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Surely the fairest, most democratic way is for parties to be required to spell out to voters in advance of a local election exactly what it's council tax proposals are, and then be legally required to stick to them if they are elected.
Friends of the Shelter volunteers work hard to make the shelter a warm, inviting place to build relationships between adopters and the cats.
Despite the widespread protests that erupted last year, the rate at which people are killed by the police in the US has accelerated. It’s perhaps portentous that a poll to find Britain’s national bird had last week been decided in overwhelming favour of the robin.
Chief executive David Harker said: “First Class Futures really will bring huge benefits to the North East if it is able to realise its vision of raising £100,000. Yorkshire travel to Durham looking for their third successive North Division win after beating Derbyshire at Headingley and, last Friday, Nottinghamshire at Trent Bridge.
Kaag says the UN is also looking into recent reports of chlorine gas attacks in the country.
Although the research has been pretty clear that there are health benefits to not sitting, we are just starting to understand that standing alone may be a good alternative, said Dr. The researchers then lumped the data in with nine other studies that measured chocolate consumption and heart disease. It was his second injury of the season and he didn't appear again, but while he has been troubled only by the odd niggle this year he has been unable to regain his form.
We can do this for him and dance for him, make him well, make him strong, put him on the front, and all his team, dancer Timmy Galalingu said. The cooking zone features a cooktop with oils, seasonings, pots and pans and perhaps a sink nearby. Zielke noted that Punta Cana, Dominican Republic is becoming a big destination for weddings, as are cruises.
He also won the FIFA Club World Cup and European Super Cup two times each and the Spanish Super Cup six times. However, Rob Youhill suffered a dislocated elbow on Saturday which will sideline him for two to three weeks. Disciplined, well organised and extremely hard to break down, Newcastle have rarely looked like conceding throughout their six-game winning run, and aside from tipping over a Richard Dunne header, Tim Krul was barely tested against QPR. In return, Wijnaldum has been quick to praise McClaren’s input throughout pre-season, with the Yorkshireman’s experience of the continental game enabling him to establish a strong rapport with his club’s overseas contingent.
The actual story is one of trying to find somewhere safe to live for some poor INNOCENT young children, not whether some "concerned " residents feel slighted. An agent in the 1970s had also suggested a name change – “he said Tony Peters was too clubby” – and came up with Septimus Shildon. ECHO Elder Cottage Housing Opportunities (ECHO) units are temporary, movable, self-contained houses designed to enable older persons to live near family members or caregivers. Under normal driving conditions, 100 per cent of the engine’s torque is delivered to the front wheels so that the car runs with optimised fuel efficiency.
Professor Walton said she had heard of many cases of discrimination against junior females, but the culture was to never complain to supervisors. Mike Abbott, general group manager at The Co-operative Childcare, says: “With men under-represented in the childcare industry, we think they should be championed. The group has found, and cherishes, the 100-year-old Bishop Auckland National Union of Ralwaymen’s banner, plans a railway memorial garden near the station – “real railway seats everything,” he says – has designed LNER-style posters showing the old station in all its improbable glory. Durham City MP Roberta Blackman-Woods demanded that the city council explains how it did not have spare detectors. I’ve been lucky on the job front, mostly down to working with fantastic people and having a positive approach to life. Marquette went three-and-out on three pass plays and, on its own 26, elected to punt and rest its hopes of defending its state title on defense. The Brewers followed a Game 5 stinker in the National League Championship Series with a Game 6 clunker. China should work out a comprehensive income distribution reform package as soon as possible to promote sustainable, fairer and more balanced development of its economy and society. A home win against the same opponents and a victory away to bottom club Sunderland are Darlington's only wins in their last 14 games, having started with four wins from the first seven. He and Chris Rushworth quickly removed the home openers and it became 49 for three when replaced Arshad and struck with his fifth ball.
The game was notable for the second-half appearance of Downing, with the England international kicking off his second spell at his hometown club in an attacking central-midfield role. With the rest of the Boro squad currently on a training break in Marbella, it remains to be seen whether Downing heads straight out to Spain or remains at Rockliffe Park ahead of his new team-mates’ return next week. On Sunday, the forecast calls for a high temperature in the low 20s in Milwaukee, with blustery northeast wind gusts as high as 30 miles per hour.
Monroe mentioned Parker's return from injury next season as one of the factors that led him to choose the Bucks over offers from the New York Knicks, Los Angeles Lakers and Portland Trail Blazers. Nepal's major political parties on Tuesday agreed to reconsider the delineation of states in the wake of countrywide protests against the move in which three people have been killed. Other completed work on the Port Clarence scheme includes flood embankments to the east and west of the Wilton Engineering site.
Despite their success, Stuart says they have no intention of expanding their operation and is proud of their role in the burgeoning small-scale food and drink sector in the county. The problem for Brentford, however, is whether their soon-to-be departing manager, Mark Warburton, can motivate his team through the final throes of the campaign knowing that he will not be there to reap the rewards next season.
Council leader Councillor Bob Cook said: “Local residents and businesses had to endure the eyesore that was Billingham House for several years. While the West Nile virus is not new to Maryland, health officials warn people to take precautions when heading outside to parks or to the beach, especially areas where there might be standing water. However, even though the opportunity to return to Teesside after a two-year spell in London was a powerful attraction, Downing insists he would not have rejoined Boro if he did not believe they had a realistic chance of promotion.
Dad, Ian, is director at the family-owned Barkers Furnishing Store in Yafforth Road, Northallerton, where earlier this year Hannah, along with brothers William and Thomas, cut the turf to get a ВЈ3m expansion of the business underway.
The same night (Saturday), Darlington’s Neil Hepper also took a chance on the road when he travelled to Doncaster and faced the experienced Kevin Hooper over six rounds. The government has declared their strike illegal although GMA members continued services to their inpatients.
The opportunity to meet with many leaders in Israel face to face has impressed on me even more the significance of the vote I will cast in the US Congress.
The lifetime Falls resident had worked other jobs, but working for the schools he once attended is special, and not just because it s home. Linzi Nicolls leads the way with a sponsored Mile of Hope.  Many people turned out to do the mile either by walking, running, skipping, and someone even hula hooped it around to raise funds for Lifeline Community Action. The recently launched group is run by YMCA working with Council’s Sport and Physical Activity Team and Hartlepool College of Further Education. Highly commendable but you have to admit Britain has some of the most bone idle, pig ignorant litter louts in (wider) Europe. This is especially heartening, because it fits the theory that those people in our society who work really hard are the ones who get rewarded with a bit extra. Congressman Keith Rothfus (R-Pennsylvania), who is on his first visit to Israel, said he would share with his colleagues and constituency what he learned on the trip about the need for America to stand with Israel in her defense, the 'Post reported. With the last two months of a lost season amounting to something of a tryout for many players on the Milwaukee Brewers' roster, Khris Davis has put a solid foot forward in recent days. It is LVMH’s second-largest fashion and leather-goods brand and, according to analysts at HSBC, this sector of LVMH is doing very well indeed. A southern spokesman said Greville's death had been referred to the coroner, but police were continuing to investigate on behalf of the coroner and WorkSafe.
MISSOULA — A line of thunderstorms grinding up the Bitterroot Valley converged over Missoula on Monday evening, spawning gusts up to 74 mph that toppled century-old trees and flipped pole barns off their foundations.
Bahraini authorities have suspended the country's main opposition newspaper, accusing it of threatening national unity and relations with other states, the official news agency BNA reported late on Thursday. If your staff can attend the tables with the professionalism and service that they provide in most US restaurants it will do two things!
The (e,2e) spectrometer vacuum chamber (figure 1) is manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel, the construction being carried out by Vacuum Generators using a design of Jones, Read and Cvejanovic, full details of which may be found in T. 3mm thick mu-metal magnetic shielding is placed both internally and externally to decrease extraneous external magnetic fields to less than 5mG at the interaction region. All inputs and outputs to the spectrometer pass through the vacuum chamber via feedthroughs on the top flange. The top flange of the vacuum system is a 25mm stainless steel flange with 11 conflat CF70 flanges arranged around a central 200mm flange designed for locating a hydrogen source. Two flanges are used for the high voltage channeltron and photomultiplier tube inputs and pulse outputs. Three rotary motion feedthroughs allow the analysers and electron gun angles to be changed externally via stepper motors for both analysers and for the electron gun.
