerance to radiotherapy. Six animals from each group were killed after 2, 7, and 11 days of irradiation to detect the bone marrow cellularity and radiation-induced toxicity. They included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing non-hormonal therapies with placebo or no therapy for reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. Conventional methods of pain reduction (including procaine injections) are often ineffective. The level of pain was assessed by a pain score and physical and psychological status by a questionnaire before and directly after injection and again at follow-up visits after three and six months. In any case, the ratings of pain levels did not reach the values assessed before the start of Traumeel injections. For a direct comparison, matched pairs of patients with the same tumor entity and comparable prognosis were to be formed.
Fourteen patients developed itching during their course of post-operative radiation at 27 days median (range: 14-40 days). This confirms observations from our own clinical experience as well as that of others that when suitable remedies are selected according to individual indications as well as according to pathology and to cell-line indications and administered in the appropriate doses according to the standard principles of homeopathic posology, homeopathic treatment of cancer can be a highly effective therapy for all kinds of cancers and leukemia as well as for the harmful side effects of conventional treatment. More homeopathic remedies need to be studied to establish if they have any significant action in cancer.
Ernst failed to mention the fact that worldwide only about 25% of homeopathic potencies prescribed exceed the Avogadro limit.4 Yet he extended his criticisms of homeopathy automatically to the other 75%.
The primary goal of this program is to obtain and review sufficient information to determine if NCI-initiated research on a specific intervention is warranted. While this is the first time that an EEG has been used to demonstrate the effect from homeopathic drugs, Bell et al. In analyzing the various approaches Satti found the small dose of the prescribed drug is frequently administered in a continuous fashion, at regular intervals (metronomic therapy), either as a standard treatment or as a maintenance therapy for a long time.
He concluded that this new low-dose metronomic therapy will have far reaching effects in curing chronic diseases throughout the world.
They then administered concomitantly four remedies commonly used in the homeopathic treatment of cancer; Ruta graveolens, Hydrastis canadensis, Lycopodium clavatum and Thuja occidentalis in 200c potency.
Sur et al.40 had previously found Lycopodium clavatum in potency to be hepatoprotective against CCl4 induced liver damage. Ruta graveolens 200c and Phosphorus 1M reduced the incidence of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas and also increased the life span of mice harboring the tumors.
Hydrastis canadensis 1M given orally significantly inhibited the growth of developed solid tumors produced by DLA cells and increased the lifespan of tumor-bearing animals. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation.
The value for the Ruta graveolens 200c treated group was also elevated to 23% as compared to 3% for untreated animals.
Microarray analysis of cells treated with homeopathic drugs indicated that many enzymes related to apoptosis were increased by homeopathic drugs. The researchers found that both potencies of Chelidonium majus exhibited anti-tumor and anti-oxidative stress potential against artificially induced hepatic tumors and hepato-toxicity in rats.
The authors concluded that the non-toxic nano-extract had greater potential as an anticancer agent than the crude extract. They characterized and subjected TRF further assays to determine its anti-proliferative and apoptotic properties.
The authors concluded that the use of Thuja occidentalis extract against tumors in traditional medicines as well as in homeopathy has, therefore, a scientific basis. There was reduction in genotoxic and DNA damage in bone marrow cells of Secale cornutum 30c-fed mice, as revealed from cytogenetic and Comet assays, and changes in histological features of skin papilloma. Additionally, they made reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of AhR, p53, PCNA and b-actin (housekeeping) genes.
They conducted electron microscopic studies (scanning and transmission) and gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases were conducted in liver. Should the research yield significant positive results, it in turn can attract more patients to homeopathic therapy as well as stimulate further research. However, previous studies58 have found homeopathic drugs to be effective in the treatment of melanoma. All treatments produced a reduction in tumor weight with significant differences in those treated with INF-alpha and Lymphomyosot. The authors concluded that this medication is a promising complementary non-toxic therapy candidate, which may enhance the efficacy of conventional medicines by improving the immune response against tumor cells or even inducing direct dormancy in malignances. Flow cytometry revealed these extracts induce necrosis in HT29 colorectal cancer cells, whereas apoptosis was induced in Jurkat cells. Canova is a homeopathic product produced, “according to the Hahnemannian homeopathic method,” in Brazil. Both, separately and in any combination, stimulated phosphoric acid, and always reinforced trans-membrane ion transport. The report concluded that this novel approach to tumor therapy shows high potential to provide a gentle medical treatment.
They then deployed modern techniques including Western blot, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, UV-spectroscopy, HPLC, FTIR, NMR, RT-PCR, etc. Three review authors independently assessed trial quality using the Delphi List and the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias.
Two other studies reported positive results, although the risk of bias was unclear, and four further studies reported negative results. Several synthetic compounds have been found to provide good radiation protection in experimental animals, but their clinical utility is limited by their expensive cost and their toxicity on repeated administration. Two authors independently selected potentially relevant studies, decided upon their inclusion and extracted data on participant characteristics, interventions, outcomes and the risk of bias of included studies. Data on continuous outcomes were presented inconsistently among studies, which precluded the possibility of pooling the results. Injection therapy with Traumeel (Heel GmbH, Baden-Baden, Germany), a combination drug with analgesic properties used in homotoxicology?—?a method deriving from homeopathy?—?for treatment of pain and inflammation associated with trauma, was proposed for pain relief after breast cancer treatment. The main outcome parameter was: change of quality of life (FACT-G, FACIT-Sp) after 3 months. Eleven patients experienced itching in the radiation field after completion of treatment (median 21 days) after the end of their radiation treatment. Undoubtedly the next big step in homeopathic cancer research must be multiple comprehensive double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials. He also failed to report on mounting scientific data showing the positive effects these potencies have in biological systems, including in humans. He cautioned, however, that the new treatment method lacks any clear standard for drug doses, dose fractionation, repetition, frequency and duration of a treatment course for an individual patient. Homeopathic literature shows that homeopathic physicians had observed clinical effects in cancer of the liver from some of these remedies (with the exception of Ruta graveolens).
