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LE-JIT KDKA PITTBIRD LE JIT LA GIT LA-GIT LE-GIT LA-JIT 412-313-3080 PIRATES STEELERS PENGUINS BIRDKITE BIRD-KITE BIRD KITE Katherine B. On behalf of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, I welcome you to the Washington County Court of Common Pleas website.
Our biggest design enhancement is the addition of four (4) web portal pages which are geared towards the concentration of content related to our most prolific user populations of the Courts.
The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans.
The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region.
In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.
The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee.
The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks.
As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000.
An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history.
In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary.
The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public.
The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage.
In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v.
Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president.
In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals.
In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States.
When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized.
21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video).
37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J.
In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. School spending in England has become increasingly targeted at schools with pupils from poorer backgrounds over the past 20 years.
That said, there is also a lot of variation in funding between schools with similar pupil intakes. There are substantial differences in spending levels per pupil between schools in England, and these differences have grown over time. A key driver of this variation is the increased spending in the most deprived set of schools and areas.
Local authorities can and do make different choices in the way they fund different sorts of schools in their area. Differences in average spending levels between local authorities are, however, largely explained by characteristics of the local authorities: 80% of the variation in spending per pupil across local authorities can be explained by whether they are in London and their level of deprivation. It is the total amount of spending that pupils experience over all their years in schooling that is likely to matter most for educational outcomes. On average, students taking their GCSEs in 2015 had £57,000 spent on them over the course of their schooling career between Reception and Year 11. Changes in school spending policy take a long time to affect the amount different cohorts experience in total school spending.
Graduates from richer family backgrounds earn significantly more after graduation than their poorer counterparts, even after completing the same degrees from the same universities. The research used anonymised tax data and student loan records for 260,000 students up to ten years after graduation. Funded by the Nuffield Foundation, this work was carried out by researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), UCL Institute of Education, Harvard University and the University of Cambridge. All this means, of course, is that it is the IPC approach that will ultimately determine the BGAs.
The Agreement also means that part of the growth in devolved tax revenues in rUK will continue to be redistributed to Scotland to help fund its higher levels of government spending: something that the UK government said should no longer happen once a tax is devolved. These are among the findings of a new report released by researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies and the University of Stirling, funded by the Nuffield Foundation and the Economic and Social Research Council. The deal agreed will protect the Scottish budget from revenue and welfare spending risks associated with Scotland’s lower population growth.
The method agreed for adjusting the block grant also largely insulates Scotland from the impact of any shocks that hit the whole of the UK – such as the global financial crisis and associated recession. But the Scottish Government’s budget will be exposed to long- and short-term economic risks that affect Scotland differently from the rest of the UK. Borrowing would not be an appropriate response to long-term declines in revenues or increases in welfare spending, but it can be an important tool in managing shorter-term risks.
Recent experience suggests the resource borrowing limits and reserves limits agreed should be large enough to smooth temporary fluctuations in devolved revenues.
Strong employment growth has reduced the number of people living in households with incomes below a fixed poverty line over the last two years, but planned cuts to benefits and tax credits will mean no growth in the incomes of poorer households on average over the next five years.
This income growth partly reflects strong employment growth, particularly towards the bottom of the income distribution. Relative poverty rates have not changed as the incomes of poorer households have grown at a similar rate to median income. Incomes are likely to continue growing for many households as earnings rise faster than inflation.
The Joseph Rowntree Foundation is an independent organisation working to inspire social change through research, policy and practice. The IFS Green Budget 2016, produced in association with ICAEW and funded by the Nuffield Foundation with analysis from Oxford Economics, is published today.
The rule has the merit of simplicity and transparency but is very inflexible and this could come at a cost. The fiscal mandate also rules out borrowing to invest even where low interest rates mean such investment would be economically beneficial and would not otherwise occur. Mr Osborne has promised £8billion per year of income tax cuts in the form of a higher personal allowance and an increased higher-rate threshold. His forecasts depend on him raising fuel duties in line with the RPI – something he has failed to do since 2011. His forecasts also depend on keeping the £150,000 threshold, at which the 45% income tax rate kicks in, frozen.
