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Experimental results are shown for three energies in a coplanar symmetric geometry, and for three energies in an asymmetric geometry.
Ionization of atomic and molecular targets is one of the most complex and fundamental collision processes that can be studied in detail.
To fully characterize these interactions, it is necessary to perform sophisticated measurements where an incident electron of well controlled momentum scatters and ionizes the target. In these (e,2e) experiments, information about the collision is obtained by measuring the outgoing momenta of the collision products.
For molecular targets, it is difficult to know the orientation and alignment of the molecule prior to the interaction occurring, unless this can be defined prior to the collision or can be measured following the collision.
The interaction of low to intermediate energy electrons with molecular targets has been much less studied compared with high energy electron collisions. Experiments on molecular targets often employ effusive beams produced at room temperature, and so the targets may have internal rotational and vibrational energy. Results are presented here for an H2O target at significantly lower energies than has been studied before. Figure 1.1 Representation of the 1b1 state of H2O, showing an incident electron ionizing the molecule.
The experiments described here were carried out in the fully computer controlled and computer optimized (e,2e) spectrometer that operates in Manchester.
For the coplanar symmetric experiments described here, the electron detectors were moved so that their angles with respect to the incident beam direction were equal to each other throughout measurement (see figure 1.2). For coplanar asymmetric experiments, analyzer 1 was fixed at a scattering angle thetaa = 22A°, while analyzer 2 was swept around the scattering plane. The fixed scattering angle thetaa = 22A° was chosen as this was the smallest angle that could be used without the incident electron beam from the gun striking the side of the analyzer (and so producing unacceptable levels of noise on the coincidence signal).
The energy resolution of the spectrometer is set by the resolution of the electron gun and the pass energy of the analyzers. Production of a high quality molecular beam of H2O required careful monitoring of the experiment as it progressed. The de-gassed water was then transferred to a 150mm long tubular stainless steel flask which was connected to the main vacuum system using a swagelok fitting. An AD590 sensor was secured to the aluminium block surrounding the flask, so that the temperature of the insulated assembly could be monitored and controlled. To monitor the molecular beam inside the vacuum chamber produced from the water, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was installed onto the spectrometer.
Figure 1.3 shows a typical coincidence energy spectrum obtained from the experiment during operation. The experiments were carried out over a period of several months, using electron beam currents ~200nA for all data runs. As the incident energy increases, the ratio of forward to backward scattering cross section increases, as has been seen for most atomic targets in this geometry.
The measured coplanar asymmetric data is shown in figure 4, again normalized to unity at thetab = 45A°. As the incident energy is increased to 55eV above threshold, the forward lobe splits into two clear peaks of approximately equal magnitude, as seen in figure 1.5(b). Results from the 1b1 state of water have been presented for coplanar symmetric and asymmetric energies. These results have been compared to a DWBA theory in the paper J Phys B, however the averaging used in this theory was not a good approximation, and so is not expected to yield accurate results for this state. Experimental results are presented for electron impact ionization of water in the energy regime from near threshold to intermediate energies. Results of a sophisticated model which approximates the random orientation of the target using a spherical averaging of the wave-function prior to the collision, using sophisticated distorted wave Born calculations that include post-collisional interactions in first order and to all orders of perturbation theory are also shown for comparison (see J. The calculations predict the data most accurately at the lowest energy studied (4eV above threshold) in a coplanar symmetric geometry, whereas the comparison between theory and experiment is generally poor for higher energies and for non-coplanar geometries.
Energy deposition and angular distributions resulting from electron collisions with water are used in charged particle track structure analyses to model radiation damage in biological samples.
These low energy electrons have an effect over a much wider volume than the targeted cancer site. At incident energies less than ~200eV, the collision dynamics are strongly influenced by effects including post-collision interactions, target polarization, distortions in the wave-functions for the participating electrons and multiple collisions. Current models now yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for a range of atoms, implying a good understanding of the collision dynamics under the conditions used in the experiments, and these models are now being extended to low energy (e,2e) collisions from molecules. Recent experiments studying simple diatomic targets including H2 and N2 have provided benchmark data. The apparatus at Manchester can also access non-coplanar geometries, and so has provided additional data to further test these models.
In a previous study the groups at Manchester and Missouri investigated the 1b1 (HOMO) state of H2O in coplanar kinematics.
By contrast, the 3a1 orbital of interest here is involved in the O-H bonding and has a charge density distribution distorted from that of a symmetric atomic like orbital. The experimental triple differential cross sections (TDCS) presented here were measured in the (e,2e) apparatus at the University of Manchester.
The spectrometer can be operated in a standard coplanar geometry where the momenta of all three electrons (the incident and two outgoing electrons) are within the same detection plane (psi = 0A°, figure 2.1). The power supplies for the electrostatic lenses in the electron gun and the electron analyzers are fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing for automated tuning at regular intervals, with the analyzers being re-optimized each time they move to a new angle. The energy of the spectrometer was re-calibrated at the start of each new kinematic arrangement, by measuring the coincidence binding energy spectrum.
Over the course of this study the binding energy spectra were recorded for various energies and geometries, and it is estimated that contamination from neighbouring orbitals was always less than 10%, and is more typically in the range of 0.5%. The distilled water sample used to provide the molecular target beam was contained within a 50mm diameter 100mm long stainless steel vessel sealed by a CF-70 flange to a 6.35mm swagelok fitting. The sample vessel and gas handling line were held at a constant temperature of 50A?C throughout data collection, so as to create sufficient driving pressure for the target beam.
The purity of the target beam was verified with a Spectra VacScan mass spectrometer fitted to the scattering chamber. The background pressure within the scattering chamber was set to 1.1 x 10-5 torr during operation, and was found to remain constant throughout all data runs. During these experiments we observed an unusual behaviour of the tungsten hairpin filament used as the incident electron source. To facilitate this, the current measured by the Faraday cup located on the opposite side of the interaction region to the electron gun was monitored by the computer control software, and the current through the filament adjusted to maintain a beam current of 300nA throughout data collection. In the present study we also measured the coincidence energy resolution from ionization of helium, and found this did not change, indicating that the temperature of emission remained approximately constant. The data presented in figures 3-5 were then averaged over these angular sweeps, and the uncertainties in the measurements determined from the complete set of data for each scattering angle.
The experimental data are not measured on an absolute scale and so experiment and theory are normalized to a maximum of unity at each energy, as shown in figure 2.2.
