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The figure shows an estimate of the impact standards on new buildings had on the average unit consumption for space heating of the dwelling stock for the EU as a whole.
The energy consumption of households is decomposed in different explanatory effects: change in average dwelling size, increasing number of appliances (more electrical appliances) and central heating diffusion, energy efficiency improvement (as measured from ODEX) and change in behaviour related to more confort.
The right figure shows the reversed trends with an increasing electricity consumption of air conditioning. Over the period 1990-2010, energy efficiency in industry has improved in EU-27 countries by 29%, at an annual average rate of 1.7% per year (Figure 1). Over the period 1990-2010, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 27%, at an average rate of 1.6% per year (Figure 1). Energy efficiency improvements for space heating occurred as a result of better thermal performance of buildings encouraged by mandatory efficiency standards for new buildings, increase in the penetration of A condensing boilers and heat pumps and the thermal retrofitting of existing dwellings.
Energy consumption for air conditioning per m2 for the stock average is increasing rapidly (Figure 6, graph 1). In the EU-27 countries, energy efficiency in the transport sector increased by 15% between 1990 and 2010, at an annual average rate of 0.8% due to increased efficiency particularly for passenger cars and airplanes. The ODEX indexA (Fig.1) measures the energy efficiency progress by main sector (industry, transport, households) and for the whole economy (all final consumers). The sub-sectoral indices are calculated from variations of unit energy consumption indicators, measured in physical units and selected so as to provide the best a€?proxya€? of energy efficiency progress, from a policy evaluation viewpoint. The weight used to get the weighted aggregate is the share of each sub- sector in the total energy consumption of the sub a€“sectors considered in the calculation.
The variation of the specific consumption of space heating per dwelling linked to building standards is modelled as the change brought about by the introduction of new dwellings with a better insulation than the whole stock since a base year (e.g.
The trend in final energy consumptionA provides a broad indication of progress in reducing final energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households). The Europe 2020 growth growth strategy aims to address shortcoming of the European economic model while creating coditions for smarter, more sustainable and inclusive growth.
On 15 December 2011, the European Commission adopted the Communication "Energy Roadmap 2050". On 10 November 2010, the European Commission has adopted the Communication "Energy 2020 - A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy". Energy Efficiency Plan 2011, [COM(2011) 109 final] Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. The climate and energy package is a set of binding legislation which aims to ensure the European Union meets its ambitious climate and energy targets for 2020. Methodology of data manipulationThe trends observed for some sectors or end-uses, especially for space heating are very irregular, which results in strong fluctuations in the ODEX, that are difficult to understand as energy efficiency progress should normally change smoothly (incremental technical change). Some sub-sectors are not accounted for in ODEX, such as mining, construction, other manufacturing industries, small electrical appliances, lighting, services. The unit consumption is expressed in terms of energy used per ton produced for energy intensive products (steel, cement and paper) and in terms of energy used related to the production index for the other branches. For the transport sector, the evaluation is carried out at the level of 8 modes or vehicle types: cars, trucks, light vehicles, motorcycles, buses, total air transport, rail, and water transport. For households, the evaluation is carried out at the level of 3 end-uses (heating, water heating, cooking) and 5 large appliances (refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers and TVs). To calculate the ODEX (Fig.1),A data submitted to the ODYSSEE project by countries on voluntary basis is used. Over the period 1990-2008, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 19%, at an average rate of 1.1% per year (Figure 1). The graph characterizes the average consumption per households (at normal climate) in relation to the evolution of prices and incomes. Between 1990 and 2008, the final household energy consumption increased by 13% in the EU-27, at an annual average growth rate of 0.7%.
The unit consumption in useful terms is calulated by multiplying the final consumption for each fuel by the heating efficiency for that fuel. Based on the ratio: energy consumption by end uses divided by the number of permanently occupied dwelling. With the increase of the average income per household, the average size of dwellings is increasing. Space heating is the largest component of energy use in virtually all member states, accounting for around 70% of the total energy consumption of households (2008). Heating demand, even corrected for differences in climate and fuel mix, varies significantly among EU-27 countries (Figure 9). What are the main explanatory factors behind CO2 emissions trends in the household sector in Europe? The graph compares by country the level of CO2 emissions for space heating per m2 for 2 years : 1990 and 2007 (direct and indirect emissions). In 2007 direct CO2 emissions of the household sector were 17% below their 1990 level in the EU-27, despite an increase in the stock of dwellings and the number of appliances owned. The reliability of total household energy consumption and related CO2 emissions is reliable due to trustworthy statistics underlying it. Over the period 1990-2009, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 24%, at an average rate of 1.4% per year (Figure 1).