Spending plans are based on pay in the public sector rising by at most 1% a year for the rest of this parliament. Oxford Economics, with whom we are again collaborating, forecast that UK growth will be a relatively disappointing 2.2% in 2016, similar to growth in 2015. Looking further ahead, Oxford Economics say that the combination of a sizeable output gap and solid prospects for potential output should provide the conditions for firm growth and low inflation over the medium term. ICAEW provide a detailed analysis of Whole of Government Accounts (WGA), which illustrates the importance of taking a wider view of government finances than the traditional National Accounts.
Current accounting measures and the desire to reach a surplus on a relatively narrow measure of government borrowing will favour public–private finance partnerships over simply borrowing to invest. There is a case for extending excise duties to other products, excess consumption of which can cause social harm; hence the recent calls for a sugar tax. The Green Budget also contains chapters on universal credit and tackling tax avoidance by multinational companies, which were pre-released last week and the week before, respectively. We are delighted to have produced this year’s Green Budget in association with ICAEW and with funding from ICAEW and the Nuffield Foundation.
During this parliament the government plans to replace most of the means-tested benefits system for working-age families with a single payment called universal credit (UC). These are among the findings of new analysis by IFS researchers which forms part of the forthcoming IFS Green Budget 2016, produced in association with ICAEW and funded by the Nuffield Foundation.
UC will dramatically reduce the number facing very weak financial incentives to move into or stay in work. UC will tend to weaken the incentive for single parents to be in work, and to strengthen the incentive for couples to have one person in work (rather than none or two).
Working single parents and two-earner couples are relatively likely to lose, and one-earner couples with children are relatively likely to gain. Owner-occupiers and those with assets or unearned income are relatively likely to lose, but working renters are relatively likely to gain.
Distilling microeconomics research into direct policy implications will be the focus of a new website developed by researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies, University College London, Princeton University, Harvard University, London School of Economics Northwestern University, University of California, San Diego, University of Manchester and Yale University. The summaries, which will be written by academics and edited by journalists, will cover all areas of microeconomics including development, health economics, environmental economics, international trade, public finance, industrial organisation and labour economics. Like an academic journal, content featured on the website will be chosen by an editorial committee that will select the best research in microeconomics, irrespective of institution and political or ideological viewpoints.
The editorial committee will work with its academic authors to produce short research briefs intended for public policy practitioners. Many fear that climate change will have severe effects on the global economy, particularly through the threat to food production and farmers’ earnings. NHS hospitals in England are rarely closed in constituencies where the governing party has a slender majority. Argues that reform of Barnett may remove some of the conflicts between the Smith Commission’s principles.
Wealth among working-age households increased on average by more than inflation over the late 2000s, despite the financial crisis. These are among the findings of a new report published today by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), funded by the IFS Retirement Savings Consortium and the Economic and Social Research Council. Increases in average wealth for working-age households over this four-year period were driven by increases in pension wealth. For virtually all age groups, average property wealth fell in real terms over the period due to declines in house prices. Taking all wealth together, the majority of working-age households saw a real terms increase in their total wealth over this period. Nearly half of individuals (47%) in 2010–12 reported saving some income in financial assets over the previous two years. 30% of individuals reported saving for an unexpected expense, 23% reported saving for holidays or leisure, 15% for planned expenses, 10% for other people and 10% to provide a retirement income. Between 2006 and 2012 the odds of reporting saving for investment purposes halved, while the odds of reporting saving for an unexpected expense increased by 20% and the odds of saving for a housing deposit increased by nearly 60%.
Only 35% of individuals who had not yet retired in 2010–12 expected private pensions to be their largest source of retirement income.
Among households aged 25–34, nearly one-quarter (24%) do not expect to receive any income from the state pension in retirement, while nearly half (44%) do not expect to receive any income from a private pension.
