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This argument was made most vigorously by the late Columbia University political scientist Kenneth Waltz in the book The Spread of Nuclear Weapons, which also contained a rebuttal by proliferation opponent and Stanford professor Scott Sagan. One of the most eloquent exponents of this view currently is Indiana University political scientist Sumit Ganguly, who made the case that proliferation produced peace in South Asia in his book Fearful Symmetry: India-Pakistan Crises in the Shadow of Nuclear Weapons, coauthored with University of Maryland - Baltimore County's Devin Hagerty. Dylan Matthews In your view, what has the effect of nuclear proliferation been in India and Pakistan, in terms of regional stability and war? Sumit Ganguly In South Asia it has, for all practical purposes, done away with the prospect of full scale war. Dylan Matthews Other experts have suggested that while regular war may have become less likely, irregular exchanges involving militias and other non-state actors have become more common, and crises between India and Pakistan occur with more regularity. Sumit Ganguly That is an argument that has been made quite forcefully by one of my coauthors and friends, Paul Kapur, who argues this has emboldened Pakistan particularly to use non state actors, recognizing that if India responds with conventional forces, they can always raise the prospect of nuclear war. I think, while that argument has a certain intuitive appeal, it is false, because Pakistan had long relied on non-state actors well before the advent of nuclearization.
His perspective, while intriguing and intuitively appealing, is actually quite flawed, because it overlooks the past history that had existed long before the advent of nuclearization. Dylan Matthews How seriously do you take the critique, often associated with Stanford's Scott Sagan, that breakdowns in the command and control system mean that deterrence works less well, since Pakistan and India don't behave like unitary actors and there's potential for the system to break down at some point in the bureaucracy? Sumit Ganguly I don't take that critique particularly seriously because that overlooks the fact that the Pakistani military views nuclear weapons as their crown jewels.
What I do find somewhat somewhat persuasive is the increasing tendency of the Pakistani military to devolve control of nuclear weapons to local commanders as they keep investing in tactical nuclear weapons. A sign in Eureka, North Carolina commemorating a 1961 nuclear weapons accident in nearby Goldsboro.
Dylan Matthews The US had a lot of near-misses where nuclear weapons came very, very close to accidentally detonating. Sumit Ganguly There's a danger is extrapolating from the American and Soviet experiences to South Asia.
In South Asia, where you have relatively small arsenals, eventually, if India and Pakistan could agree on some form of finite deterrence, then this kind of tight coupling that existed amongst the array of nuclear weapons the US and Soviet Union possessed and intensely focused on each other, that kind of situation is not likely to obtain.
The danger is that the Indians and Pakistanis will start emulating the Soviets and United States and build this panoply of nuclear weapons, and have an extensive command and control system where the likelihood of this kind of accidental launch becomes much greater.
But there are signs that both India and Pakistan are moving away from these fairly simple postures, which are not on hair-trigger alert. That's a markedly different situation, and unfortunately India is moving increasingly toward a triad, with nuclear-capable bombers, with ground-based missiles, and with a submarine fleet. This is a useful fiction that the Pakistani security establishment has sought to propagate, and the US has gone along with this fiction because we basically overlooked Pakistan's headlong, clandestine pursuit of nuclear weapons during the period we were involved in Afghanistan, because we needed them so badly during the invasion and occupation of Afghanistan. We were complicit in many ways in Pakistan's nuclear weapons program because we chose not to crack down on their clandestine activities. Dylan Matthews The late political scientist Kenneth Waltz once argued very explicitly that it would be good for the world if Iran got nuclear weapons.
Sumit Ganguly I think the regimes are downright repugnant, particularly the one in North Korea.
Quite frankly, repugnant and repulsive and loathsome and squalid as the North Korean regime is, they have genuine enemies. Iranian president Hassan Rouhani, who has shown more willingness to compromise on nuclear weapons than his predecessor, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Dylan Matthews It's not about the regime, it's about how heavily you weight the importance of preventing a war with another nuclear power. Dylan Matthews So is the Geneva round of negotiations to prevent Iran from weaponizing fruitless? Of course, it's not helped by periodic statements by people both with political authority in this country and also people in the think tank community who present these apocalyptic visions of a nuclear armed Iran, and cases for why we should go to war with Iran. Dylan Matthews US policymakers often make a point of leaving military action "on the table," suggesting that a strike would be, if not the best option, then at least preferable to Iran getting the bomb.
This is something that in American political discourse is difficult to say, as it suggests a lack of regard or sympathy for Israel, but the Iranians would think multiple times before contemplating an attack using nuclear weapons on Israel. It's a fairly squalid regime as authoritarian regimes go, their domestic arrangements are nothing I'd find exemplary, and our dependence on their oil have been significantly reduced by discoveries of shale and by fracking in the United States. Dylan Matthews One counterargument I could imagine is that Iran already, despite not having nuclear weapons, feels free to back Hezbollah and other anti-Israel groups. Sumit Ganguly That's the same argument made in the Pakistani case, but I doubt you could show empirically that Pakistan has become more aggressive in terms of its use of asymmetric warfare and irregular forces as a consequence of nuclearization.
At least 85% of the world population have serological evidence of having had a herpes simplex infection. Herpes simplex infections can be primary- the first infection in a previously seronegative patient – or recurrent.
Follows direct contact with an infected individual, either with active disease or shedding viral particles during a latent phase.
Trigger factors include minor trauma, febrile illnesses, ultraviolet light and possibly stress.
Complications include: Erythema multiforme (65% of attacks are triggered by a herpes simplex recurrence within the preceding two weeks), eczema herpeticum, persistent ulceration in the immunocompromised and keratoconjuctivitis. These are transmitted sexually, and begin to appear at puberty or are spread from a mother’s genital tract infection to a newborn child.