For the EU-27 as a whole, new dwellings built in 2009 consumed about 40% less energy than dwellings built in 1990, because of new building codes[3] (Figure 9). Over the period 2005-2009, the average energy efficiency improvement rate at EU level was 1.3% per year. Space heating represented 68% of total household consumption in 2009 compared to 74% in 1990. To avoid yearly fluctuations due to climatic variations from one year to the other and have consistent trends, the household energy consumption should be measured at normal climate (i.e.
The observed progress in energy efficiency was due to better thermal performance of buildings, more efficient large electrical appliances (cold and washing appliances) and heating systems (condensing boilers and heat pumps). Energy consumption for water heating represented around 12% of the household consumption in 2009. Solar energy is promoted in many countries to substitute conventional energies presently used to produce hot water.
In France there is an energy saving obligation for energy suppliers above a certain level of sales. Today, energy generation and consumption are highly topical issues, with an emphasis placed on the importance of energy efficient devices. A testing environment containing common household appliances has been set up in the Energy Design Lab. All EU countries have developed thermal regulations for new dwellings, some of them being introduced as far back as during the seventies[1]. The reduction was quite significant in The Netherlands[5], Ireland and France since 1990, as well as in some new member countries since 2000 (e.g. This approach overestimates the impact of building regulations as it is well known, but not well quantified, that the actual unit of new dwellings is higher than this consume more than this theoretical consumption, because of non compliance and rebound effects (the fact that in well insulated dwellings occupants tend to have a higher indoor temperature than in less insulated dwellings). For each sector, the index is calculated as a weighted average of sub-sectoral indices of energy efficiency progress; sub-sectors being industrial or service sector branches or end-uses for households or transport modes. 1990), assuming that the unit consumption of new dwellings is equal to the theoretical value implied by thermal regulations (Fig.2). The improvements of the energy performance of buildings as a result of tightening building codes are represented also in percentage change compared to 1990 levels (Fig.2). Increased energy efficiency can lead to significant reductions in energy consumption provided that measures are in place to discourage the occurrence of rebound effects. GHG emissions, air pollution, etc) depends both on the sources of energy as well as on the total amount of energy consumed. One of the headline targets include the objective of increasing the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption to 20% by 2020. Presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.


The EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 in the context of necessary reductions by developed countries as a group. The CommunicationA defines the energy priorities for the next ten years and sets the actions to be taken in order to tackle the challenges of saving energy, achieving a market with competitive prizes and secure supplies, boosting technological leadership, and effectively negotiate with our international partners. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades. Such fluctuations can be linked to various factors: imperfect climatic corrections, especially with warm winters, behavioural factors, influence of business cycles, imperfection of statistics, especially for the last year. The reason is that energy efficiency progress is difficult to capture with the existing indicators (e.g. Unit energy consumption captures the energy efficiency development better than traditional energy intensities (per unit of value added).
The overall energy efficiency index aggregates the trends for each transport mode in a single indicator for the whole sector. Part of these improvements occurred in the area of space heating due to better thermal performance of buildings encouraged by mandatory efficiency standards for new buildings, and a larger penetration of high efficiency boilers (e.g. The income per households for EU-27 as a whole is the sum of the 27 EU countries based on national Odyssee data. Over the same period, final household electricity consumption increased faster, at an annual growth rate of 1.9%. This phenomenon is even more rapid in new member countries where the average dwelling size remains lower than in EU-15 countries (71 m2 on average in EU-12 compared to 92 m2 for EU-15 countries in 2008[1]). The recent penetration of central heating (in the southern European countries and in Ireland)[2] has also contributed to increase the energy consumption in the household sector. Energy efficiency is the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption while maintaining an equivalent level of economic activity. The evaluation of energy savings in household is carried out at the level of three end uses (heating, water heating and cooking) and five large appliances (refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers and TVs). The data extracted from the ODYSSEE database and used in the graphs are: the energy consumption by end uses, stock of dwellings, the average floor area, the number of large electrical appliances, the share of central heating. Unit consumption per dwelling for space heating with climatic corrections, Unit consumption of hot water per dwelling, Unit consumption per dwelling for cooking, Unit consumption per m2 for space heating with climatic corrections, Stock of dwellings (permanently occupied). For large appliances, the improvement in energy efficiency results from technical improvement driven by EU mandatory Directives on labelling and voluntary agreements with equipment manufacturers.