The ionisation gauge is placed at right angles to the main flange to prevent light from the thoriated iridium filament entering the vacuum system, which would increase noise on the photomultiplier tube.
The ionisation gauge feedthrough is sooted, and a loose cover is placed over the entrance in the chamber flange to prevent stray light from the ion gauge entering the vacuum system.
The target gas enters the system via a CF70 flange which has two 6mm stainless steel tubes welded into the flange. The other gas feed is connected to a hypodermic needle set at 90A° to the incident beam for measurements in other geometries. The gas jet which is not currently used in the interaction region can be used to non-locally fill the chamber with gas for background counting measurements.
The final CF70 flange is used when the photomultiplier tube is cooled, usually during baking of the system following exposure to atmosphere. The tube is cooled by passing vapour from a liquid nitrogen source through expansion coils wrapped around the photomultiplier tube housing. The electron gun is a two stage non-selected gun designed by Woolf (Ph.D thesis, University of Manchester) (see figure 3).
The gun consists of a filament, grid and anode source which is focussed using a triple aperture lens through two 1mm defining apertures in the centre of the gun. The apertures define the electron beam pencil and beam angles, and are focussed onto the interaction region using a second triple aperture lens located between the apertures and interaction region. The electron gun is shielded using advance (constantin) sheet which is grounded to the body of the gun mounting. The gun is mounted onto an x-y translation table to allow placement of the electron beam as accurately as possible to the centre of rotation of the analysers and electron gun rotation axis. The gas jet is mounted from the electron gun using a narrow support of 310 stainless steel, and the Faraday cup can be attached to this support.
The original unselected electron gun built by Woolf was completely rewired and a custom built PTFE 25 way inline wire-wrap plug and socket was placed between the 52 way vacuum electrical feedthrough and the electron gun. The wiring from the 52 way feedthrough to the inline plug is shielded colour coded 30 awg PTFE coated advance wire, and the inline plug and socket connectors are non-magnetic gold plated wire wrap pins.
The electron analysers are constructed from molybdenum and are mounted from two rotating gear plates controlled externally via the rotation feedthroughs on the top flange (see figure 2).
The input electrostatic lenses for each analyser are three element cylindrical lenses as shown in figure 4. The interaction region is focussed onto the entrance aperture of the hemispherical energy analysers with a beam angle of around zero degrees, the image of the analyser entrance aperture being larger than the size of the interaction region.
Field gradients around the input and exit apertures are corrected using standard Jost correctors.
The energy selected electrons passing through the exit apertures are finally collected by Mullard X919BL channel electron multipliers which amplify the single electron to produce a current pulse at their output.
A principle source of noise on the signal pulses arises from the turbo-molecular pump motor. The noise from the turbo pump is reduced to ~ 5mV using these techniques, and as the average pulse height from the saturated multiplier is around 20-40 mV, this allows adequate discrimination following amplification. The pre-amplifiers located external to the vacuum system are commercial 100X preamplifiers with 400pS rise-times, manufactured by Phillips Scientific. The NIM signals produced by the discriminators drive two ORTEC 437 Time to Amplitude Converter's via appropriate delay cables and an ORTEC pulse delay unit.
The main TAC output feeds an ORTEC Multichannel Analyser card located in the PC controlling the experiment, whereas the second monitor TAC drives an external MCA, allowing convenient monitoring of the coincidence signal as the experiment progresses.
The high voltage supplies to the electron multipliers are two Brandenberg 5kV supplies controlled by the main PC via serial DAC's. Principally the filter is used to reduce pickup noise from entering via the HT cable onto the multiplier output. Secondly, the filter has a slow response time for high voltage spikes, and reduces the probability of damage to the pulse electronics should the EHT supply suddenly turn on or off.
Capacitor C2 decouples the 1kW load resistor to earth for high frequency pulses from the CEM's, and the voltage appearing across this load is connected via the capacitor C3 to the input of the 6954 preamplifier. Since the input impedance of the preamplifier is 50W and the CEM is effectively an ideal constant current supply, most of the current passes through to the preamplifier. Finally, the 10M resistor prevents the output to the preamp from rising above ground when the preamp is disconnected from the circuit and is therefore a safety device for the preamplifier when initially connected. The original design placed the atomic beam nozzle and Faraday cup on the same support structure fixed to the body of the electron gun, with the atomic beam direction being in the detection plane when the perpendicular plane geometry is chosen (see figure 2). A second configuration is adopted for exclusively perpendicular plane coincidence experiments, the atomic beam nozzle being oriented at an angle of 45A° to the detection plane so that the gas effusing from the nozzle does not fill the analysers when they oppose the nozzle (see figure 6).
In this configuration the support strut for the atomic beam nozzle is terminated lower than the detection plane, as is the nozzle itself. For non-perpendicular plane measurements the Faraday cup is once mounted from the support strut and the gas effuses perpendicular to the electron beam direction. One difficulty when aligning an (e,2e) coincidence experiment lies in the focussing the incident electron beam and analysers onto the interaction region. The throughput of electron current as detected by the Faraday cup is insensitive to both position and focusing of the electron beam, since the cup opening is usually made quite large (in this case 6 - 10mm) and the bias voltage applied to the cup to prevent electrons returning to the interaction region allows all electron trajectories within this opening to be detected.
Conventionally, following maximisation of the Faraday cup current, the beam is steered and focussed onto the gas jet as detected by counts in the analysers.
This has the disadvantage that the overlap volume is maximised for both atomic and electron beam density, which tends to place the interaction volume as close as possible to the output of the atomic beam nozzle, which is almost certainly not in the centre of the detection plane. To eliminate the need for time consuming iterative techniques and the associated errors due to detection geometry, a separate method for tuning the electron gun is adopted that does not depend upon the analysers. The interaction between the target and the electron beam not only produces ionisation, but the valence states of the target also are excited with various probabilities depending upon the incident energy of the electron beam. These photons are detected by the photomultiplier tube, by placing a 450nm A± 50nm optical filter in front of the photocathode.
The interaction region is therefore defined where an aperture in front of the photocathode is focused by the lens. The plano-convex focussing glass lens is covered by a grounded fine tungsten mesh to eliminate surface charging.
The photomultiplier tube may be cooled by circulating nitrogen gas boiled off LN2 through copper coils encircling the photomultiplier tube housing.
The photomultiplier tube used in the experiment is a 9789QB EMI photomultiplier tube with a bi-alkali photocathode peaking in the blue region of the optical spectrum. As with the electron multiplier circuitry, it is important to optimise the load of the photomultiplier tube so that reflections along the feeder line to the counting electronics are minimised. The 1nF 6kV capacitors across the dynodes close to the output stage are used as charge storage pumps that quickly refurbish the surface charge on the dynodes, allowing increased counting rates. The dynode resistors are 1% tolerance metal film resistors as these are more stable with temperature. The EHT supply to the photomultiplier tube is a Brandenberg 2kV supply operating at 1500V for this tube.
The negative going output pulses from the tube measure typically 200-500mV in height, and therefore are able to directly drive an ORTEC 473A constant fraction discriminator located in one of the NIM crates.
All resistors and capacitors for the dynode chain are soldered to the photomultiplier tube base internal to the vacuum system, using standard 5-core solder. Typical pulse heights from the electron multipliers in saturation mode are 25-40mV, whereas the typical height of the photomultiplier tube pulses is of the order of 250mV. The electron multiplier pulses are obtained from the multiplier supply circuitry as explained above. The amplified pulses from the 6954 amplifiers pass along doubly shielded RG-58 cable to the input of the ORTEC 473A discriminators. The two analyser discriminators are located in separate NIM crates to increase isolation and reduce common mode pickup.
The slow rise-time positive outputs from the 473A discriminators pass to three ORTEC 441 rate-meters which allow counting and monitoring of the pulses.
The fast NIM pulses from the analyser 473A CFD's pass through appropriate delay lines to two 437 TAC's. This second multichannel analyser allows the operator to monitor the total accumulated coincidence signal during operation. The lens supplies that control the voltages impressed onto the lens elements and deflectors in the experiment were developed over a number of years, and therefore take different forms.