As the energy of the outgoing electrons is lowered, it would be expected that the Coulomb repulsion between the outgoing electrons should play an increasingly important role, driving the electrons apart. The best agreement between experimental data and theory is at the lowest energy, where the experimental data and MDW model are in excellent agreement for the binary peak.
A key advantage of the spectrometer in Manchester is the ability to measure data for kinematics in non-coplanar geometries. Non-coplanar measurements were hence taken here with both outgoing electrons having an energy of 10eV. As shown in figure 1, the geometry adopted in this spectrometer provides a common normalization point (xi1 = xi2 = 90A°) for all gun angles psi, which allows ALL data at a given energy to be referenced to a common point. For the current measurements, the coplanar data have been normalized to a maximum of unity, as before. The data in figure 2.3 show a clear trend indicating the binary and recoil peaks diminish in magnitude as the angle of the electron gun angle increases. The data contrasts strongly with the theoretical models for the larger gun angles y, where the theories predict significantly more structure than is seen in the data. The final kinematic configuration used symmetric geometries and 20eV excess energy as above, however in this case the data are for unequal energy sharing between the outgoing electrons. The data were only taken for coplanar and perpendicular plane geometries, so as to contrast differences in these two extremes. The key differences that can be seen in these data for the coplanar geometry are that the binary peak moves to a smaller angle as the energy asymmetry increases, as might be expected from post collisional interactions.
Agreement is mixed, and rather surprisingly gives best results at low energies, where it might be expected that the approximations are least accurate. The experimental results for both equal and non-equal energy sharing in the perpendicular plane show almost no structure, whereas the theoretical calculations predict that three clearly defined lobes should be seen. This work was supported by the University of Manchester and the US National Science Foundation under Grant. 12.A A  Naja A, Staicu-Casagrande E M, Lahmam-Bennani A, Nekkab M, Mezdari F, Joulakian B, Chuluunbaatar O and Madison D H 2007 J. In China the dominant Han dynasty had given to China a highly developed central government, a state-embraced Confucianism, and nation-wide unity (the major ethnic group in China today calls itself the Han). In Continental Europe for a host of reasons the Western Roman Empire was falling into decline and by about 400 B.C. In Mesoamerica the first highly organized civilization, the Olmec, emerged around 400-500 B.C. In Constantinople, as if he had supernatural insight, Constantine took important steps in 312-330 A.D. Some writers in the Renaissance referred to the middle ages as the a€?dark agesa€? because with the disintegration of the Pax Roman, Europe fell into a time of disorder.
Feudalism developed as a means for surviving against barbarians invading from the north and from North Africa in the south.
When the feared war-like Huns in the fourth century moved westward into German areas from Mongolia, many of the Goths were subdued and became vassals of the Huns, but a large group fled for safety to the Romans.
Valensa€™ first condition was that all Goths (Thervingi) would have to leave their weapons behind when they crossed the Danube. One escaped, Fritigern, who declared war on the Romans and sent word throughout the Gothic world, calling on all the Goths for revenge. The Visigoths, who were their other allies and inhabitants of the western country, were terrified as their kinsmen had been, and knew not how to plan for safety against the race of the Huns. When Valens learned this, he gladly and promptly granted what he had himself intended to ask. Moreover, from the love they bore them, they preached the gospel both to the Ostrogoths and to their kinsmen the Gepidae, teaching them to reverence this heresy, and they invited all people of their speech everywhere to attach themselves to this sect. Soon famine and want came upon them, as often happens to a people not yet well settled in a country. When their goods and chattels failed, the greedy trader demanded their sons in return for the necessities of life. Now it came to pass in that troublous time that Lupicinus, the Roman general, invited Fritigern, a chieftain of the Goths, to a feast and, as the event revealed, devised a plot against him.
Thus these valiant men gained the chance they had longed for--to be free to die in battle rather than to perish of hunger-- and immediately took arms to kill the generals Lupicinus and Maximus. When the Emperor Valens heard of this at Antioch, he made ready an army at once and set out for the country of Thrace. Now in the place of Valens, his uncle, the Emperor Gratian established Theodosius the Spaniard in the Eastern Empire. The Visigoths had earlier migrated down through France into Spain where they had established up a kingdom and ruled Spain until they were overcome by the Islamic invasion from North Africa in 711 A.D. This marked the end of the Roman Empire in the West and the city of Rome ceased as a military and political center. The Byzantines considered themselves to be the legitimate continuation of the Roman Empire. Locating the capitol of the empire in Constantinople (see map above) had a positive impact on governing the empire. Because it was located at the Hellespont, which was the front door to the Black Sea to the north and Mediterranean Ocean on the south. Its location also enabled Constantinople to be missionary hub to the peoples of the Balkans, Russia, and Ukraine. Its location in Euro-Asia likely also enabled the Gospel to be more readily received than from Europeans from Italian Rome. Theodosius I and his son Theodosius II were key leaders in the early stage of the Byzantine Empire.
All persons under the jurisdiction of the Empire were required to adhere to the Nicene faith. The Code protected and supported the institution of marriage, and increased the rights of wives and legitimate children.
The Code was based upon the principle of Peoplea€™s Law and provided the equality of all citizens before the law. The Byzantine Empire and Church sent missionaries throughout northern Europe and the Balkans.
Relocating the governmental power base to Constantinople enabled the empire to take advantage of the high levels of civilization and trade routes that had been established for centuries in the eastern Mediterranean area. In the early years of the Eastern Empire doctrinal division threatened to destroy the unity of the Church. In 451 the Council of Chalcedon divided Christendom into five patriarchies, each overseen by a patriarch or major bishop -- Constantinople, Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. When Islam two hundred years later overran Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Damascus in the 7th century, Constantinople became the dominant center of the Eastern Church.
This greatly weakened the Byzantine Empire that had already been in bitter battles with Islam all along its shrinking borders. The Byzantine Empire served as a blockade against Islama€™s expansion into Europe for over 400 years. The bishop at Rome saw this as an opportunity to gain power and force submission of the Orthodox Church to Rome and refused to mobilize assistance. When the Ottomans broke through the walls in 1453, the last emperor, Constantine XI, was killed in the battle to defend the city. After the conquest of Constantinople, the Ottomans were victorious in their sweep through the Balkans and Eastern Europe. Sharia Law required that the a€?people of the Booka€? (Jews and Christians) pay heavy taxes, not look an Islamic person in the eye, not ride horses (donkeys were permitted!), were required to cross the street when approached by an oncoming Muslim, and pay the a€?tax of children.a€? Every four years the Ottomans required a taxation payment in the form of sons and daughters of the Orthodox Christians. After the fall of Constantinople, the Russian Church assumed the title of a€?the New Rome,a€? viewing themselves now as the major preservers of the Orthodox faith. The Orthodox Church maintains that it is the only true Christian Church and that it alone possesses and preserves the traditions and teachings of the Apostles.