The median recurrence rate is about one attack every 3 months for HSV-2 infections (and far less often for genital HSV-1 infections).
Prevention is difficult because the virus is ubiquitous and spread by people with no obvious active infection. Those looking after patients with atopic eczema should stay away if they have cold sores because eczema herpeticum is so serious. Suppressive long-term antiviral therapy may be needed for particularly frequent or severe relapses.
The decision to use oral antiviral therapy for recurrent facial herpes simplex depends on the frequency and severity of relapses and the damage being done to the quality of life. Long-term suppressive therapy can be considered in genital herpes relapsing more than 5 times per year. Genital herpes is an extremely common sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). A person infected with genital herpes can transmit the virus when there are no signs present.
Before an infected person suffers an outbreak of herpes, they may experience prodrome (warning signs). Although there is no cure for genital herpes, you can reduce the spread of this virus with anti-viral therapy. Anyone infected with the herpes simplex virus will carry it in their body during their entire life. Please note: We understand that outbreaks are a very sensitive subject and we will protect your privacy.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the two types of herpes simplex viruses; it may also be called HSV-1.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually transmitted through touching the oral secretions on the skin. Although mouth sores are very common in children, it can affect adults as well in any time of the year. Pain on the affected site and in the case of oral sores, there is pain around the mouth and on the lips even before the first sore appears. Sores appear almost after you feel pain on your lips and on the surrounding areas of the mouth. There is an undeniable feeling of weakness and restlessness as you worry about your illness. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is diagnosed by careful assessment of the signs of symptoms presented by the patient. Antiviral medications like acyclovir and valacyclovir are the most commonly prescribed medications to treat the symptoms of herpes.
Symptoms like fever and pain may be controlled by taking pain relief medications and by practicing home treatment measures like using cold compresses and tepid sponge baths. Bed rest and temporary cessation of work or school is recommended for people who are infected with HSV-1, this will help the body recover faster and to allow the immune system to fight the virus as well. The best way to prevent the spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 is to practice cleanliness and personal hygiene.
If you don’t have any rash, but have a sharp pain in your eye, massive headache, shaking or fitting and or a strange overpowering smell that only you can smell, get to a doctor and ask about viral encephalitus linked to herpes simplex virus. So I was told by a doctor that it was herpes but it appeared on my cheek for the first time.
I left a detailed comment of my experience (over 30 years) with HSV-1 which apparently did not survive the Comment Police because it offers a remedy not in harmony with the article. Carmex lip balm soothes the pain (naturally), prevents the spread on the affected person, hastens healing, and in my lengthy experience is an unsurpassed way to control the affliction. The moderator that denied my comment should be removed… And I will tell you this, I will not waste my time adding informed comments in the future as a result, nor will I ever participate in medical followups of any kind going forward.
Your comment was nor deleted or declined, the comment queue has simply not been moderated in a while. I have just been examined by a doctor because I had a sore in my genital area with the same symptoms that this article presented.
Though more common near the lips, grouped blisters (vesicles) can occur anywhere in herpes infections.
The first eruption of skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes.
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Herpes simplex infection of the mouth and face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent skin condition associated with infection by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV infections occur in people of all races, of all ages, and of both sexes.Increasing age is associated with increased likelihood of infection.
The most common locations for HSV-1 infections include: Lips Mouth (including gums, tongue, roof of mouth, and inside the cheeks) Nose Chin Cheeks Shortly after exposure to the virus, a newly infected person may develop fluid-filled blisters, occurring singly or in a cluster of several blisters. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen may help reduce fever, muscle aches, and pain caused by cold sores. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA.
Nukes are hugely destructive weapons, proliferation is thought to increase the odds they'll be used, and it's worth working very hard to prevent them from spreading. Yes, proliferation optimists contend, nuclear weapons are horrible devices which can cause unimaginable amounts of human suffering. Toward the end of his life, Waltz even argued that it would be good for the world if Iran acquired a nuclear weapon.
Ganguly and I spoke Wednesday about the effect of nuclear weapons in South Asia and about how harmful he thought the spread of the bomb to Iran would really be.
While the Chinese might probe along the border, or try to test Indian resolve around the border, the likelihood of that escalating into major conflict is practically nonexistent. This is a strategy that a weak state has used to compensate for its lack of conventional capabilities.
Nuclearization may have emboldened Pakistan further, but it did not lead to the initiation of the strategy.
They consider these to be weapons of last resort, and jealously guard not only their own prerogatives but control over their nuclear weapons.
That I find to be a much more dangerous posture, and those tactical nuclear weapons I'm afraid, in the event of a crisis, could be used by local commanders, especially if the authority to use those weapons is devolved to local commanders.
Setting aside the question of if deterrence works, does that make you less supportive of proliferation? If you were to have finite capabilities, primarily for the purpose of deterrence, one really wouldn't have to worry too much.
So actually I'm arguing against myself, given some of the trends that are emerging in the region.
Does it matter if Pakistan and India maintain rough parity in the size of their nuclear arsenals?
If you have just a finite deterrent which is primarily designed for second strike capabilities, like a small number of nuclear weapons secure in submarines, that's a very different scenario than one where you have highly vulnerable bombers on air fields, where you have fixed ICBMs in fixed silos. The one I'm most sympathetic towards is the submarine fleet, and quite frankly that's the weakest leg at the moment. The fact that a key part of Pakistan's nuclear program distributed nuclear information to a number of unsavory regimes seems concerning, no? This is a useful myth that Pakistan has managed to propagate, and Pakistani apologists like Feroz Khan.