The report will be available on the IFS website from 00:01 AM on Thursday 19th November 2015. Reductions in social rents announced in the July Budget will be of little or no direct benefit to most of the 3.9 million households in England living in social housing. The reduction in housing benefit will save the exchequer money, and will strengthen tenants’ work incentives as they have less means-tested support to lose by entering work or increasing their earnings. These are among the conclusions of a new report on social rent policy, published today by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) and funded by Trust for London.
After many years of real increases in social rents, the July Budget announced a 1% annual reduction in social rents in England for the next four years. The policy largely represents a transfer from social landlords (councils and housing associations) to the exchequer, rather than to social tenants. Tenants who do gain from the rent cut will tend to be around the middle of the income distribution.
The cut to social rents will strengthen the financial work incentives of social tenants, on average.
We expect Pay to Stay to hit around 250,000 households per year (about 7% of social renting households in England).
Important decisions about Pay to Stay have yet to be taken, including how sharply rents increase as incomes rise beyond the threshold.
Pay to Stay will increase the incentive for higher-income social tenants to leave the sector, perhaps by exercising their Right to Buy. Johnson will set out how modelling by IFS researchers suggests that pensioners’ incomes will continue to rise for at least the next decade.
Johnson will also use his lecture to outline some policy priorities for making state and private pensions more stable and sustainable, for example ending the so called triple lock on the state pension and bringing stability to the taxation of private pensions. Pensioners now have higher incomes on average than the rest of the population, once housing costs and family composition are taken into account. A large proportion of those retiring now will actually be better off in retirement than they were on average during their working life. On state pensions Johnson will suggest that the new single tier pension for those reaching the state pension age on from next April will represent the logical culmination of 30 years of policy aimed at undoing the introduction of the State Earnings Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) in 1978. Continuing increases in pension age, in order to help drive up the age at which people actually stop work, is likely to be vital to the sustainability of the system. When most pension income came from state pensions and defined benefit occupational pensions risks of poor investment returns and changing longevity were shared between individuals and generations. There is an urgent need to bring stability and rationality to the taxation of private pensions.
Less than a quarter (22%) of children on free school meals in inner London obtained five or more A*–C grades at GCSE or their equivalent (including English and Maths) in 2002. New work published today, by researchers associated with the Centre for Social Exclusion (CASE) at the London School of Economics and the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), concludes that the improved performance largely reflects gradual improvements in school quality over time.


The researchers from the IFS, University of Surrey, University of Bath and the UCL Institute for Education used information from the National Pupil Database, which records the school outcomes of all children in England. London is much more ethnically diverse than the rest of England and ethnic minorities tend to obtain better GCSE results than children from white-British backgrounds. The main explanation for better GCSE results is that pupils from poorer backgrounds are entering secondary school with better test scores at age 11.
In addition it seems that having lots of peers from deprived backgrounds is no longer holding children back as much. The researchers supplemented their analysis of administrative data by using the Millennium Cohort Study to look at the performance of one large group of children born around 2000 and for whom there is detailed data on their progress before age 11. In this cohort of around 19,000 children who all started school at age 5 in 2005, disadvantaged children in London were not ahead of those outside London at the point when they started school.
Differences in the family background and characteristics of poorer pupils in London explain just under half of the London advantage at age 11 (mostly due to higher levels of ethnic diversity). Children were considered poor in the Millennium Cohort Study if their household was in receipt of Job Seekers Allowance or Income Support when the age 3, 5, 7 or 11 survey was taken. Disadvantaged children in London are different from their peers outside London, particularly in terms of ethnicity. Researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), Harvard University and the University of Cambridge found that median earnings of English women around 10 years after graduation were just over three times those of non-graduates.
The study shows that the recession had a large impact on the earnings of people in their twenties and early thirties. The researchers used anonymised tax data and student loan records for over 260,000 graduates for up to 10 years after graduation. The researchers, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, report their results in a new working paper. The administrative data suggests that the annual earnings of the highest earning graduates are greater than appears in other data. Graduates suffered proportionately less during the recession than non-graduates in terms of their earnings, implying that having a degree provides some protection from bad labour market outcomes.