The Orthodox Church views Protestants as a€?departeda€? younger brothers who err in leaving the true Church.
It has a worship tradition filled with incense, mystery, icons, and frescos depicting stories from the Scriptures.
It centers on the doctrine of a€?theosisa€? wherein a believer is united to the resurrection life of Christ at baptism and the union continues throughout this life and into eternity. A true believer, one who is baptized into the Orthodox Church and who adheres to the Churcha€™s teaching, can become in this lifetime more and more like God.
Orthodox Christians believe that the Scriptures were revealed by the Holy Spirit to its inspired human authors.
Historically the Orthodox Church has maintained monasteries primarily in Greece and in Palestine. Describe the consolidation of the Byzantine state after the breakup of the Roman Empire and assess how Byzantium transmitted ancient Christian traditions and created a new Christian civilization in its domains. Analyze the rejection by the four other Patriarchies of the Church of the claims of superiority issued by the patriarchy of Rome. Describe the activity of missionaries sent from Constantinople to Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, and other portions of Eastern Europe.
Describe the difficulties encountered by the Byzantines in maintaining trade with Euro-Asia and Asia while surrounded by Islam. What is the primary issue that separates the Orthodox or Byzantine Church from the Roman Catholic Church?
What is the primary issue that separates the Orthodox Church from Protestant Christian churches? What theosis means, and what its relationship is to a€?conversiona€? and a€?sanctificationa€? in Protestant churches.
Constantine XI (1449-1453) -- last Byzantine emperor who died in defense of Constantinople. In 376 AD the Thervingi crossed over the Danube into Moecia, in present-day Bulgaria, a territory that had been brought into the empire by the emperor Claudius. Because it was located at the Hellespont, which was the front door to the Black Sea to the north and Mediterranean Ocean on the south.A  The empire could now control major shipping lanes from the Mediterranean ports to Europe, and control trade routes between Europe and Asia, including the important Silk Road. Sex cells, on the other hand, have only half the number of chromosomes of body cells and exhibit enormous variation - no two sex cells are ever the same in spite of human females producing thousands and males about 1,000 per second.
Internal fertilisation in aquatic organisms help reduce the number of sex cells that have to be produced. Terrestrial organisms have no choice - external fertilisation is not possible because sex cells dry out easily.
A few aquatic organisms (some flowering plants, dugongs, whales, dolphins) have evolved from terrestrial organisms and have preserved internal fertilisation.
The ability of the frog to burrow, to emerge only after heavy rain, to release eggs and sperm in close proximity and to undergo rapid development before the water dries up increase the chances of survival over other species of amphibian (even the invasive Cane Toad) and allow them to thrive where few other vertebrates can.
It has benefitted from European settlement because of land clearlng and especially provision of water for stock. Its unique reproductive biology is important for its success because it allows for rapid repopulation of an area very rapidly after rain and the appearance of new plant growth. The main advantage of asexual reproduction is that it is fast and efficient - large numbers of offspring can be produced in a relatively short time. Anigozanthus spp (Kangaroo paw) forms a rhizome (similar to a stolon except that it is a horizontal stem with shoots and roots at points along its length - the edible part of ginger is a rhizome).
Many species of Australian native plants propagate from rhizomes, including grasses, sedges and orchids.
At left is a photo of a clump of Dendrobium sp (tree orchids) growing near the lower Chandler River near Kunderang.
Azolla spp, the water fern also reproduce by vegetative means and commonly compete with Lemna. Reproduction by stolons and lignotubers in Australian native plants has been discussed in 3.6 (above).
To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today.
To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands. I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful. It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt.
Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe. Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position.
Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded. Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them. The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century.
We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them.
Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement.


In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value. Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter.
Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship. When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome! The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow.
Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods.
When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area.
Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath.
Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed. Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth.
Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death. Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him.
Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth.
According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense.
In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for. In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem.
Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth.
Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe.
The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position.
In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away.
As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip.
The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English. Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth. Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war. He asked another Pfizer chemist, Willard Welch, to synthesize some previously unexplored tametraline derivatives. Welch then prepared stereoisomers of this compound, which were tested in vivo by animal behavioral scientist Albert Weissman. Coplanar symmetric and asymmetric electron impact ionization studies from the 1b1 state of H2O at low to intermediate impact energies.
The experimental data show a wide variation in the cross section over this range of energies. These ionizing collisions are important in a wide range of different areas, ranging from plasma physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, medical and biological processes involving low energy electrons through to the study of high voltage discharges. The scattered electron is then detected in time correlated coincidence with either the electron ejected during ionization, or with the resulting ion. This is usually accomplished by determining a cross section that is five fold differential in angle and energy.
In most cases, this means that an averaging over the orientation of the target must be included for theory to compare with experimental results.
This energy region (from threshold to ~200eV) is important as it is here that the cross section for ionization is largest. The ionization potential from these ground ro-vibrational states is usually less defined than for atomic targets, due to the associated Franck-Condon overlap between the potential energy curves of the neutral molecules and the resulting ions. This apparatus is described in detail on other web pages on this fileserver, and has been designed to operate in the energy regime from ~10eV to ~300eV. In this configuration, the energies selected for the scattered and ejected electrons were equal. The inner diameter of this flask was 9mm, and the outside diameter was 12.7mm, so that a standard swaged fitting could be used.
This was accomplished using a Newport model 325 temperature controller, which supplied drive current to the TEC.
This proved invaluable, as it was then possible to continuously monitor the background gases in the chamber during operation. In this example, the analyzers were set to pass electrons of energy 20eV, and a symmetric geometry was chosen with thetaa = thetab = 45A°. Over this period of time, the filament current driving the cathode had to be steadily decreased, probably since the water vapour within the vacuum chamber slowly reduced the diameter of the filament. The data is normalized to unity at thetaa = thetab = theta = 45A°, since the results have not been placed on an absolute scale.