Three of these supplies feed the deflectors in the electron gun, the other two supply the input deflectors in the analysers. In a second 19" crate is located the gun lens high voltage supplies together with the high voltage supplies for the Faraday cup.
In a third 19" crate is located the analyser voltage supplies together with a set of serial loading supplies that control the electron multiplier EHT supplies. A further supply controls the current boost circuitry located in the filament constant current supply unit (see below). The outputs of each computer controlled supply that drives an individual lens element or deflector are connected to a 70 relay switching board.
The Digital voltmeter is in turn accessed via an IEEE-488 interface which is addressed by an 8086 slave PC which converses with the central PC which controls the experiment. The outputs from the relay board connect to the spectrometer via shielded multicore cables which take the gun voltages to the 52 way feedthrough and the analyser voltages to the two 19 way feedthroughs located on the vacuum flange.
The gun supply multicore also carries the filament supply current to the 52 way feedthrough. The Faraday cup current is measured by the Keithley Digital voltmeter when under computer control but this can also be measured by an external pico-ammeter.
In addition to the analyser electrostatic lens and deflector voltage connections, the 19 way CF70 feedthroughs are used to control signals from internal sensing opto-isolators which control the stepper motor interlocks. The stepper motors that drive the analysers and electron gun around the detection plane are five phase motors with integral 10X reduction gearboxes driving the rotary motion feedthroughs. The intelligent stepper motor drivers are addressed via a serial port located on the controlling PC bus. An additional interference problem was traced to the RS232 serial line from the controlling PC. The PC bus was found to be poorly earthed due to very little copper being used for the bus earth. This was cured by decoupling the 0V RS232 line from the main 0V line for the stepper motors, as is shown in figure 10.
The analyser stepper motor supplies have a facility for halting the motors using limit switches which are optically coupled to the internal 68000 logic circuits driving the supplies. The SD5443-3 phototransistor normally illuminated by the TEMT88PD photodiode during operation ensured a fail-safe mechanism should any of these components fail (this automatically prevent the motors from running).
Should the analysers move into a position as defined by the four criteria (a) - (d) above, a shutter located on the analyser turntables moves between the appropriate photodiode and phototransistor, shutting off the light and thereby shutting down the stepper motor current. Only motion in the opposite direction is allowed by controlling logic, allowing the analyser to move away from the point of imminent collision but no closer. The six pairs of optocouplers that prevent the analysers moving into the Faraday cup, electron gun and gas jet support are located on the mounting struts supporting the main body of the spectrometer.
Two optocouplers are located on the side of analyser 2, and two shutters are located on the sides of analyser 1 to prevent the analysers colliding with each other. Finally a ninth optocoupler is located over the electron gun counterweight which monitors when the gun is at an angle less than 65A°, where the sweep angle around the detection plane is reduced.
The current boost circuit operates from a serial driven supply card as detailed previously. The main filament drive is through six power diodes that feed the current from the constant current supply to the filament. The Darlington transistor T1 feeds additional current to the filament via three parallel 10 turn 100W trim resistors through a 1N4007 diode.
As the constant current supply acts as an infinite resistance source, the boost circuit supplies additional current only when the voltage at the anode of the feed 1N4007 exceeds the output voltage of the constant current supply.
Finally, the filament bias voltage (and hence energy of the electrons) is set to the midpoint of the filament by two 100W balancing resistors located across the terminals. In addition to the ADC buffer card, three independent isolated regulated supplies drive REF01 voltage reference sources for measurement of the positions of 10 turn potentiometers located on the analyser and electron gun rotary drive shafts.
The angular position of the electron gun and analysers is calibrated when the system is opened using visible laser diodes that define these angles to an accuracy of A±0.2A°.
Figure 13 shows an overall block diagram detailing the computer control and high speed pulse interfacing to the spectrometer. In this web page we provide detailed (e,2e) studies of electron impact ionization of noble gases including helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon from near threshold to intermediate energies, where the outgoing electrons carry equal energy from the interaction. The experiments were conducted in the perpendicular plane, where the outgoing electrons are detected orthogonal to the incident electron beam. The data show the cross sections undergo complex variations as a function of incident energy, and in particular ionization of the heaviest target is at variance to all others that have been studied here. The (e,2e) process provides the most precise experimental data for the study of the ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. By determining the momenta of the scattered and ejected electrons in a time correlated coincidence measurement, the differential ionization cross section (DCS) is derived for comparison with theoretical models. Since the scattered and ejected electrons may emerge over a wide range of different angles, experiments usually define a specific scattering geometry in which to carry out the measurements. In the present work, we have constrained the spectrometer to measure the DCS only in the perpendicular geometry, where psi = 90A°. For both electrons to emerge in this geometry it is necessary for an interaction with the target nucleus to occur, and this provides a stringent test of current ionization models. We have taken measurements with the incident electron energy E0 ranging from near the ionization threshold of the selected target, through to energies up to 80eV above the ionization potential (IP). Understanding these processes is hence important in areas ranging from the production of plasmas in stellar and planetary atmospheres, through to electron impact ionization in lasers and in nuclear reactors. In all cases results are presented for the outgoing electrons having equal energies at the analysers. The apparatus can measure the DCS from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry by moving the electron gun, gas jet and Faraday cup together around the interaction region (figure 2). The electron analysers consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens that focuses electrons from the interaction region into a hemispherical energy selector.
The data were taken over a period of several months, and the electron gun current was varied for each of the data sets so as to ensure linearity of the detection system.
The energy of the incident electron beam was determined by observing the negative ion elastic scattering resonance in helium at ~19eV, so as to determine the offset in the gun due to contact potentials.
The energies of the outgoing electrons were determined by observing inelastic scattering from the excited targets, and by considering the location of Fano resonances in the ionization continuum.
The experimental data for helium are taken from previous work carried out in Manchester re-presented here normalised to unity at the peak of the DCS to allow comparison with other noble gases.
The ground state of helium is 1S0, with an electronic configuration 1s2, and so both bound electrons occupy s-shell orbitals prior to the interaction. For helium, neon and argon targets, the bound electrons occupy either s-orbitals or p-orbitals in their ground state. It was not possible to resolve these individual channels in our experiment (due to the limited energy resolution of the spectrometer) apart from for xenon, where results were taken for production of the different ion states at incident electron energies from 10eV to 30eV above the IP. Figure 3 presents results for ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane for ten different incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the IP. As the incident electron energy increases, additional peaks are seen at angles around 90A° & 270A°. By 20eV above the IP three distinct peaks are clearly visible, the relative strength of the central peak to outer lobes decreasing monotonically as the energy increases.
The physical reasons behind these structures has been described by several models, ranging from DWBA calculations through to TDCC models. There is only one process that can produce a peak at 180A? in the perpendicular plane without interaction with the target nucleus. The peaks at around 90A° & 270A° are found to result from elastic scattering of the incident electron from the core, followed by a single binary collision between the incident electron and a bound electron.
It should be noted that although agreement between theory and experiment in the perpendicular plane has proven to be very good, the results in a coplanar geometry are not as satisfactory, particularly for non-equal outgoing electron energies. The results at the lowest energy are similar in shape to that for helium, with a single broad peak observed centred around 180A°.


As the incident energy increases, the DCS for neon shows a very different character to that for helium.
The mechanisms that produce these structures in neon must be quite different to that proposed for helium, apart from at the lowest energy where PCI is expected to dominate for all targets.
Al-Hagan and co-workers recently considered the low energy regime for both He and H2 from threshold to ~10eV above threshold, and concluded that for these targets PCI dominates at energies <2eV, which is also consistent with the observations for neon presented here. The results in figure 4 indicate that the interaction is clearly more complex, and may be due to the momentum distribution of the ionized p-electron and polarizability of the atom (which is 1.9 times greater for neon than for helium). A similar study was carried out for argon, whose outer electronic structure ([Ne]3s23p6) is similar to neon ([He]2s22p6). In the frozen-core approximation as used in many theories, the inner electrons are considered as spectators during the interaction, and so in this approximation the structure of the DCS should be similar for neon and argon. For argon, nine separate energies were chosen for study, so as to reveal the complex variation in the DCS as a function of energy. Once again the results for argon are not consistent with the simple models found successful for helium. Figure 6 shows the results for krypton, which unlike helium, argon and neon also has bound electrons occupying the 3d-shell. Once again results were taken for a lowest energy 2eV above the IP, with the data having much better statistical significance compared to those for argon at the same energy.