We have not sought a full accounting of the Pakistani regime and government's involvement in clandestine nuclear proliferation, not just in acquisition of capabilities, but their involvement in Libya, in Iran, in North Korea, and elsewhere. One is hard pressed to come up with a regime more repugnant than the one currently in North Korea. Even if we could accomplish the technical goal of disarming Iran, the political and diplomatic consequences of an attack would make Iraq look like a cakewalk.
Does that make sense, or is a world where Iran has the bomb, and the balance between them and the Gulf states and Israel is disrupted, preferable to one in which we've attacked them? Not only would they incur the wrath of the Israelis and the United States, but it would turn much of the world against it. This is not a popular view, nor are my views on proliferation, but quite frankly, I couldn't care less what happens to the Saudis. I, for one, have difficulty wrapping my head around why we need to coddle this completely squalid regime.
If there were nuclear parity between Iran and Israel, one would imagine they'd feel more at liberty to support those kinds of groups. I would argue instead that it had much more to do with Pakistan's sponsorship of these groups during the Afghan war.
I would suggest that for Iran, much of this stems from the revolutionary era, during Ayatollah Khomeini's time, when they decided to export revolution. By age 30, 50% of adults of high economic status in the US are seropositive to HSV-1, in contrast to 80% of those of lower status. The introduction of aciclovir (DNA polymeras inhibitor) was a milestone although it does not eradicate the virus. When one partner has a cold sore, they are usually a carrier of type 1 herpes simplex virus and can easily spread the virus to another by performing oral sex on them. A great number of individuals lead very normal lives without suffering any serious issues from genital herpes.
The genital herpes virus will not live on any surface that is dead such as door knobs and sinks. During this time, the person may experience certain sensations such as pain, itching or tingling. Individuals should have only one sexual partner and should choose a partner that has not been infected with herpes. Most pregnant women with the virus receive anti-viral medications and undergo a cesarean delivery.
Treatment will reduce the length of the outbreak as well as the frequency of these outbreaks. This virus is more common than its counterpart and is the culprit for oral sores or cold sores. Direct contact to an infected person through kissing or sharing personal items like eating utensils and handkerchiefs are the most common ways to spread HSV-1.
Primary infection or stage 1 is when the virus enters the body through small breaks in the skin or mucous membrane.
During the incubation period which is the time between the person is exposed to the virus to the time the first symptom appear, there is little to no sign that you have been infected. There is intense pain and itching which could affect eating, talking, speaking and drinking. This is extremely painful which may also be accompanied by high fever, sore throat, colds and cough.
Seeing your face with oral sores is also very depressing which can also lead to stress and possibly poor compliance to important preventive measures to reduce spread of the virus. A doctor or dermatologist will also make careful analysis of the appearance of your blisters and rashes to be able to accurately gauge the best treatment available for your condition. Mild symptoms are self-limiting but severe symptoms are usually treated with antiviral medications.
He will make a careful assessment of your condition and will conduct tests to determine if you are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1. Antiviral medications act by interrupting the replication of viral DNA which interferes with the reproduction of new viruses. Itching of the blisters and sores may be relieved by applying cold compress or ice on the site. Eating well and taking more fluids than usual is advised; taking more water and fluids will reduce fever and will help prevent dehydration which is also possible side effects of taking antiviral medications. Be friends and speak and talk about your immune system and if he or she wants you then they will protect themselves .
I was diagnosed with herpes simplex 2 at 17 and with stupidly giving oral and kissing and such have contracted simplex 1. This may be more severe than the more commonly recognized than secondary, or recurrent, herpes infections, which are also called cold sores or fever blisters.Either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) can cause infection.


Most people never even know they have been infected, as their immune system suppresses symptoms. Most commonly, primary herpes is seen in children with painful blisters and erosions of the gums and the skin around or lining the mouth. Orofacial HSV usually appears as small blisters or sores around the mouth, nose, genitals, and buttocks, though infections can develop almost anywhere on the skin. Up to 80% of Americans are infected with HSV-1 by the time they are 30 years old.Only 20% of people who are infected with HSV actually develop visible blisters or sores. These blisters may be yellow to gray and are fragile, so that many people never notice blisters but instead see tiny open sores (ulcers). Seek medical advice as soon as possible, especially if you are at risk for more serious complications. On occasion, however, a swab from the infected skin may be sent to the laboratory for viral culture, which takes a few days to grow. HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes, but it can also cause oral herpes. This is why the US government is currently expending so much energy to prevent Iran from acquiring weapons, and why we nearly attacked North Korea in 1994 to prevent them from getting the bomb (which they would eventually acquire a decade or so later).
The risks are so great as a consequence of the nuclearization of the subcontinent that neither side can seriously contemplate starting a war. So I would say that while nuclear weapons are hideous and horrific weapons of mass destruction, they also produce a certain salutary effect.
This is a strategy that goes back to the very creation of the Pakistan in 1947, and relied upon in 1965 and again in the 1971 war.
That does worry me, I'm afraid, and that could undermine my more optimistic view of the presence of nuclear weapons in South Asia. For example, the United States' North American Air Defense system had an extensive array of complicated radars which were tied into the nuclear weapons infrastructure, and consequently a single alert could set off a whole chain of events. He was placed under house arrest and then basically given a slap on the wrist and little else. Is it overall good when awful regimes like the ones in power in Iran and North Korea get nuclear weapons, because it reduces the odds of war with other nuclear powers? I think Iran is much more a status quo state today, despite its ties to Hezbollah, than the kind of revolutionary state it was under Khomeini. They are closely related but differ in their epidemiology, although both are spread by close personal contact. Regular use of condoms helps prevent genital herpes and a high protection factor sunscreen helps to prevent recurrent facial lesions.
When a person has oral-genital contact with someone who is infected with HSV-1, genital infection is very likely.
If a person or their partner has genital herpes, latex condoms should be used, and oral sex should never be performed.