Results were taken in symmetric coplanar and non-coplanar geometries, with both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The human body, and other biological material comprise of ~80% water, which makes it an ideal test case to investigate processes occurring in the body. These models are an active area of research since the observation that high energy radiation that is used to treat cancers also liberates many low energy electrons, causing additional damage to cell DNA. Knowledge of the collision dynamics of low energy electrons with biological systems is hence needed, so as to develop robust models of these processes.
In such experiments the energy and momenta of the outgoing electrons are measured, giving a five fold differential cross section. In this regime these processes must be considered on an equal basis, and so the complexity of the interactions means that theoretical studies have mainly been limited to atomic targets. This contrasts to atoms which have a single nuclear scattering centre, and which can hence be described using a spherical basis. A further challenge arises since the experiments cannot, at present, align the molecules prior to the collision, so the models must consider the random orientation of the targets for accurate comparison. The majority of data is recorded in a coplanar geometry, where the incident and two outgoing electrons are in the same plane, and were conducted at a higher incident energy than the studies presented here. The symmetry of the 2py oxygen atomic orbital, representing the lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atoms, prevents it from hybridizing with the H atomic orbital, leaving the molecular 1b1 HOMO orbital essentially atomic like, and therefore symmetric. However, the orientation averaged molecular orbital used in the theoretical calculation is a bad approximation for that state given the cancellations due to the orbital symmetry. The molecular orbital used in the model therefore should not suffer from the same cancellation problem during the orientational averaging procedure. This apparatus is fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing it to operate continuously without user intervention. A coplanar geometry (psi = 0A?) is defined when all three electrons are in the detection plane.
The angular resolution of the apparatus is estimated as A±3A°, based on geometric considerations of the electrostatic lenses at those energies. Several freeze-pump-thaw cycles were performed using a salted ice slurry bath, to remove dissolved gas impurities from the water prior to admission into the scattering chamber. Over time the emission current from the filament dramatically increased, when a constant current was delivered to the filament. The data were normalized to a collection time of 1000sec for each measurement, and up to 30 sweeps of the detection plane were used to produce statistically significant results.
The overall shape of the TDCS measured at corresponding energies in a previous study of the 1b1 state are qualitatively similar, however the 1b1 state shows a second peak in the binary region emerging at higher energies that is not observed in the 3a1 state. PCI would also be expected to shift the recoil peak towards xi = 90A°, although this cannot be confirmed in the data. This agreement diminishes as the energy increases, which is unexpected since the MDW model is usually more accurate at higher energies. The TDCS measured in the perpendicular plane is almost constant over all analyzer angles, which is very different to what is observed for atomic targets. The progression in both models shows a decrease in cross section from psi = 0A° to 45A°, after which the intensity once again increases. There also appears to be a narrowing in the main binary peak as the asymmetry increases, with a new shoulder appearing around xi = 60A°. This contrasts markedly with the calculations, which predict triple peaks in the perpendicular plane that change magnitude only marginally with the asymmetry. This discrepancy is seen both for equal energy and for non-equal energy data, which have been taken in coplanar and perpendicular geometries.
The Romans were expert at demolishing traditional government processes in territories they had conquered.
Local chieftains (lords) and their body-guards (knights) emerged to rule small regions and to dominate a peasant class. They appealed to the emperor Valens for permission to cross the Danube to the safety of the empire, but Valens set certain terms.
The Romans treated them badly, made food available only at extremely high prices, or required the remaining children to be sold as slaves. After long deliberation by common consent they finally sent ambassadors into Romania to the Emperor Valens, brother of Valentinian, the elder Emperor, to say that if he would give them part of Thrace or Moesia to keep, they would submit themselves to his laws and commands. He received the Getae into the region of Moesia and placed them there as a wall of defense for his kingdom against other tribes. Their princes and the leaders who ruled them in place of kings, that is Fritigern, Alatheus and Safrac, began to lament the plight of their army and begged Lupicinus and Maximus, the Roman commanders, to open a market.
And the parents consented even to this, in order to provide for the safety of their children, arguing that it was better to lose liberty than life; and indeed it is better that one be sold, if he will be mercifully fed, than that he should be kept free only to die.
While he was dining in the praetorium he heard the dying cries of his ill-fated men, for, by order of the general, the soldiers were slaying his companions who were shut up in another part of the house.
Thus that day put an end to the famine of the Goths and the safety of the Romans, for the Goths no longer as strangers and pilgrims, but as citizens and lords, began to rule the inhabitants and to hold in their own right all the northern country as far as the Danube.
Military discipline was soon restored to a high level, and the Goth, perceiving that the cowardice and sloth of former princes was ended, became afraid.
They were Arian Christians and were in constant conflict in North Africa with their neighbors, the Romans, who were Nicene Christians. They were a€?true Romans.a€? They viewed themselves to be in their Christian faith what the Roman Empire should have been all along, but was prevented from being due to their paganism.
Constantinople was situated on an easily defended peninsula at the Hellespont, close to Asia, and able to respond to crises in Asia faster than when the capitol was located in Rome.
Constantinople now made it possible to bring a show of strength, power, and quick response on its borders with Persia and the rest of Asia. It ultimately shaped the cultures and faith of Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Cypress, Greece, Romania, Serbia, Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, and Georgia. Both were intent on a policy of abolishing paganism and reclaiming territories lost after the death of Constantine. Theodosius issued an edict proclaiming Christianity as the only official religion of the Empire and banned pagan worship, sacrifices, places of worship, holidays, and priesthood. When thinking a€?Byzantinea€? also think a€?Justinian.a€? He is remembered together with his very capable wife, Theodora, for several major undertakings. This was illustrated by the central role of his wife, Theodora, in overseeing several important programs in the empire. This was directly aimed at heresies and in particular the Arians who still survived in North Africa and other remote parts of the empire. Jews could not testify against Christians in court and were disqualified from holding a public office.
They especially targeted the Rus and the kingdom of Kiev, that vast population living in present-day Ukraine and Russia. The patriarch was the dominant bishop over other bishops in a particular region or patriarchy. Increasingly the empire was reduced to Constantinople, its surrounding areas, and a number of smaller area throughout the region.
By his actions he demonstrated that he would rather see Constantinople under the rule of the Islamic Ottomans than to remain the center of the a€?heretica€? Orthodox Church. The Christian defenders and their families fled to the Hagia Sophia for safety but were butchered by the Moslem invaders.