Over the recession period females fared proportionately worse than males in terms of annual earnings.
In a single year, 64% of individuals in the UK pay more in taxes than they receive in social security. A second key finding is that in-work benefits are just as good as out-of-work benefits at targeting the lifetime poor (those with lowest incomes over the course of a lifetime). These are among the main findings of a new IFS report, Redistribution from a Lifetime Perspective, using data on the baby-boom generation (born 1945–54).
ACTUALLY DIED AT AGH, WHICH OF COURSE THEY ACCOMPLISHED (even though Canonsburg General Hospital is the rehab's NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR!). As President Judge, I have long held a belief in the value of technology to not only increase the efficiency of the Court but also realize its ability to make the Court system more accessible to the citizens of the Twenty-Seventh Judicial District. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department.
They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself.
In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms".
Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism.
In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I.
Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress.
Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process.
The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional.
These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation.
Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis.
A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004.
Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved.
The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts.
Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391).
Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. In 2013–14, the poorest fifth of secondary schools (in terms of the proportion of pupils eligible for free school meals) spent 31% more per pupil than the richest fifth, up from around 15% in the late 1990s. In 10% of local authorities, secondary schools spend at least 40% more than primary schools per pupil; but in 10% of local authorities, the difference was less than 30%.
A national funding formula therefore need not lead to significant redistribution between local authorities. For example, total spending per pupil will continue to grow over the current parliament, even though annual spending per pupil will fall in real terms. This represents a major shift in the role of the state, with the school funding system playing an increasingly important role in redistribution,” said Chris Belfield, one of the authors of the report.
Replacing 152 different formulae with one single, simple formula will inevitably lead to substantial changes in funding across schools and, for good or bad, will almost completely remove local authorities from the school funding system,” said Luke Sibieta, the other author of the report. The Nuffield Foundation is an endowed charitable trust that aims to improve social well-being in the widest sense.
The first stage of this consultation (which closes on April 17th) sets out the overall principles for a national funding formula. This is one of many findings in new research published today which looks at the link between earnings and students’ background, degree subject and university attended. The full working paper is available here and we also have an accompanying executive summary. The most difficult thing to agree was how to adjust the Scottish Government’s block grant funding to account for its new revenues and spending responsibilities. Scotland’s budget could fall a little if income tax rates are cut (or thresholds increased) in rUK and vice versa.
There seems little rationale for adopting the convoluted process of adjustments set out in the Fiscal Framework other than to highlight this difference. Equally, Scotland will not benefit from the higher revenues that might result if its population grows more quickly than expected. The Scottish Government got less in the way of new borrowing powers than it hoped for: capital borrowing limits were barely increased, for instance.
The Scottish block grant will continue to be determined largely by historical accident through the Barnett Formula, and will still bear no relation to Scotland’s relative spending need. These are among the main findings from a new IFS Report funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, published today, that examines the prospects for incomes and poverty until 2020. In contrast to the stability of inequality over the past two years (and the decline in inequality since the recession), incomes at the 90th percentile are projected to increase by 2.3% per year while incomes at the 10th percentile are expected to remain constant in real terms. Less than a third of the projected increase in overall relative poverty, and around 40% of the increase in relative child poverty, is attributable to planned reforms.
For some, particularly the better off and pensioners, this is likely to continue over the next five years as earnings and state pensions grow more quickly than inflation. Having set himself a very inflexible target to get to budget balance by 2019–20, Mr Osborne could be forced into additional spending cuts or tax rises if economic and fiscal forecasts again turn out unfavourably.
Borrowing to cover investment could leave debt still at 60% of national income in the mid-2030s. It could require big tax rises or spending cuts with very little notice in order to ensure it is met. And because it is based on a narrow definition of borrowing, there is a danger that Chancellors will game the rule, just as they have gamed rules in the past.