These individuals should educate themselves about all aspects of the herpes simplex virus. That is, we do not indicate that this remedy is for herpes on the label, ensuring your privacy. Herpes simplex virus type 1 may also cause genital herpes but most cases of genital herpes are caused by HSV-2. Some however feel weak, uneasy and feverish which lasts from 2 to 12 days averaging 4 days.
Sores may appear on the lips, skin around the mouth, the gums, inside the cheeks, the tongue, throat and even along the roof of the mouth. As these blisters dry out and begin to heal, they may look like small shallow ulcerated skin with a red base. There is a noticeable greyish coat on the tonsils which are very common in teens and young adults.
These will reduce the symptoms like pain, itching and possibly promote better healing of blisters or sores.
Putting some diluted neem oil eating raw garlic and just have him or her do their holistic research. I have experienced one large blister on my lip which left a small scar but have had outbreaks on my chin.
There may also be fever, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, irritability, and a poor appetite. Furthermore, these cold sores may periodically come back in the same sites.Infections with HSV are very contagious and are spread by direct contact with the skin lesions. That means that approximately 80% of people with HSV infections have not been diagnosed and are unaware of their condition.
Blood tests may also be performed.Untreated HSV infections will go away on their own, but medications can reduce the symptoms and shorten the duration of outbreaks. Trends in HSV Types and Genital HerpesGenital herpes can be caused by either HSV-2 or HSV-1.
In the absence of nuclear weapons, it's easy to imagine the US and Soviet Union going to war in the 1950s or 60s. For a contrary view, see this interview with journalist Eric Schlosser on the risk of nuclear weapons accidents. Furthermore, how do you explain the flight of a C-30 leaving Islamabad, flying to Pyongyang , and coming back with components of ballistic missiles, without the Pakistani military knowing it? These are the very people who got us into the imbroglio in Iraq, and they are the ones now suggesting we create more enemies than the ones we presently have. They are the ones who have supported various forms of Wahhabi Islam, they are the ones who have created all manner of political problems for us in the Middle East, and I frankly fail to understand why we remain beholden to them. Oral Herpes is usually associated with fever blisters and other types of mouth infections.
Latency period or stage 2 is after the virus wreaks havoc it searches for a nerve where it can hold on to and reproduce. There may be more procedures to diagnose HSV -1 infection like staining tests and antigen and antibody studies.
Your doctor will gauge if you need to use antiviral medications since most HSV-1 infections may just self-limit or go away without any treatment at all. Antiviral medications are prescription medications and there are several medications that may interfere with their therapeutic use. Since the first time I’ve had this I get it every year at the most two time in the winter. I used to get alot of cold sores when I was little but im in my twenties now and im about to get married. Not much in years but have recently met someone who has just contracted simplex 1 and am doing some research on the difference between the two so I can better inform him. I am so upset because I have only one partner that I have been intimate with for ten years.
If HSV was introduced on other body sites, there will be painful blisters and sores in that location (finger, face, genitals) with swelling and similar systemic symptoms. There are 2 types of HSV: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). We came up with this elaborate fiction, and we lied to the world, at least the Bush administration did, and came up with all manner of cockamamie reasons to justify the invasion. We don't know the configuration thereof because of the secrecy that surrounds it, but the notion that Israel would feel any more threatened is wrong. Genital herpes does not adversely affect an infected persona€™s immune system and usually does not predispose them to other infections. Practicing a healthy life style that includes safe sex practices allows individuals to function normally. You must notify your doctor if you have other medical illness as well as taking medications for these and if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Build up your resistance to infection by eating healthy, taking vitamin supplements and making smart lifestyle choices. I carry acyclovir with me all the time but it doesn’t stop an outbreak, maybe it just addresses the severity of it. I’m just curious to know if it is possible to have type 1 hsv and get sores in the genital area rather than the oral area?
Both conditions are highly contagious and are spread by direct contact with the lesions of another infected individual such as a playmate, parent, or caretaker.
HSV-1 infections usually occur around the mouth, lips, nose, or face, while HSV-2 infections usually involve the genitals or buttocks.
In recent years, HSV-1 has become a significant cause in developed countries, including the United States.
Pakistan has done untold damage to attempts at nonproliferation and the spreading of nuclear weapons to unsavory actors. You could justify the invasion on other grounds, but certainly not on the basis of Iraq's possession of nuclear weapons. The virus becomes inactive but becomes reactivated when the body becomes compensated or the immune system is weakened. The triggers are definitely stress, lack of sleep and the increased intake of poor food choices and sugar (which I tend to hit at times of tiredness). You have to pay to actually “date” but can blog for free with any questions and there are a lot of people on there that know their stuff and are more than willing to help!
Similarly, while India and Pakistan used to fight brutal wars with some regularity, the pace and scale of conflicts declined significantly after Pakistan acquired nuclear weapons, giving itself a deterrent against already-nuclearized India. We were certainly not averse to the Saudis supporting all manner of Mujahedin in Afghanistan. This one is very painful it makes the whole right side of my face hurt and its hard to sleep with. My current outbreak is the worst it has been which are three patches about three centimetres in diameter over my eyebrows and another patch on my forehead. Because it so contagious, HSV causes a primary infection in most people who are exposed to the virus. In severe cases of HSV infection, cold sores may involve the entire lining of the mouth and both lips. The notion that Iran alone is involved in the support of irregular forces flies in the face of reality. When a person is stressed, fatigued, have hormonal imbalances and has other medical conditions, the HSV-1 may recur.
I dispence with make-up at this time and opt for no ointment, moisturiser or anything as these tend to spread the outbreak. However, only about 20% of people who are infected with HSV actually develop visible blisters or sores. These severe infections may be accompanied by fever, sore throat, foul breath, and difficulty eating.Repeat (recurrent) HSV infections are often milder than the primary infection, though they look alike. The risk of infection is highest during outbreak periods when there are visible sores and lesions. Besides there is no hiding it and I am at the age where I can explain it to those who ask or those I know and care about.