His death marked the end of the Roman Empire in the East which had continued for 977 years after the fall of the Western Empire in 476 A.D. However, in virtually every country the Orthodox Christians refused to bend the knee to Islam during centuries of occupation. The young boys were sent to Constantinople (Istabul) to be trained as militant defenders of Islam, forming the Janissairies, the special body guards of the Sultans. The Orthodox Church is the national church of Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Armenia, and Ukraine. God became man so that man can become like God -- not completely in this earthly life, but more and more through faithful participation in the Orthodox Church and faithful following its teachings and liturgy. As the worshippers enter the church the altar is at the front and behind it are paintings depicting the life and death of Jesus. They themselves as we have said, crossed the Danube and settled Dacia Ripensis, Moesia and Thrace by permission of the Emperor. At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations.
She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts).
Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin.
Theoretical approximations accurate at high impact energies can no longer be applied, and so there are stringent demands on theory which must be satisfied for accurate comparison with data. The (e,2e) coincidence signal for molecules may then have a correspondingly lower yield compared to an atomic target where the ionization potential is well defined. A pictorial representation of the water molecule in the 1b1 state is given in figure 1.1 below. The spectrometer allows measurements to be conducted from a coplanar geometry through to the perpendicular plane, although in the present measurements only a coplanar geometry was used. The analyzer pass energy was then set to measure electrons so that the overall resolution of the coincidence signal (as measured using a helium atomic target) was 600meV. The pump removed background gas from the flask, and extracted dissolved gases held in the water. The flask was secured to the cold side of a 50mm x 50mm thermo-electric cooler (TEC) using a large aluminium block, and the assembly (flask + block) was insulated from the air using Styrofoam.
The 1b1, 3a1 and 1b2 states are clearly resolved in this spectrum, which is fitted to three Gaussian peaks to ascertain the widths of the spectral profiles.
These data were measured in a coplanar geometry with outgoing electron energies of 20eV detected at theta1 = theta2 = 55A°.
Figure 1.5(a) shows the lowest energy results, with an incident energy 15eV above the ionization threshold.
Molecular wave-functions are generally not spherical, the nuclei within the molecule providing multiple scattering centres.
This becomes a computationally intensive problem, and so approximations are usually made to allow these calculations to become tractable.
In this study the analyzers were always kept in a symmetric configuration with xi1 = xi2 = xi.
A needle valve at the entrance to the scattering chamber controlled the flow of target H2O vapour into the interaction region.
This indicates that an H2O target molecular beam of high purity was created, as confirmed from binding energy spectral studies. This increase in emission current was often more than a factor of 2 within a 24 hour period. The solid line shows results from the Molecular Distorted Wave Born Approximation (MDW) while the dashed line was generated from the Molecular 3-body Distorted Wave Approximation (M3DW).
This trend is much clearer in the present data compared to that from the 1b1 state measured at higher energies. For the theoretical model, the coplanar TDCS has also been normalized to unity for both MDW and M3DW models. These measurements were taken in a series of symmetric non-coplanar geometries with outgoing electron energies of 10eV.
The M3DW model follows a trend that is closer to the experimental data, although neither model accurately predicts the results that have been obtained. The theoretical calculations are also shown, where once again the data and theory have been normalized to unity at the peak in the coplanar geometry. The minimum around 90A° in this geometry does not change substantially as the energy sharing changes. However, the Greeks and the Romans had given to Western Civilization art, poetry, civil government patterns, language, and philosophy upon which future generations could build. He (1) moved the center of government away from the aged and decrepit Rome, (2) moved it to a geographic region that provided an intellectual and cultural revival, and (3) embraced Christianity, the most dynamic and fastest growing religion of the world, and used it to shape a revived Empire. When the Romans were gone, little traditional patterns for leadership remained which the Europe peoples could fall back on. Education, literature, art, drama, and music that grew in the previous classical period fell into decline. Wulfia lived in Greece during the Arian controversy, and finding himself on the losing side in the debate settled at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD, Wulfia gained permission from Constantius II to move with his followers to present-day Bulgaria and there began his missionary activity. And since at that time the Emperor Valens, who was infected with the Arian perfidy, had closed all the churches of our party, he sent as preachers to them those who favored his sect. The loud cries of the dying fell upon ears already suspicious, and Fritigern at once perceived the treacherous trick. However, upon the death of Theodocius, his sons proved to be faithless, untrustworthy leaders. The Vandals, Suebi, Alamanns, Burgundians, and non-Germanic Alans stampeded across the Rhine River at present-day Mainz, Germany. As the result of an internal dispute between the Roman commander in North Africa and the military leaders in Rome, the Vandals were recruited to cross the Mediterranean into Italy. Because Constantinople was located in Byzantium, it became increasingly known as the Byzantine Empire, an entity that carried both a political and a religious connotation.


The Orthodox Church, born within the Eastern Empire, today remains the major Christian church in these countries and is the official national church in Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, and Ukraine.
Named, Hagia Sophia (a€?Holy Wisdoma€?), the church became the spotlight of the Christian empire. Doing so, however, in addition to the constructions costs of the Hagia Sophia, placed the empire in financial hardship.
Proof that they did not desire to turn everyone into little Greeks and Italians is shown in the work of the two brothers, Cyril and Methodius, who were sent in 862 A.D.
They were permitted in most instances to keep their religious and cultural distinctiveness, yet were required to live as second-class citizens under Islamic Sharia Law.
They were often sent mockingly as shock troopers against European Christian nations (a€?Wea€™ll defeat you using your own sons!a€?) The young girls were taken as wives and members of harems.
Icons are painted images of Jesus, Mary, or the saints on small pieces of wood that can be placed on mantles, tables, or shelves to remind the believer of the presence of Christ throughout the day. To their Islamic neighbors, this is viewed as the deification of a human (Jesus) and is therefore blasphemy. When the worshippers turn to exit, the back walls contain paintings depicting the resurrection and present throne of Christ in heaven--reminding them of Christa€™s present rule as the resurrected Christ. Upon reaching the a€?heretica€? city, the crusaders destroyed and plundered the city, believing Byzantium to be a€?apostatea€? due to its refusal to submit to the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome.
She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Early Coadministration of Clonazepam With Sertraline for Panic Disorder, July 2001, Goddard et al.
For the second year in a row they waited until the last game of the year to let Bearcat fans know their playoff fate.