As the energy increases, the results for krypton show a similar trend to that for argon, with the central minimum deepening until around 10eV above the IP where a central peak starts to emerge. The similarity between argon and krypton data tends to indicate that the d-shell electrons in the heavier target are not playing a significant role in the ionization process.
As the heaviest isotopically stable noble gas target, xenon has the largest calculated size (108 pm) due to full occupation of the 4d, 5s and 5p shells.
The ionic ground states of Xe+ are sufficiently separated that it was possible to resolve ionization to individual states during the experiments, for energies up to 30eV above the IP. The data are particularly surprising since they do not follow the general trend seen for all other noble gas targets at higher energies. The minimum at 180A° is significantly deeper than for krypton under the same outgoing energy conditions, and unlike krypton this minimum then becomes shallower as the incident energy increases. These results show that the mechanism for ionization of xenon must once again be different to all other targets that have been studied. As far as we are aware this phenomenon has never been observed for any other target, and it remains to be seen why this should occur for xenon. Only three energies were selected for these experiments, due to the difficulty of obtaining good statistical data. The set of data presented here for isotopically stable noble gases shows there is a large variation in the probability of ionization in the perpendicular plane.
The perpendicular plane is particularly poignant for testing the most sophisticated electron impact ionization models, since multiple scattering must occur for electrons to emerge in this plane.
The perpendicular plane has proven to be a fertile ground to test recent theoretical models, which have found success for simple targets such as helium and molecular hydrogen. It appears that PCI plays a role at the lowest measured energy for each target, although the significance of this process reduces as the target weight increases.
The most surprising result is for the heaviest target xenon, since the relative magnitude of the central peak continues to increase as the incident energy increases, and the side lobes reduce to insignificance. It is worth noting that the resolved data for ionization to the different Xe+ states indicate there is little variation to the measured cross section due to fine structure effects.
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Nepal's four major political parties -- Nepali Congress (NC), Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML), Unified Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (UCPN-Maoist) and Madhesi Janadhikar Forum-Loktantrik (MJF-L) -- on Saturday night came up with a six-province model in the new federal set up, a key contentions issue of Nepal's constitution-making process that started in 2008 when the first Constituent Assembly was elected. He says while Waitrose already champions English wines and Marks Spencer is considering offering domestically-produced tipples, he has turned down offers to export his wines to far flung countries. The Midlands Area champion and former English title challenger in two weight divisions had too much, however, and claimed the win. A weaker yuan may counter a slump in exports, but prolonged depreciation would trigger capital flight, disturb the financial system and slash investors' confidence in the yuan. If you want to be richer, instead of lying around teaching or nursing or driving trains, do some graft and sell short for an afternoon. The soft-feel grained plastics and sensible switchgear have trickled down from the larger (and no longer available in the UK) Laguna model. In 2014, LVMH’s leather and fashion brands grew by 10 percent year-on-year and in 2015 it estimates sales will grow by another 19 percent, with a forecast of 7 percent growth in 2016 and 2017.
One of these is internally connected to a gas jet which can be set at 45A° to the incident electron beam and is used in the perpendicular plane experiments. These stainless steel feeder tubes are connected to the nozzle using grounded shielded PTFE hose.
One follows the anode, another corrects the beam direction between the apertures and a third steers the beam onto the interaction region. This shield is coated with aerodag colloidal graphite to reduce patch fields on the surface of the metal, and is made as small as possible to allow the analysers to approach the gun as close as is feasible when non-perpendicular plane geometries are selected (see figure 2). The XY translation table is mounted from the rotating yoke, to which is attached the photomultiplier tube.
This allows the gun to be dismounted from the system without the need for rewiring of the feedthrough when the need arises (filament changes, cleaning etc). The wiring between the gun and inline socket is also shielded colour coded PTFE coated advance wire facilitating spot welding to the electrostatic lens elements of the gun. The analysers are mounted onto x-z translation tables that allow them to view the interaction region accurately over the full range of angles accessible.
These lenses have a capability for energy zooming of around 10 : 1, and have a maximum entrance acceptance angle of A±3A° as defined by the entrance apertures.
This ensures that the overlap volume accepted by each analyser encompasses the interaction volume for all detection angles as the analysers move in the detection plane. These devices use an activated lead glass internal surface which has a high coefficient of secondary electron emission when a high voltage (around 3000V) is applied across the multiplier. This noise may be picked up by the channel electron multiplier and the high voltage feed to the multiplier, and is generated internally in the vacuum system. The CFD's are operated in NaI mode as this has a 2ms dead time following the initial pulse, thus reducing the possibility of false triggering due to any mismatching impedance reflections along the delay cable.
These EHT supplies are connected via VERO 200 high voltage couplings to high voltage cable connecting to the pickoff circuitry located on the high voltage feedthroughs. This allowed the analysers to roam the detection plane over a complete 360A° angular range. The configuration of the target source hypodermic when perpendicular plane measurements are conducted. The common procedure is to initially maximise the current from the gun onto the Faraday cup, then onto analyser counts as the electron beam is moved through the gas jet.
Maximising the Faraday cup current is therefore only a crude preliminary alignment of the incident electron gun beam. This therefore assumes that the analysers are initially focused onto the interaction region, and a slow iterative technique must be adopted where the analysers and electron gun are tuned so as to maximise the signal from both analysers. In this case a true differential cross section is not obtained, since the scattered and ejected electron trajectories lie in a different plane than defined in the initial experimental alignment. An EMI 9789QB reduced photocathode photomultiplier tube is installed in the vacuum system together with optical focussing and defining elements (figure 2). A group of these excited states decay back to lower valence states with the emission of visible photons at wavelengths around 450nm for both helium and argon targets. Tuning of the electron gun to PMT counts therefore guarantees that the electron gun is steered and focussed to the point at the centre of the detection plane independent of the analysers or gas beam density. This is mainly used when the vacuum system is baked at temperatures above 55A°C, since the photocathode is rapidly damaged by temperatures exceeding this. The tube is a venetian blind dynode construction, and has a reduced photocathode to decrease the noise on the output of the tube to less than 20Hz. The photomultiplier tube base was thoroughly cleaned in an ultrasound following location of these components, to displace any flux residue from the solder joints.
It is therefore necessary to amplify the channeltron pulses prior to transmission to the discriminators, whereas the photomultiplier tube pulses are sufficiently large to not require further amplification.
These pulses are amplified by Phillips Scientific 6954 100X amplifiers located external to the EHT feedthroughs connected by 10cm lengths of RG-58 cable.
These crates are further decoupled from the AC mains supply using filter circuitry on each supply line.
Internal to these rate-meters buffer 7400 TTL chips have been added to send to 32 bit counters located in the main PC via RG-58 cable. These supplies are fully floating, their mid-point voltage being equal to the lens element voltage in which the deflectors are housed. All these supplies are fully computer controlled isolated units with low output impedance to reduce noise and eliminate current loops. This relay switching unit allows either the voltage or the current on each lens element to be measured by a Keithley Digital voltmeter. This drive is further reduced internally by 10X reduction gears, resulting in a reduction ratio of 100:1. This led to the ground line of the RS232 serial line moving around with respect to the 0V stepper motor reference as drive current to the motors returned along the ground line.
The optocoupler logic circuit circuit that controls the stepper motors and avoids collisions between the analysers, the electron gun, the Faraday cup and the hypodermic support. Added to this filament supply is a computer controlled current boost circuit that can be used to increase the filament current during electron gun tuning. The additional current then returns to the 12V DC regulated supply via a second 1N4007 diode. This therefore depends upon both the current driving the filament, as well as the resistance of the filament when hot (typically 4W - 6W). This supply feeds current to the filament without changing the characteristics of the main constant current supply used while operating the spectrometer. These high stability reference sources ensure that the analyser and electron gun positions are accurately measured with time. A datalogger internal to the controlling PC establishes a cubic spline relationship between the measured angles and the corresponding ADC conversion from the potentiometers. This PC also controls the selection of the relay motherboard for measurement of the required lens element either in voltage or current mode when a request is sent from the controlling computer via an RS232 serial line.