However, some people never develop the symptoms of a primary HSV infection and may mistake a recurrent infection for a primary infection. OTHERWISE, BEGIN SCROLLING DOWN FOR A TREASURE-TROVE OF RARE AND BEAUTIFUL PHOTOS OF OLD JAPAN. Keep in mind that these people that you kiss will probably get the virus but never exhibit any symptoms.
To me it’s a reminder to look after myself and realise that despite the fact I am rarely ill, my body is telling me to sleep, eat well, exersise and stop working so hard. Nevertheless, the virus remains in the body, hibernating in nerve cells.Certain triggers can cause the hibernating (latent) virus to wake up, become active, and travel back to the skin. SymptomsWhen genital herpes symptoms do appear, they are usually worse during the first outbreak than during recurring attacks.
I hope this is of help and would welcome some feedback as I have never encountered anyone who gets this on other parts of their face or to the same degree. These recurrent HSV infections may develop frequently (every few weeks), or they may never develop. Recurrent infections tend to be milder than primary infections and generally occur in the same location as the primary infection.Most people get cold sores as children, through contact with a friend or family member who is already infected with HSV. ENAMI WEARING SAMURAI ARMOR, TAKING A REST BETWEEN POSES IN HIS YOKOHAMA STUDIO, CA.1898-1900. It can be spread (transmitted) by kissing, sharing eating utensils or drinking vessels, or by using the same towel. Herpes, Pregnancy, and Newborn InfantsHerpes can pose serious risks for a pregnant woman and her baby.
The risk is greatest for mothers with a first-time infection, because the virus can be transmitted to the infant during childbirth.
ENAMI, OTHER WELL-KNOWN JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO OPERATED DURING THE MEIJI-ERA (1868-1912) ARE MENTIONED THROUGHOUT THE COMMENTS.I HOPE YOU FIND THE STORY AND DATA BOTH INTERESTING AND HELPFUL. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend using specific diagnostic tests for women in labor to determine the risk of transmission.
FOR THOSE WHO ARE HERE PRIMARILY TO LOOK AT THE IMAGES, I HOPE THAT YOU EXPERIENCE SOME ENJOYMENT IN GAZING AT A FEW OF ENAMI'S"LOST PICTURES" OF OLD JAPAN. Babies born to mothers infected with genital herpes are often treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir, which can help suppress the virus. THOSE THAT LIVE FOR DISCOVERING NEW DATA AND CONNECTING THE DOTS WILL NO DOUBT FIND SOME EYE-OPENING REVELATIONS HERE.A OF COURSE, WE ALL LOVE KIMBEI KUSAKABE AND THE REST OF THOSE ILLUSTRIOUS JAPANESE PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY WHO GOT THEIR START LONG BEFORE ENAMI OPENED HIS OWN MEIJI-ERA STUDIO. THEIR BEST WORK IS ENOUGH TO TAKE YOUR BREATH AWAY.HOWEVER, ENAMI ALSO HAD HIS FANS AND FRIENDS, BOTH AS A PERSON AND AS A PHOTOGRAPHER.
AS YOU SCROLL DOWN THESE PAGES, FOR A FEW MOMENTS YOU MAY STEP INTO ENAMI'S SHOES, AND TAKE A PEAK THROUGH HIS LENS.A LIKE SO MANY OTHERS --- SOME NOW FAMOUS, BUT MOST BEING FORGOTTEN --- ENAMI DEDICATED HIS LIFE TO CAPTURING, AS BOTH ART AND DOCUMENT,A WORLD THAT WAS QUICKLY VANISHING BEFORE HIS EYES.
Herpes viruses include human herpes virus 8 (the cause of Kaposi sarcoma) and varicella-zoster virus (also known as herpes zoster, the virus responsible for shingles and chickenpox). AS THIS SITE IS A PERSONAL HOMAGE TO ENAMI, YOU WILL FIND SOME AMATEUR ELEMENTS, AND THE OCCASIONAL PITFALL.
AT ALL TIMES, PLEASE "EAT THE MEAT, AND SPIT OUT THE BONES" WHILE DIGGING FOR VISUAL TREASURE.DISCOVERING THE OCCASIONAL GEM OF A PICTURE, OR ODD BIT OF INFORMATION, WILL HOPEFULLY MAKE THE SCROLLING WELL WORTH IT.
The word "herpes" comes from the Greek word "herpein," meaning "to creep." This refers to the unique characteristic pattern of all herpes viruses to creep along local nerve pathways to the nerve clusters at the end, where they remain in an inactive (dormant) state for variable periods of time.
The usual cause of oral herpes (herpes labialis), which are commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes, which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Until recently, the general rule was to assume that HSV-1 caused oral herpes and HSV-2 caused genital herpes. It is now clear, however, that either type of herpes virus can be found in the genital or oral areas (or other sites). In fact, HSV-1 is now responsible for more than half of all new cases of genital herpes in developed countries. The Disease ProcessHerpes is transmitted through close skin-to-skin contact. To infect people, the herpes simplex viruses (both HSV-1 and HSV-2) must get into the body through tiny injuries in the skin or through a mucous membrane, such as inside the mouth or on the genital or anal areas.
The risk for infection is highest with direct contact of blisters or sores during an outbreak.
