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Pseudoscience: means to search for knowledge which on the surface appears to be scientific, but in reality breaks some of the most fundamental concepts of the scientific method.
Astrologers use a chart called a horoscope and claim to be able to predict and explain the course of life and to help people, companies, and governments with decisions of great importance.
If the mother's womb can keep out astrological influences until birth, can we do the same with a cubicle of steak?
If astrological influence is carried by an unknown force, why is it independent of distance? If astrological influences don't depend on distance, why is there no astrology of stars, galaxies, quasars, etc.?
Scientific investigations of horoscope predictions find them to be no better than random guessing.
Sun sign descriptions of personality are so general that any person can identify some of themselves in the description.
Energy is defined as a quantity that measures the ability of a system to do work or cause motion.
E is a constant and so KE and PE can only change in such a way that as one becomes smaller the other becomes larger by the same amount.
When you throw a ball up into the air, it initially has no Potential Energy, but has all Kinetic Energy. Imagine dividing up a substance until you reach the level beyond which if you divided it further it would cease to be that substance. While atoms are the fundamental units of the chemical elements (and molecules-- combinations of atoms -- are the fundamental units of other chemical substances), they are not actually fundamental. Atoms are made of Electrons (which buzz about in a cloud), Protons and Neutrons (huddled together in a nucleus). The elementary particles are characterized by three basic properties: Mass, Charge, and Spin. Losing or gaining electrons gives a net electrical charge and becomes known as an Ion, which will have different chemical properties than the atom. Atoms with the same number of protons in the nucleus but different numbers of neutrons are called Isotopes. The laws that describe the behavior of gases were well established long before anyone had developed a coherent model of the properties of gases.
The kinetic molecular theory of gasesA theory that describes, on the molecular level, why ideal gases behave the way they do. A gas is composed of a large number of particles called molecules (whether monatomic or polyatomic) that are in constant random motion. Because the distance between gas molecules is much greater than the size of the molecules, the volume of the molecules is negligible.


Intermolecular interactions, whether repulsive or attractive, are so weak that they are also negligible. Gas molecules collide with one another and with the walls of the container, but these collisions are perfectly elastic; that is, they do not change the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
The average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas depends on only the temperature, and at a given temperature, all gaseous molecules have exactly the same average kinetic energy. Although the molecules of real gases have nonzero volumes and exert both attractive and repulsive forces on one another, for the moment we will focus on how the kinetic molecular theory of gases relates to the properties of gases we have been discussing. Postulates 1 and 4 state that gas molecules are in constant motion and collide frequently with the walls of their containers.
Because volumes and intermolecular interactions are negligible, postulates 2 and 3 state that all gaseous particles behave identically, regardless of the chemical nature of their component molecules. At a given temperature, all gaseous particles have the same average kinetic energy but not the same average speed. At any given time, what fraction of the molecules in a particular sample has a given speed?
But if in the future new information comes to light that is inconsistent, then the Theory must be modified or rejected. Examples: Astrology, UFO-ology, Paranormal Studies, Many 'New Age' philosophies and medical practices. As the ball ascends it slows down, losing Kinetic Energy but gaining Potential Energy (the distance between the ball and Earth is increasing). In Chapter 10, Section 8 "The Behavior of Real Gases", we explain how this theory must be modified to account for the behavior of real gases.
The collision of molecules with their container walls results in a force exerted by the gas on the walls, just as a bowling ball exerts a force on the pins it strikes.
This is the essence of the ideal gas law, which treats all gases as collections of particles that are identical in all respects except mass. Recall from Chapter 5 "Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions" that the kinetic energy of an object is given by KE = 12mv2, where m is the mass of the object and v is its velocity, or speed. The distinction is important, however, because the rms speed is the speed of a gas particle that has average kinetic energy.
Calculate their average speed (v?), root mean square speed (vrms), and most probable speed (vp).
Find the most probable speed by determining the speed at which the greatest number of particles is moving. Some of the molecules will be moving more slowly than average, and some will be moving faster than average, but how many in each situation? Quite often what marks a pseudoscience is the blantant ignoring of evidence that does not support the basic hypothesis.


The advice is clothed in such vague language as to make an interpretation in hindsight seem as if the horoscope had actually predicted something.
When it reaches the top of its trajectory it has no velocity and therefore no Kinetic Energy, therefore it now has only Potential Energy. The theory we introduce can also be used to derive laws such as the ideal gas law from fundamental principles and the properties of individual particles. Developed during the mid-19th century by several physicists, including the Austrian Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906), the German Rudolf Clausius (1822–1888), and the Englishman James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879), who is also known for his contributions to electricity and magnetism, this theory is based on the properties of individual particles as defined for an ideal gas and the fundamental concepts of physics. Postulate 2 also explains why it is relatively easy to compress a gas; you simply decrease the distance between the gas molecules. Postulate 5 refers to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a gas, which can be represented as KE?, and states that at a given temperature, all gases have the same value of KE?. Particles of different gases at the same temperature have the same average kinetic energy, not the same average speed. Answers to questions such as these can have a substantial effect on the amount of product formed during a chemical reaction, as you will learn in Chapter 14 "Chemical Kinetics". As the ball falls back to Earth, the situation reverses; Potential Energy converting to Kinetic Energy. Thus the kinetic molecular theory of gases provides a molecular explanation for observations that led to the development of the ideal gas law. In contrast, the most probable speed (vp) is the speed at which the greatest number of particles is moving. The vrms of the particles, which is related to the average kinetic energy, is greater than their average speed.
This problem was solved mathematically by Maxwell in 1866; he used statistical analysis to obtain an equation that describes the distribution of molecular speeds at a given temperature.
If the average kinetic energy of the particles of a gas increases linearly with increasing temperature, then Equation 10.33 tells us that the rms speed must also increase with temperature because the mass of the particles is constant. Typical curves showing the distributions of speeds of molecules at several temperatures are displayed in Figure 10.14 "The Distributions of Molecular Speeds for a Sample of Nitrogen Gas at Various Temperatures". At higher temperatures, therefore, the molecules of a gas move more rapidly than at lower temperatures, and vp increases.



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