The number of additional-rate taxpayers has already increased by 40% since the additional rate was introduced in 2010. Spending on public services other than health will be at its lowest level as a fraction of national income since at least 1948–49, at a time when the population continues to grow and age. If official forecasts for private sector pay are right, this will take public sector pay to easily its lowest level relative to that in the private sector for at least 25 years. On the plus side, the forces driving strong consumer spending growth last year are still present, while the environment for business investment remains favourable.
However, the planned fiscal consolidation is so large that it will exert a significant drag on growth prospects and mean that the UK’s spare capacity is eroded more slowly than it otherwise could be.
Uncertainty in the fiscal forecasts means that he may well have to cut spending further or raise taxes to get to surplus in 2019–20. Favourable treatment of these arrangements in the National Accounts is no good reason to favour funding infrastructure spending in that way. They are not focused on heavy drinkers and charge very different rates of tax on the same alcohol content depending on the form in which it is consumed. Implementing such a tax successfully may be much harder than for traditional excise duties because diets are complicated and multifaceted.
ICAEW is a world-leading professional membership organisation that promotes, develops and supports over 146,000 chartered accountants worldwide. As leaders in accountancy, finance and business ICAEW members have the knowledge, skills and commitment to maintain the highest professional standards and integrity. A series of pre-emptive cuts means that introducing UC will in the long run reduce the generosity of the benefit system – including to working families, in a reversal of the original intention. On average, working single parents will effectively keep 8% less of their earnings under UC than under the system it is replacing, because of the way UC is withdrawn as their earnings rise (a disincentive to work made significantly greater by the July Budget cuts).
This has the implication that UC will likely focus support more on those with long-term (rather than just temporary) low incomes, but it also weakens the incentive for some to save.
Expanding job search conditions to more people and removing the need to start new benefit claims when moving into work could act to increase employment and earnings. We are also grateful to the Economic and Social Research Council for funding much of the day-to-day research at IFS that underpins the analysis in this report. ICAEW is a world leading professional membership organisation that promotes, develops and supports over 146,000 chartered accountants worldwide. Particular emphasis will be placed upon the work of young researchers working at the research frontier.
These summaries will be handed off to a team of editors and journalists adept at writing for the public. This research suggests that much of the potential harm could be avoided if farmers can switch their crops in response to changing relative yields. This means that for near random reasons, those areas have more competition in healthcare – which has allowed Nicholas Bloom and John Van Reenen to assess its impact on management quality and clinical performance.
A new joint paper by researchers at the IFS, the University of Stirling and the Centre for Constitutional Change, funded by the Nuffield Foundation looks at these issues.
But if the Barnett Formula were reformed, a more comprehensive assessment of the UK’s system of devolved government finance than the Smith Commission was tasked with would be needed.
Reform of Barnett may remove some of the conflicts between the Smith Commission’s principles that we have identified. This was driven by increases in pension wealth, which on average more than offset the declines in housing wealth resulting from falling house prices. They used detailed data covering the whole of Great Britain from the Wealth and Assets Survey. After stripping out changes in how future pension income is valued, mean pension wealth increased in real terms (i.e. Few households hold the relatively risky financial assets that saw volatile returns over this period.
The exception is households aged 25–34, among whom average property wealth increased as some moved into home ownership.
One third expected their largest source of income to be the state pension, while 8% expected it to be saving or investments, 6% their primary housing and 5% an inheritance.
However, 28% of individuals expect an inheritance to provide them with some retirement resources. The authors are very grateful to the IFS Retirement Savings Consortium and the Economic and Social Research Council for funding this research. The Wealth and Assets Survey (WAS) is a longitudinal survey of the household population in Great Britain.
Most of those renting their home from councils or housing associations have low incomes and hence receive housing benefit to cover all or part of their rent.
Given that previous policy was to raise rents by CPI inflation + 1% each year, this means that social rents are expected to be 12% lower than they would otherwise have been by 2019–20. Low-income tenants are the most likely to be on housing benefit, while better-off households are less likely to be in social housing at all. With lower rents, tenants will have less means-tested housing benefit to lose if they move into work or increase their earnings.
The Office for Budget Responsibility assumes that 14,000 fewer social sector properties will be built between now and 2020–21 as a result.