But the infection can also develop from contact with an infected partner who does not have visible sores or other symptoms. Once the virus has contact with the mucous membranes or skin wounds, it enters the nuclei of skin tissue cells and begins to replicate. The virus is then transported from the nerve endings of the skin to clusters of nerve cells (ganglia) where it remains inactive (latent) for some period of time. The general wording seen above was fairly common to all photographic self-promotion during the Meiji-era, and actually contains less specifics than some of his studio ads which he placed in various guide books of the time. However, at some point, the virus wakes up and travels along nerve pathways to the surface the skin where it begins to multiply again. During this time, the virus can infect other people if it is passed along in body fluids or secretions. OGAWA, who was actually a year younger than Enami, was still his "elder" in terms of experience. Viral shedding may be accompanied by noticeable symptoms (outbreak) but it can also occur without causing symptoms (asymptomatic shedding). In either case, a person is infectious during periods of viral shedding. Symptoms may appear as multiple small red bumps or patches that develop blisters. Certain triggers can wake up the virus from its dormant state and cause it to become active again.
In general, recurrent episodes of herpes cause less severe symptoms than the primary outbreak. It was photographed by Enami's friendly competitor and neighbor Kozaburo Tamamura, whose studio was located at No.2 Benten Street. HSV-1 is the most prevalent form of herpes simplex virus, and infection is most likely to occur during preschool years. It would be built in 1894 just down the street on the right hand side, and appear in endless views and postcards as the most recognizable landmark of Benten Street.
Other images of Enami's studio -- both interior and exterior views -- are shown farther down on this page.A  While offering many of the same services and productions as his contemporaries, he also engaged in other activities that made him unique. Further, while no photographer did "everything", Enami worked and published in more processes and formats than any other Japanese photographer of his time.
In addition, because HSV-1 can be passed in saliva, people should also avoid sharing toothbrushes or eating utensils. Transmission of Genital Herpes Genital herpes is transmitted through sexual activity. A He was one of only a few photographers born during Japan's old Edo-Bakumatsu period, who went on to photograph right through to the Showa period of Emperor Hirohito.Enami was also one of the few to experience, and then successfully outgrow his roots as a traditional maker of the classic, large-format "Yokohama Shashin" albums.
People can get HSV-2 through genital contact or HSV-1 through mouth-to-genital contact with an infected partner.


While successfully embracing the smaller stereoview and lantern slide formats, he added to that a portfolio of Taisho-era "street photography" that maintained his own unique and artistic content.
People with active symptoms of genital herpes are at very high risk for transmitting the infection.
Unfortunately, most cases of genital herpes infections occur when the virus is shedding but producing no symptoms.
Most people either have no symptoms or do not recognize them when they appear. In the past, genital herpes was mostly caused by HSV-2, but HSV-1 genital infection is increasing.
There is also evidence that children today are less likely to get cold sores and become exposed to HSV-1 during childhood. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 1 in 6 Americans ages 14 to 49 years have genital herpes.
While HSV-2 remains the main cause of genital herpes, HSV-1 has significantly increased as a cause, most likely because of oral-genital sex. African-American women are at particularly high risk. People with compromised immune systems, such as those who have HIV, are at very high risk for genital herpes.
Enami and Kimbei Kusakabe are now the only two Japanese photographers known to have a surviving list of their commercial 2-D images. Drugs that suppress the immune system, and organ transplantation, can also weaken the immune system and increase the risk for contracting genital herpes. It is almost impossible to defend against the transmission of oral herpes, because it can be transmitted by very casual contact, including kissing. While Enami's 2-D portfolio contained a sprinkling of older, public domain images, his 3-D images and slides made from them were wholly his own.A THE 3-D CATALOG "S 26. Still, you can help reduce the risk of transmitting oral herpes by not sharing objects that touch the mouth, such as eating and drinking utensils, toothbrushes, and towels. Girls Looking at Pictures" A Maiko and two Geisha Looking at Stereoviews in Enami's Yokohama Studio.
One of over 1000 cataloged 3-D images of old Japan.A THE "CATALOG OF COLORED LANTERN SLIDES AND STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS"A  Not surprisingly, Enami matched his older Catalog of Meiji-era Prints with a separately published catalog of his classic STEREOVIEWS. It is best to refrain from any type of sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) during periods of active outbreak. However, herpes can also be transmitted when symptoms are not present (asymptomatic shedding). In the case of the 3-D Catalog, the lantern-slides were all made directly from one half of the stereoview negatives. The Cover and two sample pages of the Stereoview Catalog are shown just below in the Enami Activity List numbers (6) and (9). Although condoms may not provide 100% protection, they are proven to significantly reduce the risk of sexual disease transmission, including herpes. Natural condoms made from animal skin do NOT protect against HSV infection because herpes viruses can pass through them. Use a water-based lubricant.
Lubricants can help prevent friction during sex, which can irritate the skin and increase the risk for outbreaks. Only water-based lubricants (K-Y Jelly, Astroglide, AquaLube, and glycerin) should be used. However, it is best not to use condoms pre-lubricated with spermicides. Do not use spermicides for protection against herpes. Nonoxynol-9 can cause irritation around the genital areas, which makes it easier for herpes and other STDs to be transmitted. Use a dental dam or condom for oral sex. If you have any symptoms of oral herpes, it is best not to perform oral sex on a partner until any visible sores or blisters have healed. Limit the number of sexual partners. The more sexual partners you have, the greater your chances of becoming infected or infecting others. It is very unlikely to transmit or contract genital herpes from a toilet seat or bath towel. Studies suggest that male circumcision may help reduce the risk of HSV-2, as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infections. ENAMI'S ACTIVITIES and CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD OF JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHYA A  For the moment, based on a wide range of primary sources, it is now clear that T. However, herpes can cause significant and widespread complications in people who don't have a fully functioning immune system. The CDC recommends that all people diagnosed with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) get tested for HIV. Most people with HIV are co-infected with HSV-2 and are particularly vulnerable to its complications. HSV-2 infection increases HIV levels in the genital tract, which makes it easier for the HIV virus to be spread to sexual partners. Herpes and PregnancyPregnant women who have genital herpes due to either HSV-2 or HSV-1 have an increased risk for miscarriage, premature labor, inhibited fetal growth, or transmission of the herpes infection to the infant in the uterus or at the time of delivery.