For electrons to emerge in this geometry they must undergo multiple scattering including scattering from the nucleus of the target, and so this provides a highly sensitive test for scattering theories. In these experiments a single electron of well defined momentum impacts with a target in the interaction region, resulting in target ionization and a scattered and ejected electron which emerge after the interaction has taken place.
Our (e,2e) apparatus can access a wide range of geometries from a coplanar geometry, where the incident, scattered and ejected electrons all occupy the same plane, through to the perpendicular geometry, where the scattered and ejected electrons emerge in a plane orthogonal to the incident electron trajectory (figure 1). In this regime the probability of single ionization is a maximum, and so it is here that most ionizing collisions with electrons occur in nature. Low energy electron ionization has also been attributed to the production of DNA damage in biological tissue, and so it is important to understand these collisions at a fundamental level to describe the physics of these processes. The helium results are reproduced from previous studies carried out in Manchester, re-presented here for completeness. By choosing the analyser residual energy to pass electrons around the selector, a channel electron multiplier detects electrons of the specified energy for subsequent amplification and counting. In the perpendicular plane, only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant, where xi1, xi2 are as shown in figure 1. The orbital angular momentum of each electron is hence zero, with a momentum distribution that peaks around zero a.u. The configuration of the 10 electrons in neon is 1s22s22p6, whereas argon has 18 electrons occupying a configuration [Ne]3s23p6.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Helium.txt. Experimental results for the ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the ionization potential for this target.
This is considered to be due to the dominance of post-collisional interactions (PCI) between the outgoing electrons, which drives electrons emerging with equal energies from the interaction region asymptotically towards opposite directions. At ~50eV excess energy the three lobes have equal amplitudes, whereas at higher energies the outer lobes dominate. The DWBA theory most easily allows the different processes involved in the interaction to be switched on and off, and this has explained the origin of these lobes.
This process requires the momentum of the incident electron to be exactly matched by the momentum of the bound electron, with both electrons moving in opposite directions prior to the interaction.
In this case, since the particles have equal mass and energy, they emerge from the interaction region at a mutual angle of 90A° & 270A° as observed. It is therefore clear that further work is needed to fully describe the ionization reaction, even for a simple target like helium. The lowest energy studied was 5eV above the IP, with six measurements being taken up to 50eV above the IP as shown. Experimental results for the ionization of neon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 5eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The width for this peak in neon is ~120A°, which is broader than ~80A° for the same outgoing electron energy in helium. As the energy is raised to 10eV above the IP, the broad single peak seen at the lowest energy increases in width, and develops a flat structure at the peak. However, at higher energies the mechanisms proposed for helium ionization described above would be expected to produce similar structures in all targets that have a central ionic core. The calculated atomic radius of argon (71pm) is however significantly larger than that for helium (31pm) or neon (38pm) due to the n=3 shell being occupied. Experimental results for the ionization of argon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The lowest energy studied was 2eV above the IP, the data at this energy having poor statistics due to experimental difficulties working with argon at this energy. This minimum flattens at 10eV above the IP and rapidly evolves into a clear peak 15eV above the IP. The results further indicate that the use of a A”frozen-coreA• approximation is unlikely to be accurate in any theory attempting to emulate these data.
The physical size of krypton (88pm) is slightly larger than argon due to occupation of this shell, and due to closed occupation of the 4s and 4p shells.
Experimental results for the ionization of krypton in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. Ionization of krypton no longer shows the dominance of PCI as predicted by Wannier, since there is now a central minimum at 180A°. This central peak is not as significant in krypton compared to the side lobes, and by 30eV above the IP is once again diminishing.
It also appears that the variation in cross section as a function of energy follows a similar pattern for each of these targets.
A coincidence energy loss spectrum is shown in figure 7 to illustrate this separation at an incident electron energy 10eV above the IP for this target.
The results were taken from 2eV above the IP to 70eV above the IP for this target, so as to establish the variation in the cross section that is observed. At the lowest energy 2eV above the IP, a clear two-peak structure is observed which is similar to that observed from krypton. The results at higher energies are surprising, as the mechanism that produces the central peak with the electrons moving opposite each other is clearly dominating all other scattering processes.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon2.txt. These data indicate that fine structure in the final ion state does not play a significant role in the ionization process, since the comparison between this data and that reproduced from figure 8 shows that the shapes of the cross section for each energy are very similar. This contrasts to the coplanar geometry most often adopted, where the dominant scattering mechanism is usually a single binary scattering between electrons, resulting in a high probability that forward scattering occurs. The results presented here will hence further test these models for heavier targets, so as to elucidate the scattering mechanisms that result in the observations. Argon, krypton and xenon also all evolve a central peak as the incident electron energy increases from near threshold, which cannot be due to PCI. The side lobes observed previously in the perpendicular plane have been attributed to a binary collision between the incident electron elastically scattered into this plane and a bound electron.
It is hence likely that the results for neon, argon and krypton are also not significantly altered by these effects, even though the spectrometer was not capable of resolving their individual ion states. CK would like to thank the University of Manchester for providing a PhD scholarship while carrying out this work. The factory-inspired modern building is honest, hard-working architecture that sits in what was the industrial heart of Milwaukee. Roy Blunt, R-Mo., said it Obama is making the right move but said the president should have sought a congressional vote on this issue earlier. Overtime would be paid only after an employee had worked more than his allocated annual hours.
It put the Bears in front, to stay, at 48-46, and clearly saved the day in the win-or-go-home scenario. The winner will forfeit any prize or prize certificate not claimed within thirty 1 day of winning.
Pardew adhered to it more often than not and, overall, has done a decent enough job during his four years in charge. Scott Walker's administration could hold demonstrators at the Capitol liable for the cost of extra police or cleanup and repairs after protests, under a new policy unveiled Thursday. Brett and I were obviously on the same staff at Drake and we've developed an unbelievable bond. Of the more than two-thirds of exchange enrollees reporting dissatisfaction with their plans, paying too much was cited as the top reason. The technology also works perfectly to give a smooth and safe departure when driving away from a standstill on a steep slope, while a lock mode distributes power equally between the front and rear wheels at speeds below 25mph to optimise traction.
Then there is my husband (French billionaire Francois-Henri Pinault) also who takes me to many places. On Tuesday, the authorities repeated their earlier statement that the results would be released soon . Whether or not some breakthroughs will be achieved in this area will produce decisive influences on the country's consumption-based economic transformation, which is now in an important period of historical opportunities.
The Red, Orange and Light Green subway lines converge in Chistiye Prudy, and buses, trams and marshrutki (gypsy vans) run frequently along the neighborhood's traffic arteries. The town centre needs investment people need to be encouraged to live there not on the outskirts. 6 when Iowa City Officer Ben Hektoen noticed "an odor of ingested alcohol" coming from the vehicle,the Iowa City Press-Citizen reported.
If the issue of state restructuring will resolve the ossue, Nepal will ensure a new constitution and there will be a new president, vice president, prime minister and other major political posts, sources said. To be honest, it hasn't sunk in yet,” said Lowry who held off the challenges of overnight leaders Justin Rose and Jim Furyk, as well as Watson – all three of them Major champions – to become the first non-PGA Tour member to win the prestigious event since Martin Kaymer in 2011. Stuart says: "We don't make massive batches, the largest amount of anything will be 2,000 bottles. But if you're going to give quarterback Matthew Stafford the help he needs and a guy to take heat off of budding star defensive tackle Ndamakong Suh, the Lions did it.
Repeat offenders , guarded and supervised by Military Police should be cleaning up grot spots like this instead of sitting on their butts for hours in the nick some playing on Pool tables and Game Boys for hours on end.. Tzipi Hotovely a charg l ambassadeur d Isra l en Suisse de pr senter une demande officielle au Conseil f d ral et la municipalit de Z rich de retirer leur soutien financier la conf rence de l ONG Breaking the Silence dans la capitale. The game, which is inspired by ancient apocryphal biblical texts, tasks you as an agent of God to track down several fallen angels. In February, hundreds of children were forcibly conscripted in the northeastern town of Malakal by a government-aligned militia.
