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For any chemical reaction, there must be a minimum amount of energy between reactant molecules for effective collisions between them.
In chapter 2 we saw that if we had ?rA as a function of X, [?rA= f(X)] we could size many reactors and reactor sequences and systems.
The larger the activation energy, the more temperature sensitive k and thus the reaction rate. In our development of collision theory we assumed all molecules had the same average energy. By increasing the temperature we increase the kinetic energy of the reactant molecules which can in turn be transferred to internal energy to increase the stretching and bending of the bonds causing them to be in an activated state, vulnerable to bond breaking and reaction. We see that as the temperature is increased we have greater number of molecules have energies E A or greater and hence the reaction rate will be greater. The activation energy is a measure of the minimum energy a that the reacting molecules must have in order for the reaction to occur.


However, all the molecules don?t have the same energy, rather there is distribution of energies where some molecules have more energy than others. The Arrhenius equation is a simple yet accurate formula for the temperature dependence of a chemical reaction rate coefficient. The distraction function f(E,T) describes this distribution of the energies of the molecules.
This occurs as a result of the Earth’s axis of rotation being tilted in relation to its orbit around the sun.
Hence, if energy is supplied to the reactant molecules in the form of light or heat, they absorb that energy and reach a higher energy level which is equal to or greater than the threshold energy level. Temperature coefficient is the ration of rate constant at two different temperatures; which differ from each other by 10°c.
Hence, Activation energy (Ea) = Threshold energy - Average kinetic energy of molecules Those reactions which have less magnitude of activation energy (Ea) are completed fast while some reactions appear to be slow due to higher activation energy.


At a certain temperature T1 , all the reacting molecules do not have the same kinetic energy. Therefore, it is recommended that computer components be kept as cool as possible for maximum reliability and longevity. The conversion of the activated complex to product is associated with some enthalpy changes (?H).
For example, the reaction of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide form carbon dioxide and nitric oxide. For reverse reaction the activation energy for the conversion of products to reactants is 360 kj.




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