The effects on tenants’ disposable incomes and work incentives, and on revenue for housing associations and the exchequer (which will require councils to hand it the extra rental income), are sensitive to these choices. Work incentives would still be weakened on average, and this might be more complex to administer, but it would avoid the extreme disincentive effects associated with a cliff edge. Co-funding from the ESRC-funded Centre for the Microeconomic Analysis of Public Policy at IFS is also very gratefully acknowledged. Just 30 years ago pensioners were are at least three times as likely to be poor as non-pensioners. At some point it will prove to be prohibitively expensive; the OBR estimates that it will add well over one per cent of national income to pension spending by the middle of this century relative to the cost of earnings indexation. The inaugural lecture will take place at 18.30 on Tuesday 20 October 2015 at JP Morgan Chase, 60 Victoria Embankment, Blackfriars, London. Improvements in primary schools played a major role in explaining later improvements in secondary schools. To check this the researchers follow a group of children born around the year 2000 from preschool to age 11.
This explains a lot of the higher performance of poorer children in London compared with those outside London but it does not explain why disadvantaged Londoners have improved their performance so much.
In 1997, about 47% of poorer pupils in both inner London and the rest of England achieved the expected level in English tests at age 11.
Indeed, they were less school-ready on some measures, but this is mainly because of their more diverse ethnic background and because many do not speak English as a first language. However, most of the advantage remains unexplained, again pointing to the important role played by London’s primary schools.
However, all the children we consider are on means-tested benefits and this tends to lead to similar living standards across the country.
This project is part of the Social Policy in a Cold Climate programme of work which is funded by Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the Nuffield Foundation and Trust for London through the Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion (CASE), LSE.
This is particularly true for women, who experienced much lower earnings than previous cohorts. The administrative data gives a much more accurate picture than existing surveys which tend to be based on much smaller samples self-reporting their earnings and are subject to biases.
The study puts the male–female annual earnings gap 10 years after graduation at around 23%, whereas the Labour Force Survey suggests it is around 33%.
For example, female graduates in their late 20s saw their real earnings decline just as, in normal times, they would have expected rapid earnings growth as they gained experience. The research team used administrative data from both the Student Loan Company (SLC) and Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) to observe how the earnings of students who take out a loan from the SLC change through the years as they mature in the labour market. The researchers note that they can only identify graduates who have borrowed money from the Student Loan Company. The researchers were granted access to records in a secure HMRC data enclave after all identifying material in the data had been anonymised. But most individuals experience considerable change over their lifetimes: for example those not in paid work in one year are often in work in another year.
Since in-work benefits do this without worsening work incentives by nearly so much, policymakers might want to put greater weight on in-work than out-of-work support.
The study was funded by the Nuffield Foundation and co-funded by the European Research Council.


Washington County Courthouse 1 South Main Street Suite 2002 Washington, PA 15301 Primary Phone: 724-228-6823 Judge Katherine B. We have redesigned the website to include more content as well as enhancing its design and organization to make it more user friendly. The Juror Portal is dedicated to assisting individuals who are serving the Court of Common Pleas of Washington County as a Juror.
I thank you for your interest in the Court of Common Pleas of Washington County, Pennsylvania. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law.
On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national.
A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP.
Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
Some of these differences are readily explained by other features of the schools, but many are not. A national funding formula would eradicate such differences and would therefore lead to substantial changes in spending per pupil within individual local authorities. It funds research and innovation in education and social policy and also works to build capacity in education, science and social science research. The data set includes cohorts of graduates who started university in the period 1998–2011 and whose earnings (or lack of earnings) are then observed over a number of tax years. First, Scotland will only be allowed to borrow to cover forecast falls in its revenues when Scottish GDP growth is less than 1% and at least 1 percentage point lower than UK growth – this could be constraining, as Scottish revenues may be temporarily depressed even if these conditions do not hold.
The Scottish budget will be protected from the effects of UK-wide economic downturns and the Scottish Government will have some powers to borrow during short-term shocks that hit Scotland disproportionately.