This approach overestimates theA  impact of building regulations as it is well known, but not well quantified , that the actual unit of new dwellings is higher than this consume more than this theoretical consumption, because of non compliance and rebound effects (the fact that in well insulated dwellings occupants tend to have a higher indoor temperature than in less insulated dwellings). Over the same period, final household electricity consumption increased faster, at an annual growth rate of 1.7%.
The share of electricity for lighting and appliances increased from 10% to 15% in 2009 compared to 1990.
However, part of this improvement was offset by increased number of electrical A appliances, larger homes and the diffusion of central heating[7] . Central heating (around 85% of EU dwellings in 2009) , which includes district heating, block heating, individual boiler heating and electric heating, implies that all the rooms are well heated, as opposed to room heating, where generally a stove provides heat to the main room only.
Solar water heaters can represent a good economical and environmental solution mainly for southern countries which benefit from a good solar irradiation.
An important aspect to be examined is how to decrease energy consumption and close the energy gap.
Each appliance can be reduced down and represented by a basic electrical load - resistive, capacitive or inductive.
However, part of this improvement was offset by an increase in the number of appliances and larger homes.
Romania, Latvia, Slovenia), thanks to a combined effect of higher energy prices and energy efficiency improvements. The impact of all these measures was as significant reduction in the average emission of new cars[9]. In fact, the service sector saw the highest increase in energy consumption since 1990 (see ENER16). TheA effects of the main drivers influencing the energy efficiency progress is represented in percentage change compared to 1990 levels (Fig.3). Reducing energy consumption as a result of energy efficiency progress and behavioural changes can lead to significant reductions in environmental pressures associated with energy production and consumption. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on gross inland consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity. In the Energy Roadmap 2050 the Commission explores the challenges posed by delivering the EU's decarbonisation objective while at the same time ensuring security of energy supply and competitiveness.
For some branches the trends shown include also some non-technical changes, especially in the chemical industry the shift to light chemicals, due to the fact that this sector is not sufficiently disaggregated. Therefore, for the EU-27, dataA extrapolations are being used basedA as much as possible on Eurostat supporting data (e.g.
Indeed the increasing size of dwellings and more electrical appliances (in particular large appliances but also small equipments) contributed to increase the average consumption per dwelling by 0.4% a year each.
Central heating, which includes district heating, block heating, individual boiler heating and electric heating, implies that all the rooms are well heated, as opposed to room heating, where generally a stove provides heat to the main room only. It is difficult, for example, to distinguish between households where a central boiler provides both space and water heating or the dwelling uses electricity for heating. Over the period 1990 to 2007, direct CO2 emissions per dwelling in EU-27 decreased by 29% (Figure 11). The energy consumption for all these countries is aggregated by fuel and end-uses and a share is applied to the total consumption by fuel from Eurostat. As a result, the share of the most efficient appliances (A, A+, A++) has increased significantly: from 6% in 1997 to 94% in 2009 for refrigerators and from 3% to 95% for washing machines, for example[4]. There exist large discrepancies among countries: from few improvements for Hungary, Greece to great improvements for new members such as Slovenia, Poland and Romania with an annual average rate of energy efficiency improvement above 2% over the period 2000-2009 (Figure 7). The combined effect of these three factors was an increase in the average consumption per dwelling by around 0.4% a year each (Figure 6), offsetting 60% of the energy efficiency improvement achieved through technological innovation.
It is estimated that the replacement of single room heating by central heating increases the energy required for space heating by about 25A % on average. The energy suppliers falling under the regulation, have to prove a volume of savings proportional to their market share. It will be aimed at reducing energy consumption by providing real time data that can be used to alter behaviour and usage patterns.
The characteristics of each type of load will be measured, modelled and used as a fingerprint to identify which appliances are being utilised. The combined effect of these two factors increased the energy consumption per dwelling by around 0.4% a year on average (Figure 3), offsetting around 45% of the energy efficiency improvement achieved through technological innovation. However, the magnitude of the impact of such standards varies across the countries, depending on the number of standards upgrades, their severity and the annual volume of construction (i.e. There is a factor 4 difference between the lowest energy consumption per m2 in southern countries such as Cyprus and Spain and the northern countries with the highest unit consumption (Estonia, Finland, Latvia); there is a factor 2 difference between these highest values and the other Mediterranean countries (Croatia, Bulgaria, Greece and Italy) and The Netherlands. The share of dwellings with air conditioning has particularly increased in Spain (from 15% in 2000 to 60% in 2010), Italy (from 11% to 35%), Cyprus (from 40% to 90%) and Croatia (from 17% to 27%). Since 2005 we can observe a slowdown in the improvement of energy efficiency for trucks and light vehicles[10], resulting in an increase in the consumption of road goods per tonne-kilometre. Energy consumption for households per square meter (climate corrected) is represented as percentage change compared to a baseline year (1990, 2000).