The angles that could be accessed in this configuration ranged from thetaa = thetab = 25A° through to thetaa = thetab = 135A°. The acceptance angle of the analyzer lenses was A±3A°, as set by input apertures at the entrance to the electrostatic lenses. This de-gassing procedure was carried out for ~2 hours before the water sample was used in the experiment, to ensure that the proportion of dissolved gases in the water was minimized.
The hot side of the TEC was attached using thermal conducting paste to an aluminium heatsink to which a 12VDC boxer fan was secured, so that heat from the TEC could be dissipated efficiently. If this ratio reduced, the experiment was halted and the water changed to a newly de-gassed sample. In this case, the 1b1 state was found to have a width of 620meV, which is comparable to that for an atomic target. The contrast between the maximum and minimum in the cross section increases as the energy increases. As the energy increases further to 95eV above threshold (figure 1.5(c)), the double peak in the forward direction is still visible but the magnitudes of the peaks are now different. The purity of this beam was monitored regularly using the mass spectrometer throughout this study.
To ensure constant incident electron beam current throughout the measurements as required, the filament current was hence also placed under computer control. The experimental and theoretical data has been independently normalised to unity at each energy.
Dr Kate Nixon thanks the British Council for funding under the research exchange programme, and the Royal Society for a Newton International Fellowship. China was not led again by a truly unified dynasty until the rise of the Tang Dynasty in 618 A.D. In that sense he was both the emperor that lived during the closing years of the old Roman Empire and yet became the emperor that brought it new life. In addition to the conversion of many of the Goths to Arian Christianity, Wulfia also created an alphabet for the Goths, began to teach literacy among them, and translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic language.
The Goths, also known as the Thervingi, had for many decades fought ferociously against the Romans. They came and straightway filled a rude and ignorant people with the poison of their heresy.
The generals, swayed by avarice, sold them at a high price not only the flesh of sheep and oxen, but even the carcasses of dogs and unclean animals, so that a slave would be bartered for a loaf of bread or ten pounds of meat.
He drew his sword and with great courage dashed quickly from the banqueting-hall, rescued his men from their threatening doom and incited them to slay the Romans. The Goths, not knowing that an emperor lay hidden in so poor a hut, set fire to it (as is customary in dealing with a cruel foe) , and thus he was cremated in royal splendor. The Roman army could not stem the tide people and they poured into France for many months on end.
Besides, the Germans had been providing military and government leadership in the Western empire for a long time. And Christians are heirs to Judaism and therefore are now the carriers of this wisdom, was the idea of the early Church.
It was known for its architectural magnificence and for the murals and frescoes in its interior. Several earlier attempts to conquer the city failed but in 1450-1453 the Ottoman Turks laid heavy siege to Constantinople.The Byzantines used their unique weapon called a€?Greek firea€? composed of oil and phosphorus which they poured down over their walls onto the Ottoman attackers.
The Goths, also known as the Thervingi,A  had for many decades fought ferociously against the Romans.
By stern commands and by generosity and kindness he encouraged a demoralized army to deeds of daring. Several earlier attempts to conquer the city failed but in 1450-1453 the Ottoman Turks laid heavy siege to Constantinople.The Byzantines used their unique weapon called a€?Greek firea€? composed of oil and phosphorus whichA  they poured down over their walls onto the Ottoman attackers.
Last year, they won their last game but lost out on the playoffs when Granbury snuck in upsetting O. For asymmetric geometries, thetaa is fixed at 22A° while analyzer 2 is swept around the scattering plane. A glass flask was used for this procedure as this allowed the process to be visually monitored.
This indicates that the energetic effects of ro-vibrational transitions from the ground state to the ion state are negligible for this state. Further checks were made regularly on the energy of the incident electron beam by monitoring the coincidence energy spectrum (figure 1.3), and regular monitoring of the partial pressures of the gases in the vacuum chamber. A second peak occurs in the backscatter region, however the maximum of this peak appears to occur at thetab < 225A°. For non-coplanar geometries the electron gun is lifted out of the plane, and is defined by the angle psi. The Teothihuacans developed a system of hierogpyphic writing, the making of adobe bricks, extensive agriculture, ceramics, fortified towns, and provided a form of central government in the region. When the Goths moved later into other areas of Europe and North Africa, their Arian beliefs set them apart from the Nicene or Orthodox (Catholic) majority. Finally, Valens offered a two-part condition: (1) all Gothic children were to be taken to Constantinople to be raised in the orthodox (Nicene) faith, and (2) the Goths were required to provide soldiers for the Roman legions. Plainly it was a direct judgment of God that he should be burned with fire by the very men whom he had perfidiously led astray when they sought the true faith, turning them aside from the flame of love into the fire of hell.
It was also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, in distinction from the Western European Empire with its central power located in Rome.
Hence, Christians a€?are truer to Romea€™s original heritage than are polytheistic pagans.a€? (Paraphrase of Tertullian, Christian apologist of the later second century, by Leithart, In Defense of Constantine, p.
The desire was to give to new converts not the Greek Bible but one in their own Slavic language. The attackers were burned to death since there is no way to extinguish the burning phosphorus. Its main presence in the United States is the Greek Orthodox Church, although there are also Armenia, Syrian, and Russian Orthodox churches in the USA.
Frescoes are heavily used, harkening back to the time when many of the believers were illiterate and who learned the Gospel and Bible stories through the painted images.
The loot and booty from Constantinople was more valuable than fighting the Turks, so they returned home to Europe. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. There is an offset of 1eV in the position of the peaks which is due to contact potentials in the spectrometer. The full line represents a three-Gaussian fit, whereas the dotted lines show the individual Gaussians from this fit, illustrating the degree of separation measured with the current energy resolution.
The results in the backward direction also have structure, with a minimum occurring when thetab ~ 250A°.
From this time the Visigoths, in consequence of their glorious victory, possessed Thrace and Dacia Ripensis as if it were their native land. The bishop at Rome proved to be theA  catalyst that provided whatever cohesion that remained in Europe.
Wyatt There would be no such drama this year as Aledo rode the hot hand of junior guard Dawson Gates. Very little contamination is expected from neighbouring orbitals in the measured TDCS for the 3a1 state. It was a€?middlea€? between the classical period of Greece and Rome and the outbreak of the Renaissance in Italy. Although under the control of the Islamic Ottoman Empire for hundreds of years, Serbia Bulgaria, Romania, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, and Greece remained faithful to the Orthodox faith, even under great persecution.