Ultra-low inflation has also been key, boosting the value of workers’ pay and of benefits. And that in itself is driven almost entirely by rising poverty among families with at least 3 children, who are hit relatively hard by benefit cuts. But the prospects are not so good for others, including large families with low incomes, who will bear the brunt of planned benefit cuts”. It follows official statistics in defining the absolute poverty line as 60% of inflation-adjusted 2010–11 median income and the relative poverty line as 60% of contemporaneous median income. In addition apparently small differences in fees and charges can outweigh the effects of different tax treatments.
He also has some big promised tax cuts to finance, faces considerable uncertainty over key tax revenues, and may yet find the spending squeeze hard to maintain, even though it is less severe than previously expected. The faster debt falls, the more room for manoeuvre future governments might have in the face of another recession. Even if the Chancellor gets to the March 2019 Budget with his plans intact, past errors in official forecasts suggest that there would be more than a one-in-four chance that he would need to implement in-year tax rises or spending cuts to deliver a budget surplus in 2019–20.
The biggest question facing Mr Osborne is how he will respond if forecasts change and he needs greater tax rises or spending cuts to make the books balance. Last week’s Bank of England inflation report downgraded forecast average earnings by more than 1% just since November.
Other things equal, delivering them will require equivalent tax rises or spending cuts elsewhere. Similarly, current policy implies a 50% increase in the numbers losing some or all of their child benefit within five years, as the point at which this happens stays fixed in cash terms.
However, significant tightening of fiscal policy and problems in the international environment will continue to hold growth back, even though UK exporters’ focus on other advanced economies will offer some insulation from problems in emerging economies. With public spending reaching historically low levels relative to national income, promises on tax cuts to keep and pay for, and pressure on revenues from a number of taxes, there may be more tough decisions to come.
Getting the best outcomes for the public finances in challenging times, means being supported by modern financial management as well as having the full economic picture. PFI and PF2 should be brought on balance sheet to avoid decisions being driven by accounting rules.
They provide qualifications and professional development, share their knowledge, insight and technical expertise, and protect the quality and integrity of the accountancy and finance profession.
Together they contribute to the success of individuals, organisations, communities and economies around the world. But it will still do a lot to help make work pay for many of those who currently face the most severe disincentives. The analysis focuses on the long run impact of introducing UC: transitional measures mean that existing claimants will not see their entitlements cut at the point when they are moved onto UC.
The 800,000 working individuals who would currently keep less than 20p of an additional pound earned (of whom 600,000 would keep less than 10p) would all keep at least 23p if the long run UC system applied now. Early evidence suggests UC has had a positive impact on employment among the small group already affected, but it is not possible to draw firm conclusions from this about its impact when fully in place.
They provide qualifications and professional development and share their knowledge, insight and technical expertise, and protect the quality and integrity of the accountancy and finance profession. The final results will be distributed through the website, social media accounts and dedicated distribution email lists. The Smith Commission parked these issues to one side by committing to the current Barnett Formula.
However, younger cohorts are on course to have less wealth at each point in life than earlier generations did at the same age – unless the rate at which they are accumulating wealth picks up. The IFS Retirement Savings Consortium comprises Age UK, Department for Work and Pensions, Financial Conduct Authority, HM Treasury, Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, Investment Association, Just Retirement, and Money Advice Service. The data are collected by the Office for National Statistics, and the survey is funded by Office for National Statistics, Department for Work and Pensions, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, HM Revenue and Customs, Department for Communities and Local Government, Scottish Government and Financial Services Authority. Entitlement to housing benefit will typically be reduced pound-for-pound as their rent falls. But lower rents also increase the financial incentive to seek access to social housing, and for existing tenants to remain there rather than, for example, exercising the Right to Buy their home. Choosing how gradually to increase rents involves delicate trade-offs over revenue, incentives and targeting of support. Future state pensions will be less generous on average, there has been an extraordinary fall in rates of home ownership, and, in the private sector, a collapse in membership of defined benefit occupational pension schemes. Those now in their 20s, 30s and 40s may well end up with lower incomes in retirement than their parents. This shows that disadvantaged pupils in London are not ahead at age 5, but instead make faster progress once they get to school compared to their peers outside the capital. Instead, most of the improvements reflect gradual increases in the quality of schools stretching back to the mid-1990s. By 2008, poorer pupils in inner London became 7 percentage points more likely to achieve this standard (75% for inner London compared with 68% for the rest of England). This advantage for graduates was maintained through the recent recession, although all groups saw significant falls in their earnings during this period.