This directive has a direct impact on the renewables target since it aims to reduce the final energy consumption, thus making theA renewables target easier to reach. However this indicator does not monitor progress at EU level on the energy efficiency target (different methodologies may be applied for this purpose particularly if the emphasis is on energy savings) but it does provide an indication of progress to date in achieving energy efficiency (in this context energy efficiency means mainly improvements in technological performance).
The implicit assumption in the mode of calculation of the ODEX is that all these sub-sectors have the same energy efficiency gains as the sector average.
Since the year 2005 however, energy consumption per capita in the household sector decreased in almost all countries.
For the EU-27 as a whole, new buildings built in 2008 consumed about 40% less energy than buildings built in 1990, because of new building codes[1].


In southern countries, the progression was particularly rapid because of increasing comfort levels (more dwellings well heated in winter and diffusion of air conditioning). It is estimated that the replacement of single room heating by central heating increases the energy required for space heating by about 25 % on average. The proportion used for space heating depends on factors such as climatic conditions, the level of thermal efficiency of buildings or the level of comfort. Most other new member states also appear to perform better than the EU-27 for which the average energy efficiency improvement rate was 1% per year over the period.
CO2 emissions for residential and CO2 emissions of public electricity and heat production based on the Annual European Community Greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2007 and inventory report 2009. Electricity related emissions per dwelling (indirect CO2 emissions) corresponding to the emissions in the power sector associated with the electricity consumed in the household sector also decreased but at a slower pace (-17% over the period). The Plan lists a range of cost-effective measures, proposing priority actions to be initiated immediately, and others to be initiated gradually over the Plan's six-year period.
The average energy consumption per m2 per dwelling equivalent to central heating is used to leave out the impact of the diffusion of central heating. For instance, the space heating consumption of gas is calculated as the total consumption of gas as published by Eurostat for the EU-27 multiplied by the share of space heating in the gas consumption in the sample of 16 countries. All EU countries have developed thermal regulations for new dwellings, some of them as far as the seventies[1].
Between 2008 and 2009, the household energy consumption has decreased by 0.7% due to the economic crisis. Most of the savings in energy consumption in the household sector took place because of improvements in space heating technologies and tighter building codes (see also Figure 9 below).
For that purpose, they have to implement actions with their consumers to encourage energy savings investments and will receive in exchange certificates; they are also allowed to buy energy saving certificates from suppliers in excess of their obligation.
The loss of efficiency during a recession period is linked to the fact that, the energy consumption does not follow the reduction in activity as part of the consumption is not linked to the level of production, also because industrial equipment, such as kilns, boilers or motors, are less efficient when they do not operate at full capacity. In Bulgaria and Slovenia the diffusion of air conditioning is more recent but important (15% of dwellings equipped in 2010). In this way some consistency between this top-down calculation and the bottom up made for specific countries is ensured (also country data makes use of Eurostat to the extent possible). This can be explained by the high energy efficiency potentials available in these countries due to outdated infrastructures (e.g. As a result total CO2 emissions per dwelling (direct + indirect emissions) decreased by 24% in the EU-27 over the period 1990-2007. The effect of (heating) behaviour was estimated by assuming that technical progress cannot be reversed.
The space heating consumption for the EU-27 is then calculated as the sum of the consumption for space heating for each fuel.
Differences between countries can be explained by the high energy efficiency potentials available in these countries due to outdated infrastructures (e.g. With a top-down approach, the impact of solar heating on the household energy consumption will be measured based on the energy statistics. It is estimated that new dwellings built in 2010 consumed about 40% less energy than dwellings built in 1990, because of new building codes[2]. In 2010, the average unit consumption per m2 for air-conditioning is still low as the percentage of dwellings with air conditioning is low although progressing rapidly. Efficiency improvements in space heating and large electrical appliances reduces the consumption while increasing size of dwellings and increased use of electrical appliances and central heating contribute to increase the consumption and offset part of the energy efficiency benefits. As a result, the share of the most efficient appliances (A, A+) has increased significantly: from 6% in 1997 to 92% in 2008 for refrigerators and from 3% to 95% for washing machine, for example[2].