Several European Christian states sent token ships and troops to assist the Byzantines but to no avail. On the walls in the front are frescoes telling the story of Christa€™s birth, stories about the apostles, and containing the crucifixion of Christ. On the walls at the rear are frescoes depicting the resurrection of Christ, so that in leaving the church building the people are reminded that they belong to and serve a resurrected Christ. After beginning the season 4-0, they hit some hard times the second half of district with five of seven games on the road. Aledo had lost four straight and were 1-5 in the second half of district.The Bearcats reached back and did what they needed to turn back a hot South Hills team. It was gut check time for the Bearcats and they fulfilled the promise they showed earlier in the year in tough District 7-4A.
Carl Williams scored 11 and Luke Bishop was also in double figures with ten points.The Bearcats will face District 8-4A Champion (24-3) Everman Bulldogs Tuesday February 18 at Brewer High School. He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors. Everman is currently ranked # 14 in Class 4A.It will be a repeat performance for the Bearcats in the playoffs under Coach Steve Smith. This year, Aledo is in the driver’s seat and can control their own playoff fate with just one more victory over surging South Hills. Granbury has been eliminated at 5-8 with a 47-45 loss to South Hills last night. The victory for the Scorpions was their third in the last four games and has propelled them into the do-or-die final showdown with Aledo on Tuesday night. Aledo got off to another slow start against Arlington Heights. The Bearcats could only manage 19 points by halftime and were down 27-19 at the end of the first half. The Bearcats have been a second half team all season and Friday’s Senior Night home finale was no different. Arlington Heights pulled away in the fourth quarter to spoil Aledo’s Senior Night with a 52-43 victory. The game was delayed one day due to bad weather Friday night. It was the final home game for Aledo seniors Josh Bell, Sean Church, Chandler Dean, Matt Dunn, Alex Stockdale, and Carl Williams. Leading Bearcats vs.
Southwest (8-5) and Arlington Heights (8-5) are currently tied for second place in the district. The two teams could still tie.For Aledo (6-7), it all comes down to the final game against South Hills (6-7).
Unfortunately for the Bearcats, these are two teams going in opposite  directions in the second half of district play. Since Aledo beat South Hills at home 56-44 on January 17, the Bearcats are 1-5 while South Hills is 4-2. The Bearcats will be playing their fifth road game out of seven in the second half of district. With Williams in the lineup for that game, we would most likely be talking about the Bearcats already clinching a playoff spot. It is what it is and what it is isn’t that bad at all. If you recall last year, the Bearcats had to win their final game on Senior Night to have a chance at the playoffs. Nick Losos will miss the remainder of the season with a knee injury. The Bearcats are already going through a rough stretch on the schedule playing their third straight road game and four of the last five away from home. On top of the schedule, they had to play undefeated district leader Trimble Tech. This will be the last trip for Aledo to the historic Billingsley Field House in Fort Worth as a member of District 7-4A.
Unfortunately, the Bearcats did not leave on a winning note as the Bulldogs defeated Aledo 64-54. The Bearcats stayed with the quick and athletic Bulldogs in a fast paced first quarter. Carl Williams tipped in the Dunn miss. Moments later, Matt Bishop snaked through the lane and scored on a nice drive through the lane. The Bulldogs scored five more consecutive points giving then an 18-0 run to end the second quarter. The Bearcats have a few games where there have been some offensive lapses, but nothing compared to Wednesday night at Billingsley Field House. Spencer Franklin is a space eater in the lane and an intimidating presence as a shot blocker in the middle.One word this Bearcat team just does not have in their vocabulary is “quit”. Aledo fought back in the second half and solved the relentless full court pressure by the Bulldogs. Braxton McCoy hit three long range bombs in the third quarter and Matt Dunn added another as Aledo won the third quarter 16-14. In the fourth, Carl Williams came alive with ten points and Dakota Fisher played excellent basketball on both ends of the court. In the jumbled District 7-4A playoff race, all that has really happened is Aledo dropped from second to fourth in the district. It is a dubious position to be in because two games remain on the schedule and five teams have a shot of getting the last three playoff spots. Trimble Tech has clinched first place. Aledo (6-6) has another huge game at home Friday night against Arlington Heights (7-5). Emotions stayed in check but some Granbury fans acted like they just don’t get out that often. It was at times a rough and ugly game held in check somewhat by the officials. Aledo was fighting from behind the entire game but kept clawing back to almost win the game. After Bishop’s basket, Granbury scored six of the next eight points with a Nick Losos basket sandwiched in between. Granbury led 13-8 and increased the lead to 15-9 at the end of the first quarter. Aledo started a comeback beginning in the second quarter. The Bearcats went to work on the offensive end with two free throws by Stockdale. Granbury scored on a nice finger roll after the two Stockdale free throws. Nick Losos scored a basket and Carl Williams got his first basket of the game with 4:29 left to play in the first. Braxton McCoy missed the front end of a one-and- one, but Alex Stockdale got an offensive rebound and scored pulling Aledo within one 21-20. Luke Bishop sank two free throws to give Aledo its first lead of the game 21-20. Granbury was already in the one-and-one and hit both ends to go up 43-36. Aledo went on a 7-0 run to tie the game at 43-43. Braxton McCoy followed with a tremendous drive down the lane scooping in a left handed layup. The good crowd helped the atmosphere for the Bearcats. Granbury scored again to go up by two points. The bad news is there are a lot of teams now who can strip Aledo of a playoff spot. Whoever designed the schedule for the second half of district was a mean person.
The Bearcats have to play five road games in the second half and will play their third road game in a row Wednesday night t Billingsley Field House. Aledo has lost five District 7-4A games by a total of 19 points. Aledo lost that game by six points without the services of their top scorer and rebounder Carl Williams. The Bearcats have a tough schedule the rest of the way.
They return home on Friday to play Arlington Heights who defeated Aledo 57-53 in the first half. The final game is against South Hills who have shown some improvement in the second half of the season. Aledo defeated South Hills 56-44 in the first meeting at home. Here are the remaining games for teams either 6-5 or 5-6 in district. They play at Granbury on Friday and stay on the road for a Tuesday night showdown with district leading Trimble Tech (10-0) Tuesday at Billingsley Field House. District 7-4A is like a soap opera. All the teams are so evenly matched the games are close making predictions almost impossible.
The loss puts Granbury at 4-6 in district.The game Friday at Granbury is the biggest game of the season for Aledo’s playoff hopes.