Herpes in newborn babies (herpes neonatalis) can be a very serious condition. Fortunately, neonatal herpes is rare. Although about 25 to 30% of pregnant women have genital herpes, less than 0.1% of babies are born with neonatal herpes. The baby is at greatest risk during a vaginal delivery, especially if the mother has an asymptomatic infection that was first introduced late in the pregnancy.
The risk for transmission also increases if infants with infected mothers are born prematurely, there is invasive monitoring, or instruments are used during vaginal delivery. Transmission can occur if the amniotic membrane of an infected woman ruptures prematurely, or as the infant passes through an infected birth canal. This risk is increased if the woman is having or has recently had an active herpes outbreak in the genital area. Very rarely, the virus is transmitted across the placenta, a form of the infection known as congenital herpes. Also rarely, newborns may contract herpes during the first weeks of life from being kissed by someone with a herpes cold sore. Infants may get congenital herpes from a mother with an active herpes infection at the time of birth. Aggressive treatment with antiviral medication is required. Most infected pregnant women do not have a history of symptoms, so herpes infection is often not suspected or detected at the time of delivery. Fortunately, if a woman does have genital lesions, rapid diagnostic blood tests can quickly determine her chances of transmitting the virus to her baby during delivery. Some women with new or recurrent herpes may also be prescribed antiviral medication during pregnancy.
A woman with herpes can usually safely breastfeed her baby, as long as she does not have a lesion on her breast or nipple. Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and central nervous system, causing encephalitis and meningitis.
Herpes can also spread to internal organs, such as the liver and lungs. Infants infected with herpes are treated with acyclovir, an antiviral drug. They usually receive several weeks of intravenous acyclovir treatment, often followed by several months of oral acyclovir. It is important to treat babies quickly, before the infection spreads to the brain and other organs. Fortunately, rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with acyclovir have significantly improved survival rates and reduced complication rates. Nearly all who recover have some impairment, ranging from very mild neurological changes to paralysis. Like encephalitis, meningitis symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. Fortunately, herpes meningitis usually resolves after about a week without complications, although symptoms can recur. Herpes Eye ComplicationsOcular herpes is a recurrent infection that affects the eyes.
Ocular herpes is usually a simple infection that clears up in a few days, but in its more serious forms, and in severe cases, it can cause blindness.
It only affects the upper layer (epithelium) of the cornea and heals with scarring. Stromal Keratitis.
Iridocyclitis is another serious complication of ocular herpes, in which the iris and the area around it become inflamed.
Herpes Skin ComplicationsEczema Herpeticum A rare form of herpes infection called eczema herpeticum, also known as Kaposi varicelliform eruption, can affect people with skin disorders and those with a weakened immune system. Untreated, this condition can be extremely serious and possibly fatal. Gingivostomatiti Oral herpes can cause multiple painful ulcers on the gums and mucus membranes of the mouth, a condition called gingivostomatitis. Children with gingivostomatitis commonly develop herpetic whitlow (herpes of the fingers). Herpetic Whitlow A herpetic whitlow is an infection of the herpes virus involving the finger, often around the fingernail. In children, this is often caused by thumb sucking or finger sucking while they have a cold sore. It can also occur in adult health care workers, such as dentists, because of increased exposure to the herpes virus.
The use of latex or polyurethane gloves prevents herpes whitlow in health care workers. SymptomsHerpes symptoms vary depending on whether the outbreak is initial or recurrent. The primary outbreak is usually worse than recurrent outbreaks, with more severe and prolonged symptoms.
In fact, studies indicate that 10 to 25% of people infected with HSV-2 are unaware that they have genital herpes.
The first signs are a tingling sensation in the affected areas (genitalia, buttocks, and thighs) and groups of small red bumps that develop into blisters. The sores may sometimes itch, but itching decreases as they heal. About 40% of men and 70% of women develop other symptoms during initial outbreaks of genital herpes, such as flu-like discomfort, headache, muscle aches, and fever.
Some women may have difficulty urinating and may, occasionally, require a urinary catheter. Women may also experience vaginal discharge. Recurrent Genital Herpes Outbreak In general, recurrences are much milder than the initial outbreak. The virus sheds for a much shorter period of time (about 3 days) compared to an initial outbreak of 3 weeks.
Women may have only minor itching, and the symptoms may be even milder in men. On average, people have about four recurrences during the first year, although this varies widely. There are some differences in frequency of recurrence depending on whether HSV-2 or HSV-1 caused genital herpes.
HSV-2 genital infection is more likely to cause recurrences than HSV-1. Symptoms of Oral HerpesOral herpes (herpes labialis) is most often caused by HSV-1, but it can also be caused by HSV-2. It usually affects the lips and, in some primary attacks, the mucus membranes in the mouth.
A herpes infection may occur on the cheeks or in the nose, but facial herpes is very uncommon. Primary Oral Herpes Infection If the primary (initial) oral infection causes symptoms, they can be very painful, particularly in children.
The sores last 10 to 14 days and can be very uncomfortable. Blisters that may be preceded or accompanied by sore throat, fever, swollen glands, and painful swallowing. Recurrent Oral Herpes Infection A recurrent oral herpes infection is much milder than the primary outbreak.
It usually manifests as a single sore, commonly called a cold sore or fever blister (because it may arise during a bout of cold or flu). The sore usually shows up on the outer edge of the lips and rarely affects the gums or throat. Recurrences of genital herpes are more likely with HSV-2 infection than with HSV-1 infection. The outbreak of infection is often preceded by a prodrome, an early group of symptoms that may include itchy skin, pain, or an abnormal tingling sensation at the site of infection.