The team compared the administrative data set with the UK Labour Force Survey and other survey data on graduates.
New analysis, published by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) today, shows that extending the period of analysis from a single year to an entire lifetime increases the percentage who pay more in taxes than they receive in social security to 93%. The Law Enforcement Portal contains content to aid our law enforcement community in the commission of their duties of protecting the public.
This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000.
More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama.
He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr.
Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. This is one of the main findings from a new report written by IFS researchers and funded by the Nuffield Foundation on long-run changes to school spending in England since the late 1970s. That is why the government is currently consulting on radical plans for the gradual introduction of a national school funding formula in England from 2017–18 onwards.
It would also imply a loss of discretion for local authorities to respond to particular local circumstances.
The Nuffield Foundation has funded this project, but the views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Foundation. However, the figures calculated in the report differ from official statistics as they use the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) to adjust the absolute poverty line over time rather than the Retail Prices Index (RPI) used by official statistics. Meanwhile pension auto-enrolment arrangements, which compel matching contributions from employers, will make saving through pensions auto-enrolment much more attractive than almost any other option with the same underlying return. A more broad-based sugar tax is an alternative but its effect on consumption of other nutrients, and hence overall diet, is uncertain.
Moving towards monthly benefit payments to one member of the household and removing direct payments to landlords may be riskier.
In particular, the act’s restrictions on hidden credit card fees were found to reduce borrowing costs (especially for consumers with low credit scores) without increasing interest charges and other fees and without reducing access to credit.
Today’s report does not assess the extent to which people will respond to these incentives. Younger generations are also likely bearing some of the cost of these generous occupational pension schemes from which they themselves will never benefit. The Treasury’s current consultation on tax creates even more uncertainty, but at least gives an opportunity to rationalise the system and put it on a long-term sustainable basis.
This points to a very important role for improved performance by primary schools in London. There are therefore some graduates for whom there is no data but we have reason to believe that they are likely to be higher earning graduates, on average.
Lastly, the Research Portal contains content related to those individuals researching Court related Recording office records which date back to the 1700’s.
Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register.
Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization.
Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G.
Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982. This would replace the 152 different funding formulae used by local authorities with one single, simple formula applying across all state-funded schools in England. This is because the RPI is known to significantly and systematically overstate inflation, meaning that using it to adjust incomes over time would understate growth in real incomes.
If it wants to tackle harmful drinking, it would be better to sort out these anomalies in duty rates and to reverse the long-term trend to lower duties on spirits, which are disproportionately consumed by heavy drinkers. Careful, evidence-based design and a clear understanding of its role alongside other initiatives are needed before any such policy is rolled out. ICAEW is a founder member of Chartered Accountants Worldwide and the Global Accounting Alliance. The field work for the first wave covered 2006-08 and interviewed 71,268 individuals in 30,595 households. Its starting point ought to be that providing people with tax relief for pension saving when contributions are made, and charging tax (including National Insurance) on withdrawal, is the efficient, neutral basis for personal taxation.
This is then built on in London’s secondary schools so that children leave with strong GCSE results compared to other poor children outside of London. As a result, if anything, the administrative data is likely to underestimate graduates’ earnings. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education.
The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v.
Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. As a result, schools in similar circumstances would, for the first time, receive similar levels of funding. The table below shows the absolute and relative poverty lines in 2015–16 used in the report. Although we cannot detail the precise effects of this reform as the government has not yet proposed an exact formula, our report published today seeks to set these reforms in a proper historical context. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come.



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