It would clinch a playoff spot for Aledo if the Bearcats are tied with Granbury at the end of the season. Arlington Heights is at 5-4 in district.
It was the largest margin of victory so far in district play and the best defensive performance limiting the Cougars to 28 points. Three Bearcats were in double figures scoring led by senior Matthew Dunn with 15 points.
Point guard Luke Bishop had his best game since coming back from football with 10 points. There are no easy wins in District 7-4A. Even though the Cougars are dragging the bottom of the district, they have played some teams tough this season. Western Hills only lost to Granbury by three and played much better in the first game against Aledo when the Bearcats won 54-50. Friday night, the Bearcats made sure there would be no late game drama outscoring the Cougars 28-15 in the first half.
Al the other teams in district have at least an outside chance at the playoffs. Aledo is currently in second place and control their own destiny at 6-3. The Bearcats are 1-2 on the road this season in district play. This is a huge week for the Bearcats playing two teams on the road who are still in the thick of the playoff hunt.
Aledo would own the tie-breaker over both Southwest and Granbury with two game sweeps of both teams. Arlington Heights was in the state tournament last year and are playing strong again with a 5-4 record and tied with Southwest for third place in district. Last year Arlington Heights, third place in district, made it to the state tournament. Despite losing three senior starters, Aledo had reason for optimism entering the 2014 season.
All-District players Travis Gough, Alex Riner, and Kyle Gromann all graduated off a team that tied for a playoff spot but then lost out when Granbury upset second place O.D.
Taylor Johnson also led the team in rebounds, steals, and assists. Coach Smith still had some solid players returning from varsity but replacing Johnson left an unexpected big hole to fill.
A high school team does not usually lose their star player before his senior year. Coach Smith already knew he would be without the services of point guard Luke Bishop until football was over. Little did he know Bishop would quarterback the Bearcat football team all the way to the Class 4A State Championship. The Bearcat basketball team also had another setback when senior Alex Stockdale decided to play football during his senior year. It was a heartwarming story about a player who never played football in his life deciding to suit up during his senior year. With Travis Gough and Matthew Ogden gone to graduation, Aledo was already a little “short” in the post position. Stockdale is a physical player who has no problem guarding taller opponents using his strength and creating position on taller players with his wide body. Bishop and Stockdale missed the first 13 games of the season including the first two district games. It takes players a few games to transfer from a football mentality to a basketball regiment. Despite all the adversity, the Bearcats finished the first half of District 7-4A in second place with a 5-2 record. It was an amazing accomplishment considering all the obstacles. The key player for Aledo during their renaissance this season has been high flying senior Carl Williams.
He leads the team averaging 15 points per game while shooting 64% from the floor and leading the team with a 78.9 free throw percentage. Aledo had to play the first game of the second half of district without their star player. The Bearcats easily defeated the Chaparrals in the first half of district 73-63 with Williams pouring in 31 points.
Every game counts in the tough district race. Coach Smith has found a way to make lemonade out of lemons his entire tenure as the Bearcat head basketball coach.
Alex Stockdale is getting his basketball legs back and has averaged 4.7 rebounds per game in six district contests. Luke Bishop leads the team with four assists per game in district play. Catch the Bearcats at home this Friday at Bearcat Gym against Western Hills. Worth, TX—The Aledo Bearcats went on the road and lost their second close district game in a row 57-53 against the Arlington Heights Yellow Jackets. The loss comes on the heels of a heart breaking loss to Trimble Tech 48-46. Aledo started out the season 4-0 and still is in great position for a playoff spot in District 7-4A especially if they can get back to their winning ways against South Hills at home on Friday night. A win would put the Bearcats in a commanding position for the playoffs with a 5-2 record during the first half of district play. Aledo took a 23-33 lead into halftime before being outscored 19-13 in the third quarter. Aledo’s first basket came on a three-pointer by Matthew Dunn with 4:30 left to play in the first quarter.
He made one of two free throws sending Alex Stockdale to the bench with his third foul. Nick Losos came in and crated some excitement for the crowd with a blocked shot and steal.
To make matters worse, a horrible charging call on Carl Williams with 5:36 to play waived off a basket for Aledo.
The Bearcats came up with the ball after a mad scramble and a tie ball with the possession going to the Bearcats. Besides being down by two points, the other problem for the Bearcats was the clock. The clock only resets to seconds, not tenths of seconds. In the pandemonium over the clock, fans and some players from Trimble Tech drifted over and would not leave the Aledo bench area.
Aledo scored seconds later putting the Bearcats up by three.Bearcats Complete Improbable Fourth Quarter Comeback to Defeat Granbury 41-37Behind by six with under three minutes to play, Aledo goes on 9-0 runBig game vs.
Nick Losos kept Aledo in the game with six first quarter points off the bench. Alex Stockdale did the heavy lifting in the third quarter with five points as Aledo’s defense shut down the Pirates allowing only six points. The basket and free throw not only cut Granbury’s lead to one, the foul was on Granbury’s big man Mitchell may sending him to the bench after fouling out.Aledo made a defensive stop and Coach Smith was able to call a time out retaining possession for Aledo before the referee called a jump ball.
Matt Dunn put the game on ice hitting one more free throw to give Aledo a 41-37 win.It was a huge win for Aledo to keep them undefeated this season at 4-0. The Bearcats play undefeated Trimble Tech at home Friday night for sole possession of first place in District 7-4A. Arlington Heights is also a factor in district play at (3-1) and still have Aledo and Trimble Tech in the first half schedule. Aledo still has Heights, Trimble Tech, and South hills in the first half of District 7-4A. Trimble Tech Cedar Park- Game 1 Bishop Amat- Game 2 Monterey Tech- Game 3 Joshua- Game 4 Burleson Centennial- Game 5 Everman- Game 6 Crowley- Game 7 Burleson- Game 8 Granbury- Game 9 Cleburne- Game 10 Byron Nelson Scrimmage Tanner Heppel # 3 Sr.
Boswell Playoff Game # 3- Canyon Playoff Game # 4- Wichita Falls Playoff Game # 5 Ennis Playoff Game # 6- Brenham Denton Guyer Scrimmage 2013 Game 1-Highland Park Game 2- Stephenville Game 3- Prepa Tech Game 4- Arlington Heights Game 5- South Hills Game 6- O.D.
Wyatt Game 7- Western Hills Game 8- Southwest Game 9- Granbury Game 10- Trimble Tech Brock Parker # 1 Sr.



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