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Signs herpes outbreak is coming

Researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison performed an investigation of the full genetic code of 31 strains of the HSV-1 virus, collected from different parts of the globe, and analyzed their genomes using genetic sequencing and intricate bioinformatics tools. Herpes simplex virus 1 is capable of triggering cold sores, manifesting as mucocutaneous lesions and keratitis within infected human hosts.
The infectivity of HSV-1 is dependent upon multiple factors, predominately the specific viral strain and the host’s immune system. Previous studies have mainly focused upon viral strains of HSV-1 from North America and Europe, with limited phylogenetic studies having been executed, using only single genes or small clusters of genes.
During the latest study, which was published in the online journal PLoS One, the researchers used more comprehensive genomic sequences from Eastern Africa, East Asia, Europe and North America to explore the evolutionary relationships between the 31 different strains of HSV-1.
The study identified six different clades, representing a group of descendents of a common ancestor. Geneticists are able to determine how organisms are genetically related by exploring alterations in the DNA sequence of their genes.
Map showing the geographic locations of the six clades of HSV-1, which traveled and diversified with their human hosts.
The group produced a world map that showed the geographical location of each of the six HSV-1 clades, relative to proposed human migration patterns. It is suggested that small populations began migrating out of Africa, heading towards the Middle East, before reaching an initial bottleneck.
However, the only strain that failed to stack up with this geographical topology pattern was KOS.


Another possible application of the researchers’ study could extend to comparing the entire genomic sequences of other related viral strains. For example, in a small strain of HSV-1, some infections can cause deadly brain infections, a condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE).
There is so much scientific literature documenting the migration of humans from africa, I don’t see the point of doing this study to confirm another time what is already known!
The research could also provide scientists more knowledge on the virulence of particular strains of HSV-1 and influenza. The virus is both highly contagious and ubiquitous, enduring within the nerve cells of the body after primary infection.
These six HSV-1 clades were placed into phylogenetic trees to describe their geographical origins. How rapidly an organism’s genome changes then enables researchers to compile a family tree to draw relationships between variants and their common ancestor.
Land migration routes are highlighted by yellow lines, whereas air and seas routes are denoted by pink lines. The KOS viral strain sorts into clade II (East Asian origin), but was actually found in North America.
The technology implemented was able to simultaneously compare different viral strains, and could be used to understand why particular variants demonstrate so much more lethality than others.
The pathology affects around 1 in half a million people every year, with the virus believed to spread from the face, along nerve axons, into the brain.


Excitingly, the researchers hint that their study methods could even help find genetic-based virulence markers for both herpes simplex and influenza. Il s'agit d'une maladie contagieuse et il en existe deux types, labial (bouche) et génital (organes sexuels).
Generally, the theory that humans originated from Africa is a widely accepted posit within the scientific community, based upon genetic studies and fossil records.
Some individuals experience repeated bouts of outbreak, after the virus reactivates and travels along axons of nerves to the skin. In fathoming why this was the case, the group suggests that it could be the result of a recent global transfer that relates to travel.
Those infected with this form of the disease often die, even when treated with intravenous antiviral drugs; survivors, meanwhile, are often left with permanent neurological damage. It is plausible the strain was derived from individuals who had traveled across the Bering Strait land bridge, around 15,000 years ago. A partir de ce moment, tout ce qui entre en contact avec la plaie est une potentielle source de transmission.



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