A spokeswoman for the commission says the plan limits participation in the Jonah crab fishery to fishermen who hold an American lobster permit or can prove previous participation in the crab fishery. The spectrometer is shown configured in the perpendicular plane, the electron gun being placed in the vertical position with respect to the analysers which span the horizontal detection plane.
The electron source is a heated tungsten hairpin filament heated by passing around 2A of DC current through the filament.
The saturated gain of these devices yields around 1E8 electrons in the output current pulse for a single electron which enters the input cone. This allows the analyser to roam over a complete 360 degrees of the detection plane when in this geometry (apart from the position where the analysers would clash wth each other). The analysers are then adjusted for maximum signal count and the procedure is iterated until a maximum is found. The dark noise count is also reduced when cooled, however since the reduced cathode PMT only produces dark counts of less than 20Hz at room temperature, this is not necessary during routine operations.
The 1.82M resistor was chosen to optimise the single photon counting efficiency of the tube.
It is not found that these solder connections significantly affect the ultimate vacuum pressure in the system. Isolated DC supplies to these amplifiers is obtained from a standard +15V supply, the circuit diagram being given in figure 8.
The power supply to these TTL buffers is derived from the rate-meter supplies via 7805 5V regulators located internally.
This supply boosts the current without changing the main supply, thus ensuring supply stability before and after the electron gun is tuned. Hence it is possible to accumulate a full range of DCS measurements over all scattering angles using this spectrometer. The incident electron can move from the coplanar geometry (psi = 0A°) to the perpendicular plane (psi = 90A°), the outgoing electrons being measured in the detection plane.
The shape of the DCS for a given energy and target is then of importance, for comparison with theory. This contrasts with the other noble gas targets whose levels are 1S0, but whose valence electrons occupy closed p-orbitals. By contrast, the bound electrons in both of the heavier targets also occupy d-orbitals, with a correspondingly more complex momentum distribution.


As the outgoing electron energy is lowered, the post collisional interaction time increases, resulting in an increased flux in the 180A° direction. At excess energies over 80eV above the IP the central lobe has virtually disappeared, leaving only the two outer lobes in the DCS. In this case, momentum conservation requires the outgoing electrons to move in opposite directions (180A°) in the perpendicular plane. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Neon.txt. At 15eV above the IP this flat structure has evolved into two peaks with 180A° now being a local minimum.
The static polarization of argon is eight times larger than for helium, so scattering effects due to polarization of the target are expected to be significantly larger than for neon or helium.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Argon.txt.
This central peak is visible for incident energies up to 40eV above the IP, until at the highest energy (50eV above the IP) this has once again disappeared, the side peaks having also moved outwards compared to at the lower energies. The relative magnitude of this minimum compared to the peaks around 110A° & 250A° is however larger than for higher incident energies, so there is probably a contribution to the cross section at this angle due to PCI. This central peak has virtually disappeared 40eV above the IP and there is no evidence of a peak 50eV above the IP. It might hence be expected that the cross section for the heaviest target (xenon) would follow a similar trend to that of argon and krypton.
The data are fitted to two Gaussians, showing that contamination from each ionic state is <10% when the spectrometer is set to each peak in the cross section. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon1.txt.
This indicates that PCI is once again not the dominant mechanism producing the cross section at this energy.
The relative magnitude of this peak compared to the lobes at 110A° and 250A° then increases in magnitude as the energy increases, as with krypton and argon. This result indicates that fine structure does not appear to play a significant role in electron collision processes at these energies. The marked contrast between results for helium and all other noble gas targets demand that these models carefully consider the intricacies of the interaction, since a simple extension of the basic physical ideas presented for helium cannot explain the experimental data.
For argon and krypton the relative magnitude of this peak increases with respect to the side lobes until it reaches a maximum, then decreases to become insignificant at the highest energies measured. This process has always been considered as the dominant mechanism at higher incident energies, yet the new results presented here indicate these ideas need to be revisited for this heavy target. The crisp, hard edges of the building, which takes on a tire tread-like texture, show deference to the supple shapes and sheen of the bikes that park along the open-air streets, meant to re-create the feel of annual bike rallies in places like Sturgis, S.D. That tragedy led to the country s first Disaster Management Act, followed eight months later by the establishment of the Disaster Management Centre.
Prize or prize certificates will not be mailed to the winner without the winner s prior written consent in which the winner shall agree to assume its risk of loss.
The caller told authorities that one person had made it out, but two people were still inside the residence. Tensions between Egypt and Iran heightened when the Islamic Republic named a street after Khalid Islambouli, who assassinated Egyptian President Anwar Al-Sadat in October 1981. Last week, it widened thecorridor by5 kopeks andsaid that it will continue toadd 5 kopeks tothe corridor foreach $600 million ofintervention money it spends onkeeping theruble inthe corridor. 22, 2013, the Philippines unilaterally initiated compulsory arbitration proceedings with respect to the relevant issues between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea. While both treatments relieved the hot flashes these drugs are designed to treat, in neither case did the scientists find any changes in cognition or thinking, for better or worse. Thehouse's chef serves fine grilled meat, boiled sprats, andFrench fries, among many other treats. Phelps admitted to smoking marijuana before driving his car and agreed to take a breath test and evaluation for marijuana intoxication.
At a press conference in Kathmandu on Tuesday afternoon, the political parties appealed for calm after violent protests erupted in the western region of the country against the proposed six-state federal set-up. Tel Aviv defines such goods as dual use - meaning that while they are needed for the civilian population, they could also potentially be used by militant groups in attacks. Le but de cet v nement, qui est aussi celui de ce groupe financ par des capitaux trangers, tant de diaboliser et de diffamer l arm e isra lienne.Il semble donc que le gouvernement ait finalement d cid de r pondre aux provocations. The game is striking in both its anime-style art style and its attitude, which includes God checking in on your progress by calling your guardian angel over a mobile phone. All his 12 children are to be beneficiaries, but the deciding votes will be held by his wife and one of his children. There is still no official number of dead since the fighting started, but officials estimate in the tens of thousands, while an additional 1.5 million people have been internally displaced and 500,000 have fled abroad. It has two other LNG developments on its books a 5-mtpa plant at Vladivostok that could be on line by 2018 and could expand to 10 mtpa in the 2020s; and the 10 mtpa Baltic LNG project that could be producing in 2018. The electron gun is a two stage non-energy selected gun that produces an incident electron beam current of up to 4 microamps at an incident energy from around 30eV to 300eV.
The 470k resistors bias the dynodes to achieve saturation of the current pulse at the output of the tube, hence biasing the tube for single photon counting applications. This was found to be necessary to eliminate problems associated with current loops from the 20A peak motor current feeding the common point of the logic circuitry. For the data presented here, the perpendicular plane was chosen, so only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant.
The combined coincidence energy resolution of the unselected energy electron gun and the two analysers is ~1eV.
Krypton has 36 electrons and has a ground state configuration [Ar]3d104s24p6, while xenon has 54 electrons with a ground state configuration [Kr]4d105s25p6.
This type of threshold behaviour was first predicted by Wannier and was later considered by Peterkop, Rau and others to explain results in this regime. This mechanism was considered as being the main reason for the peak at 180A° until the work of Madison and co-workers in 2009 showed the probability of this occurring was low. As the energy increases further, the peaks separate in angle, and the minimum at 180A° deepens.
This angular shift of the side lobes is consistent with PCI playing a continuing role in the interaction, since as the energy increases the effects of PCI diminish, and the electrons move away from 180A° as is observed. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Krypton.txt.