Some 9 out of 15 animals with developed tumors were tumor free after treatment with Hydrastis canadensis 1M. A potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at the concentrations studied. In addition, bone marrow cells had a higher incidence of micronuclei induction when treated with the extract and with Ruta graveolens 200c for 30 days. The researchers concluded that apoptosis is one of the mechanisms of tumor reduction of homeopathic drugs. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response and (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. INF-alpha reduced the cell proliferation index and the spread of inflammatory infiltrates and produced an increase in the extent of intratumoral necrosis.
According to the authors these findings highlight the biomedical potential of Muricidae extracts in the development of a natural therapy for the treatment of neoplastic tumors and lymphomas. The article reviewed its role in cancer, bone marrow and hematopoiesis as well as macrophage and monocyte activation. They suggest a hypothesis on the participation of Ca2+ in the process of repairing tumor cells. No serious adverse effects or interactions were reported attributable to the homeopathic medicines used. Three pharmacological treatments (SSRIs and SNRIs, clonidine and gabapentin) reduced the number and severity of hot flushes.
The perception of pain relief with Traumeel injection was high in eight of nine patients, reflecting an overall perceived positive outcome and tolerability of this treatment. Secondary outcome parameters were?—?change of quality of life (FACT-G, FACIT-Sp) after a year, as well as impairment by fatigue (MFI) and by anxiety and depression (HADS).
The patients received a single dose of an individually selected homeopathic medicine in 30c potency in the clinic, on the basis of repertorization. To assess the effect of homeopathic treatment in clinical settings, volunteer adult patients who prefer to try homeopathic treatment instead of conventional therapy could be recruited, especially in cases for which no conventional therapy has been shown to be effective.
His predictable conclusion in the article was the “implausibility” of homeopathy and of homeopathic cancer treatment.
The researchers also tested Ruta graveolens 200c and Phosphorus 1M?—?a homeopathic drug that can be used for sarcoma?—?in the 3-methylcholanthrene treated mice. Administration of the extract over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNA as evidenced by significant comet formation of the bone marrow cells. According to the scientists a comparison of potentized drugs with their mother tincture indicated that the potentized drugs have biological activity similar to that of their mother tincture in spite of ultra-dilution. According to the authors, this study also supports the hypothesis that potentized homeopathic drugs act at gene regulatory level. Thus, combined homeopathic therapy provided additional benefits in combating hepatotoxicity. An antitumor effect was demonstrated by both agents as was the cytotoxicity of INF-alpha and the immune response-stimulating effect of Lymphomyosot.
At increasing Ca2+ concentrations in the environment a trans-membrane transport of this ion induces strengthening of adhesive properties of the cell. Khuda-Bukhsh has proposed that one way by which potentized homeopathic drugs act is through regulatory action on gene expression. Therefore, there is a need to find nontoxic and less expensive drugs for clinical radioprotection.
Thuja occidentalis reduced the elevated levels of GPT and alkaline phosphatase in liver and serum after irradiation.
The authors concluded that the case series represents a first encouraging approach to using this complex homeopathic injection for pain relief in breast cancer patients.
The investigators observed an improvement of quality of life as well as a tendency of fatigue symptoms to decrease in cancer patients under complementary homeopathic treatment.
Patients were asked to record a visual analogue scale (VAS) before prescription of the homeopathic medicine and at follow-up. According to the authors, homeopathic treatment of radiation-induced itching appears quite successful. Bearbeitet, herausgegeben und mit einem Vorwort versehen von Joseph Schmidt.Karl Haug Verlag, Heidelberg. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study.
The data suggested that the future of immunomodulators and homeopathic products, which appear to have an effect on the immune response, requires a better understanding of the relative need for immune activation versus immune modulation.
Lipid peroxidation levels were also lowered in the irradiated animals treated with Thuja occidentalis.
They concluded it would take considerably larger samples to find matched pairs suitable for comparison in order to establish a definite causal relationship between these effects and homeopathic treatment. Patients were evaluated at median 3 days (range: 1-27 days) after administration of the homeopathic drug. Administration of Ruta graveolens 200c for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7.
The authors concluded that homeopathic products specifically need more attention by researchers. Apparently, in this case two contrary processes?—?strengthening and decrease of adhesive properties take place pointing to the fact that reparative forces in tumor process had developed. They call for a new approach that allows greater understanding of the patient as a whole in the short time available in a busy clinic.
The researchers concluded that Ruta graveolens extract and Ruta graveolens 200c may induce genotoxicity in animals.
The researchers concluded that double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment. Clonidine, SSRIs and SNRIs, gabapentin and relaxation therapy showed a mild to moderate effect on reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

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