Recurrent outbreaks feature most of the same symptoms at the same sites as the primary attack, but they tend to be milder and briefer. Occasionally, the symptoms may not resemble those of the primary episode, but appear as fissures and scrapes in the skin or as general inflammation around the affected area.
They include sunlight, wind, fever, physical injury, surgery, menstruation, suppression of the immune system, and emotional stress.
Oral herpes can be triggered within about 3 days of intense dental work, particularly root canal or tooth extraction. Timing of Recurrences Recurrent outbreaks may occur at intervals of days, weeks, or years. For most people, outbreaks recur with more frequency during the first year after an initial attack.
The good news is that in most healthy people, recurring infections tend to become progressively less frequent, and less severe, over time. However, other conditions can resemble herpes, and doctors cannot base a herpes diagnosis on visual inspection alone. These tests include: Virologic tests (viral culture of the lesion) Serologic tests (blood tests that detect antibodies) The CDC recommends that both virologic and serologic tests be used for diagnosing genital herpes. People diagnosed with genital herpes should also be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases. At this time, experts do not recommend screening for HSV-1 or HSV-2 in the general population. Genital herpes can be caused by either HSV-1 or HSV-2. It is important to determine which virus is involved, as the type of herpes infection influences prognosis and treatment recommendations. Recurrences of genital herpes, and viral shedding without overt symptoms, are much less frequent with HSV-1 infection than with HSV-2. False-negative (testing negative when herpes infection is actually present) or false-positive (testing positive when herpes infection is not actually present) results can occur. Your health care provider may recommend that you have a test repeated. Virologic TestsViral culture tests are made by taking a fluid sample, or culture, from the lesions as early as possible, ideally within the first 48 hours of the outbreak. PCR tests are much faster and more accurate than viral cultures, and the CDC recommends PCR for detecting herpes in spinal fluid when diagnosing herpes encephalitis. PCR can make many copies of the virus' DNA, so that even small amounts of DNA in the sample can be detected. However, many labs now use PCR for herpes testing because it is highly accurate. An older type of virologic testing, the Tzanck smear test, uses scrapings from herpes lesions. The scrapings are stained and examined under a microscope for the presence of giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies).
The Tzanck test is not reliable for providing a conclusive diagnosis of herpes infection and is not recommended by the CDC. Serologic TestsSerologic (blood) tests can identify antibodies that are specific for either HSV-1 or HSV-2. When the herpes virus infects you, your body's immune system produces specific antibodies to fight off the infection. If a blood test detects antibodies to herpes, it is evidence that you have been infected with the virus, even if the virus is in a non-active (dormant) state. The presence of antibodies to herpes also indicates that you are a carrier of the virus and might transmit it to others. Serologic tests can be especially useful for people who do not have active symptoms, but who have other risk factors for herpes (such as other STDs, multiple sex partners, or a monogamous partner who has genital herpes). Although glycoprotein (gG) type-specific tests have been available for many years, many of the older nontype-specific tests that cannot distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 are still on the market. Canker sores frequently crop up singly or in groups on the inside of the mouth, or on or underneath the tongue. The drugs are used initially to treat a first attack of herpes, and then afterward to either treat recurrent outbreaks (episodic therapy) or reduce frequency of recurrences (suppressive therapy).
Drugs can, however, reduce the severity of symptoms, improve healing times, and prevent recurrences. If people experience very severe disease or complications, they need to be hospitalized and receive an antiviral drug intravenously.
Your health care provider will prescribe one of the three antiviral medications, which you will take for 7 to 10 days. You should begin the medication as soon as you notice any signs or symptoms of herpes, preferably during the prodrome stage that precedes the outbreak of lesions.
If taken during prodrome, episodic therapy may help prevent an outbreak from occurring or reduce its severity. Valacyclovir is taken once a day. Suppressive treatment can reduce the frequency of outbreak recurrences by 70 to 80%. It is generally recommended for people who have frequent recurrences (6 or more outbreaks per year).
Because herpes recurrences often diminish over time, you should discuss annually with your health care provider whether you should stay with drug therapy or discontinue it. While taking any suppressive therapy for genital herpes, it is still important to regularly use latex condoms and to avoid any sexual activity during recurrences. A new form of acyclovir (Sitavig) is administered orally as an adhesive tablet; it is applied to the gum region of the mouth, where it dissolves during the course of the day.
In addition, acyclovir is available in topical form, as is the related drug penciclovir (Denavir). Topical TreatmentsThese ointments or creams can help shorten healing time and duration of symptoms. However, none are truly effective at eliminating outbreaks. Penciclovir (Denavir) heals HSV-1 sores on average about half a day faster than without treatment, stops viral shedding, and reduces the duration of pain. Ideally, you should apply the cream within the first hour of symptoms, although the medication can still help if applied later. Apply the cream 5 times a day, beginning at the first sign of tingling or pain. Over-the-counter topical ointments may provide modest relief.
They include Anbesol gel, Blistex lip ointment, Campho-phenique, Herpecin-L, Viractin, and Zilactin. Some contain a topical anesthetic such as benzocaine, tetracaine, or phenol. Lip balm that contains sunblock, or sunscreen applied around the lips may help prevent sun-triggered outbreaks.
Herbs and SupplementsGenerally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need FDA approval to sell their products. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful. There have been several reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products. Always check with your provider before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements. Many herbal and dietary supplement products claim to help fight herpes infection by boosting the immune system. There has been little research on these products, and little evidence to show that they really work. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibody response to primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in young women.
Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14 - 49 years -- United States, 2005-2008. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.
Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among symptomatic and asymptomatic persons with HSV-2 infection.



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