However, unlike krypton and argon whose central peak reaches a maximum and then decreases, the central peak in xenon continues to dominate the cross section as the energy rises. Further, the frozen core approximation often adopted in these models which treat all non-ionized electrons as spectators does not appear valid for the heavier targets when compared to neon, even thought the outer valence electrons have the same p-type character. Panicker submitted that it was mandatory for units with more than 10 workers and engaged in continuous processing, manufacturing, and distribution of any product to come within the ambit of the Act. The Promoter, its sponsor, or promotional partner are not responsible for the safe arrival of a prize or prize certificate. The next day, while inaugurating a road while Scioli stood at her side, she said: "We could have saved so much time if (the opposition) had realized just a little sooner" the value of the policies. Inother words, theCentral Bank is revving up tomanage acontrolled, slow-moving devaluation ofthe ruble that will soften theblow ofan external crisis andpreserve Russia's hard currency reserves: If Greece has acontrolled default, Russia will respond with acontrolled devaluation. Since then, the Philippines has obstinately pushed for the above-mentioned arbitration proceedings despite repeated objections of China. Here's an idea for MBC, start collecting the rates from those that don't pay rather than hammering the ones that do pay. Phelps then asked Hektoen if he would take a Snapchat selfie, according to the criminal complaint. A Republican rewrite without Democratic input will not inspire broad confidence that elected representatives will put the public's interest over their own or those of special interests financing their campaigns.
In addition, 16 of the 33 Senate seats are up in the November election under the new legislative districts more favorable for Republicans, meaning their party could pick up enough seats to regain the majority.
In May-June last year, a Chinese naval task force held military exercises with Cameroon and Nigeria, the first time that the Chinese navy appeared in the west coast of Africa.
The world of El Shaddai ' is mesmerizing and beautiful and an amazing place to escape for hours.
Another product is an antibiotic foam for treatment of Impetigo, an infectious disease, which is due to begin a Phase III trial after talks with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The analysers are identical, and consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens focussing the interaction region onto the entrance of a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser. The Anode deflector pair corrects for any misalignment of the filament emission point with respect to the axis of the electron gun.
They proposed a triple scattering mechanism to describe this peak, where the incident electron first scatters elastically from the nucleus so as to enter the detection plane, followed by a binary inelastic collision with a bound electron, followed by elastic scattering of one of the electrons back from the nucleus. This trend continues up to the highest energy which was possible to measure (70eV above the IP), where the central peak is seen to be broad with a width ~100A°. It is hence likely that these assumptions will need to be relaxed to accurately model the data. He alleged that the unit processes used syringes and gloves and transports them to Coimbatore to be sold to medical equipment manufacturing units without proper licence from the DFB. The decision to federate the country into six provinces with tentative demarcation of borders sparked protests in various parts of the country. It's a quiet performance yet so assured that it takes you mere seconds to learn to read his silences.
Reid Ribble, a Wisconsin Republican, and his Democratic colleague in the House, Jim Cooper of Tennessee, unveiled a pair of bills back in March that got little notice but could go a long way to making the nation's reapportionment process less partisan.
Shapcott is one of the world’s leading researchers on how to effectively market to, and teach, women the game of golf. The Chamber is lined internally with 3mm thick mu-metal, and a mu-metal cylinder encloses the chamber externally as shown. The electrons selected in angle and energy are amplified using Mullard 919BL channel electron multipliers. The defining apertures limit the pencil and beam angles of the electron beam following focussing by lens 2 onto the interaction region.
The load is set by the 50W resistor across the anode to the HT feed, the pulse being decoupled to ground via the 1nF capacitor.
This complex mechanism was found to emulate the cross section more closely compared to the single scattering process originally envisaged.
As for all measurements in this study, the DCS must be zero for the electrons emerging at the same angle (0A°, 360A°), due to post collisional interactions between outgoing electrons of equal energy. At all energies greater than 40eV above the IP, the outer peaks seen in all other targets have disappeared. Nestles is recomended only for advanced surfers.Click the photo below to view Nestles video.
On another note perhaps Mallon might reflect on the cost of investigations into his behaviour that of his ex-colleagues that cost the town a fortune under Lancet!
It is the second largest town in North Sinai and the only major population centre remaining in the restive corner of the peninsula, which borders the Gaza Strip and Israel. Three people were killed and over half a dozen injured in violence that broke out in Surkhet district in mid-western Nepal.
This reduces the magnetic field at the interaction region to less than 5mG, an acceptable level for the electron energies used in this experiment.
The interaction region defined by the interaction of the gas target beam and the electron beam is focussed onto the photocathode of an EMI 9789QB photomultiplier tube via a lens, 450nmA±50nm optical filter and defining aperture.
Placement of the apertures ensures that the beam angle is close to zero degrees at the interaction region over a wide range of energies, whereas the aperture opening reduces the pencil angle to around A±2 degrees over this energy range. Present at the conference were Prime Minister Sushil Koirala, CPN-UML chairman Jhala Nath Khanal, UCPN (Maoist) chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal and MJF-L chairman Bijayakumar Gachhadar. Chaque ann e, les Pays-Bas consacrent plusieurs millions d euros au financement, direct ou indirect, d organisations dont le seul objectif est la diabolisation d Isra l. The target gas effuses from a 0.6mm ID hypodermic needle constructed from platinum iridium alloy.
The 10MW safety resistor prevents the output charging up to a high voltage if the feed is disconnected. The deflectors between the apertures correct for space and surface charge beam variations inside the field free region, whereas the final deflectors allow the beam to be steered onto the interaction region defined by focussing a 1mm aperture in front of the photomultiplier tube onto the gas target beam. L ambassade isra lienne La Haye et le ministre des Affaires trang res doivent exiger un arr t imm diat de cette campagne subversive et diffamatoire. The electrons passing through the interaction region which are not scattered are collected in a Faraday cup opposite the electron gun. The gun, photomultiplier tube, gas hypodermic and Faraday cup all rotate on a common yoke with an axis through the centre of the horizontal detection plane, allowing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry to be accessed. P-Land is recomended for intermediate to advanced surfers.Click the photo below to view P-Lands album. Click the photo below to see The Points album.Fishing Panama, Surfer ParadiseFishing in the Gulf of Chiriqui region is regarded as a world class fishing destination.
There have been many write-ups in sport fishing magazines about the marlin, sailfish, Wahoo and tuna that have been caught in this area.We operate primarily as a surf camp. Fishing off the boats is offered at no charge as the boat captains drive around the surf breaks keeping an eye on the surfers. There is no charge for this type of fishing.We also offer an outer island trip, which requires a payment of $320 for the extra gas used by the panga boat.
We should be able to get out to the Coiba Island and Hannibal Bank area where large marlin and tunas can be caught. It has been described as the perfect wave you draw on your notebook in high school that just keeps going and going.
Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico).I called the Delta customer service rep to ask if that was a typo (mistake) and she said no. She answered Yes, that is correct.Heres a petition going around: Fight Airline Surfboard Charges Sick of paying airline surcharges for your board? The reason for the new price is because of the increase in fuel costs and other commodities that have steadily increased over the past two years.
Improvements have been in the area of another honeymoon suit, new wood decking, new tiled floors, new boat, new motors, new rental surfboards, improved port facilities. However, if you would like to lock in the old rate from 2008, then you will need to make a reservation and pay the deposit by December 31st, 2008. Ive only been here a few days, but have added the best photos that Ive taken yet to my portfolio. And, yeah, I caught my fair share of these bombs check my personal photo section to see for yourself! Im in the process of adding photos with a slow, third world internet connection, so be patient theyre on their way.This place is so beautiful, and the place Im staying is something else. These offshore breaks are heavy-duty, deep water reefs with some areas of dry-reef that need to be carefully negotiated. The vibe is so cool, and everyone is surfed out and in a good mood all day.Check the photos and book your tickets.
He escapes the cold of Washington State to visit us in the warm waters of Panama during February and March. It has taken a little time to get from physically being at home to mentally being back as well.
My heart is always surfing around the world even if responsibility is trying to get in the way. I will get some things done on the farm and then it will be back to the beach in Oregon.The attached picture was taken at Leftovers on the island of Outer Silva about 10 kilometers from Morro Negrito Surf Camp.
There are 4 breaks on the island and various snorkeling opportunities for the non-surfers or people who need a break. I mention this as on the 3rd day I was there, the waves were breaking in the 10 plus range with at least a 6 throw to the lip. It pitched me over the falls backwards and held me down for a long time in a lot of bubbles. I did not hit anything, although when I saw the magnificent Shuler epoxy surfboard that Lanny made for me to surf in Panama, was in 2 pieces. This meant that I was going to have some short-board experience for the remainder of the stay.