The share of the electricity consumption for lighting and appliances in the total household consumption has increased by 4 points, from 10% to 14% since 1990, which tends to affect the rise in the overall energy consumption per dwelling[3]. The EU is increasingly dependent on energy imported from Non-EU Member Countries, creating economic, social, political and other risks for the Union.The EU therefore wishes to reduce its dependence and improve its security of supply by promoting other energy sources and cutting demand for energy. However, the magnitude of this impact varies with the countries, depending on the number of standards upgrades, their severity and the number of new dwellings (i.e. Gas and electricity are the main energy source in the household energy consumption (39% and 25% respectively in 2009 compared to 29% and 19% in 1990). Unit consumption per dwelling has decreased in almost all EU countries from 1990 to 2009 except in 6 countries, mainly southern countries (Malta, Greece, Cyprus, Spain), Finland and Croatia (Figure 3). In this case, the savings come from the fact that one kWh of solar will replace more than one kWh of conventional energy (due to the convention applied in energy statistics to solar heating, namely that there are no losses in conversion). Over the period 1990-2010, improvements took place in all industrial branches except the textile industry. This impact is however limited due to the fact that dwellings built since 1990 only represented 20% of the total stock in 2010. CO2 emissions per dwelling were 24% below their 1990 level in 2008, mainly because of CO2 savings resulting from switches to fuel with a lower CO2 content. But the decrease of direct CO2 emissions per dwelling by 28% driven by fuel switch to cleaner fuels (e.g.
Consequently, it is putting the accent, above all, on improving energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy sources.
The level of energy saved will depend depending on the type of water heaters replaced (for instance their efficiency). The three most energy intensive branches (chemicals, steel and paper), which represent over 50% of the energy consumption of the sector, reduced their specific energy consumption, i.e. Figure 9 shows an estimate of the impact of building standards in the unit consumption of dwelling since 1990 for a selection of countries[2].
Heat, from district heating, and coal represent 7% and 3% of the household consumption in 2009 (compared to 10% and 12% in 1990).
So looking at both energy consumption for water heating and water consumption trends in the households, one could draw some conclusions on the influence of solar heating penetration. The savings values have been agreed upon following a process involving various stakeholders on the basis of expert opinions and survey data.
By 2020 all new buildings in the EU should be a€?nearly-zero energy buildingsa€? according to the EPBD. The introduction of new dwellings with better insulation since 1990 contributed to decrease the unit consumption per dwelling at different levels: 12% for Sweden, around 35% for France and Netherlands, 40% for Poland, 50% for Denmark and 70% for Germany.
In a bottom-up approach used in national evaluations, solar water heaters are considered as an energy saving technology and thus the saving will be much larger[8].
The details of the calculations are not public but the value of the standardised savings by equipment and actions are published on the Ministry web site[9].
Significant improvements were also made in the machinery and cement industries which reduced their specific energy consumption by 31% and 17% respectively. The required decrease in energy consumption of a€?low energy buildingsa€? will range from 30 to 50% of what is presently required for new buildings with the existing regulations. Differences in direct CO2 emissions for space heating per m2 between countries broadly reflect the level of energy consumption per m2 (see Figure 9) and to a lesser extent differences in the fuel mix for heating. The other factors responsible for the decrease of the unit consumption should be the retrofitting of existing dwellings and the introduction of new more efficient heating appliances (namely, condensing boilers and heat pumps), as well as behavioral savings. Differences in the carbon intensity of the electricity system explain the differences observed for the indirect emissions.
For large appliances, the improvement in energy efficiency results from technical improvement driven by EU mandatory Directives on labelling, minimum energy standards for cold appliances and voluntary agreements with CECED (the association of domestic equipment manufacturers). Until 2000, the average energy consumption per dwelling (at normal climate) in the EU-27 was almost stable despite increasing household income and decreasing energy prices (Figure 4). If they are scaled to the average EU climate, Finland, Latvia and Norway have total emissions per m2 that were more than five times lower than countries such as Greece. As a result, the share of appliances which are most efficient (A, A+, A++) has increased significantly: from 6% in 1997 to 94% in 2009 for refrigerators and from 3% to 95% for washing machines, for example[4].



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