I gave it a try and had my board leash come off my ankle and had to swim into the rocky shore. This picture was taken 2 weeks ago, was voted the wave of the day and is a true Monday Morning Wave.The guests, cooks and staff made this a time to remember, always. I wish this experience to all of you and thank everyone who made this happen.Have a great day,BobP. As a side note, I was able to come back 1st class on both flights from Panama City, Panama to Seattle, Washington, USA. As good as the airline was the cooks at camp did it better job and their meals tasted superior. Panamanians have a strong sense of pride for their provinces, and the Foundation thought this would be an opportunity for the children to see some important parts of Chiriqui. Led by camp manager, Jeff Healion, ten children and nine parents enjoyed a two day excursion of learning, fun, and exploration set to the theme of Getting to Know my Province.A Traveling by boat and bus, the trip included visits to the mountain town of Boquete and the provincial capital, David. The first stop was Paradise Gardens, an animal sanctuary and refuge in the cool highlands of Boquete, a thriving hub of coffee production and nationally famous for its coffee and flower fair. Here, we enjoyed interactive tours of monkeys, exotic birds, endangered mammals, and an enclosed butterfly park. Most all the animals at Paradise Gardens have been rescued and are awaiting release back into the jungle.A After a picnic lunch in Boquetes main plaza, it was down to the warmer climes of David, Panamas thriving western hub of agriculture, business, and tourism.
The group visited Culturama, a historical and cultural society located in one of the oldest buildings in Chiriqui.
We learned about local history and were treated to entertaining stories by one of the areas best storytellers.A What is a field trip without a little down time, so we headed over to the theater and caught the new Disney holiday movie Enchanted followed by a stop at MacDonalds. After dinner we went to see Davids new million-dollar plaza, probably the nicest plaza in Panama, if not Central America.
Just by luck, a local philanthropic organization was presenting a Christmas performance of dance, music, and holiday dramas in the parks amphitheater. It was a lovely tropical evening and we enjoyed the festivities besides being tired from a day of busy events. Finally, we made it to a comfortable nights sleep at Hotel Toledo.A Day two began with a fun breakfast at a popular downtown cafeteria where we were treated to a private reception room. From the restaurant we walked to the Sevillana Bakery where we enjoyed a full tour of the bakerys back kitchens.
In Panama, as in much of Latin America, the bakery still plays a major role in peoples daily lives. At Sevillan, fresh bread slides out of the ovens nearly all day.A A short walk from the bakery we stopped at citys main fire station.
Here we had a full tour of the facilities and then were treated to a simulated emergency call. We watched the firemen slide down the poles, put their suits on, and then leave the firehouse.
After some fun pictures with the firehouse staff, we were on our way to our final destination.A Davids International Airport is the second largest in Panama and Aeroperlas, the regional carrier, had invited us to board one of their planes as it was being prepared for a flight. Probably not something we could have done in many countries, we all boarded the plane, visited the cockpit, and then relaxed in the cabin seats while the flight attendants answered questions from the children. Wow, what a thrill for the children.A With just a few hours left before we needed to begin our journey back to camp, we spent a few hours looking around the busy commercial district of David, bustling with holiday activity. In Latin America, so much of the activity begins out in front of the stores so just walking around the streets is fascinating.A It is hard to imagine how our trip could have been more fun, rewarding, or educational. Sure we arrived back at the island tired, but the children were still buzzing with excitement from the events and what they had experienced. If you could have seen the smiles and eyes during the two days, you would all know how rewarding it is to share with those that are less fortunate.
During the holiday time, it was especially rewarding for us to share a magical treat with the children from our island.
The old price has been $600 per week and the new price will be $650.The reason for the new price is because of the increase in fuel costs and other commodities that have steadily increased over the past two years. Improvements have been in the area of another honeymoon suit, new wood decking, new tiled floors, new boat, new motors, new rental surfboards, improved port facilities.However, if you would like to lock in the old rate from 2007, then you will need to make a reservation and pay the deposit by December 31st, 2007. The 25 ft deep V hull boat can smoothly cut through big swells and is equipped with new twin 115 hp 4 stroke motors, live bait well, GPS fish finder and an onboard stereo system. The Gulf of Chiriqui is located south of David and covers an area of 14,740 hectares plus a great number of Islands and Islets. Among them you can find Isla Coiba, Isla Cebaco, Isla Montuosa, Boca Brava, Jicaron and Isla Secas with some of the best big game sport fishing, surfing and sport-diving in Central America. Hannibal Bank and Coiba Island are both well known sport-diving and salt water sport fishing destinations Panama Central America. This creates currents that are convenient when going on an offshore fishing salt water fishing trip. The Coiba Island is now a patrolled national park and protected from commercial fishing within its boundaries.
The island was first ruled by Coiba Indians and later ruled by Vasco Nues de Balboa who at some point was defeated by pirates. Besides from sport fishing, here you will find great opportunities for adventure travel or eco tourism. You will find a great variety of monkeys, iguanas, crocodile, snakes and over 133 different species of birds for those birdwatchers. Cebaco Island is located between Santa Catalina and Mariato West Coast of the Peninsula de Azuero. This island is home to some of the most beautiful beaches with crystal clear water and scenery for sport-diving, snorkeling or guided fishing trips. The Cebaco Bay is located south of the island and it is excellent for big game fishing or angling, sport diving and surfing. Its reefs are home of Cubera Snapper, Roosterfish, Dorado, Monster Yellowfin Tuna (100 + pounds) and a variety of billfish such as sail fish Montousa Island is 10 miles off Hannibal Bank and it is also a great sport-diving spot in clear waters of Panamas Pacific Ocean.
The bottom floor also rises dramatically from approximate depths of 10,000 ft making it great for deep sea fishing in Panama.
Moreover, this island is a boutique resort we operate with which was designed for those who want private, pristine surroundings with excellent service.
With a theme of Hacia el Futuro, or Towards the Future, the trip was for many of the participants their first travel outside the province and their first visit to the capital of Panama City. Over a period of two days, the group of students and parents, led by Morro Negrito Surfguide Jeff Healion, traveled to the Miraflores Locks of the Panama Canal, the ruins of the first settlement of Panama, the Presidential Palace which included a surprise meeting with President Martin Torrijos, and the new continent-spanning Centenario Bridge.
Along the way, the group enjoyed some out-of-the-ordinary treats of pizza, ice cream, and holiday shopping at the new Albrook Mall at the site of the former US Albrook Air Base.The design of the trip was to bring the students in contact with the past, the present, and the future of their country through the ruins, the Canal, and the government buildings.
At the Canal, the group was treated to a private presentation of the Panama Canal movie and then witnessed two giant Panamax ships passing through the locks. Nothing could have been more surprising though than when Panamas President pulled up just as the group was visiting his palace. As he left for his office, he commanded his staff to give the group a special tour inside the palace.Healion reported the smiles, excitement and gratitude we saw during the trip were heartwarming reasons why we know the Foundation can do good work. If a student wishes to continue, the family must send the child to the high school on the mainland. For most families, the cost of transportation, food, housing, and school supplies is a great burden and many are unable to send their children, especially those with several children.The educational assistance program will provide families with the funds necessary for supporting their children in higher education. In 2007, another two will be eligible to continue at high school if their families so decide. With the new program we hope that money will no longer be a factor whether families send their children.The surf camp enjoys close contact with all the families that will be involved in the program and will be able to monitor the progress of the students.
We have seen many of these children grow up and it is especially rewarding to know they will have new choices and opportunities for their futures. We know their ties to the island will always be strong but we also hope that by continuing their education their new paths will show them what a truly special place their home is.
September 2006, a one thousand watt wind turbine was installed that has been doing an excellent job of supplementing the solar system with wind generated power. Previously, the solar batteries would automatically disconnect themselves due to low voltage at about midnight.
Hopefully, we can help inspire the camp visitors that come to surf camp to perhaps consider installing their own clean energy systems, wherever they may come from. There are a number of artesian springs pumping a large amount of water out of the ground, so much that it has created several water falls on the island, explains Steve.



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