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The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends, based on publicly available statistics, for the use in atmospheric models and policy evaluation. Note: Source categories for emissions per country used the source definitions of the 1996 IPCC guidelines for National GHG Emission Inventories. Note: The latter sector 5 is often referred to as the LULUCF sector (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry), for which EDGAR presently reports CO2 emissions related to forests and peatlands, as well as emissions of other substances. The contribution to the total global warming potential by the different UNFCCC direct greenhouse gases differs strongly per emitting sector.
All emissions are detailed at country level following consistently the 2006 IPCC methodology, activity data (statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the IPCC 2006 guidelines for GHG emission inventories. The very different nature of most developing countries (with many located in the tropics) and the industrialized ones (mainly at higher Northern latitudes) implies very different emissions from large-scale biomass burning.
The emissions of main air pollutants considered in EDGAR are precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2), which present a different behaviour than GHG. Information on the methodology applied to calculate global greenhouse gas emissions 1970-2005 by world country and on 0.1 degree spatial grid is provided. Detailed annual emissions by world country and on spatial grid for the period 1970-2005 are available for download. Greet Janssens-Maenhout (JRC) project leader, Jos Olivier (PBL), Ulrike Doering (JRC), Valerio Pagliari (JRC), Diego Guizzardi (JRC), Jeroen Peters (PBL), Roxana Petrescu (JRC), Ben Murphy (JRC), Gabriel Oreggioni (JRC).
European Commission - JRC Joint Research Centre, IES Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Climate Change Unit, TP 290, I-21020, Ispra (Va), Italy.


This scientific independent emission inventory is characterized by a coherent world historical trend. Emission inventory compilation and review is further ongoing for aerosols and particles (BC, OC, PM10, PM2.5,PM1), other greenhouse gases (NF3 and SO2F2) and ozone depleting substances (CFCs, MCF and HCFCs). The new dataset shows that CO2, CH4 and N2O all increased annually between 1% and 4% in the period 2000 - 2005, contrary to any of 5 consecutive years in the nineties.
Figure 3 details the subsector division of the main IPCC sectors energy (fuel combustion and fugitive emissions from fuels), industrial processes (non-combustion), agriculture, LULUCF and waste. Thus we provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries that go beyond the mostly highly aggregated UNFCCC reports of these, so-called, non-Annex I countries. Therefore GHG emissions have been compared in Figure 4 for Annex I and Non-Annex I countries, including and excluding the LULUCF emissions.
The CO emissions mainly occur in Africa due to the dominating residential (biofuels) and road transport sectors.
These NMVOC emissions are mainly caused by the category fuel production and transmission and are mainly spread over industrialized countries. 6a: Global NMVOC emissions trend 1970-2005 including LULUCF emissions in Tg NMVOC species per yr. It shows similar decreases in the early nineties as for SO2, but shortly followed up by further increases of up to 6% again in the newly industrialized countries.
8: Comparison of NOx control measures for passenger cars using motorgasoline over time introduced in Germany (DEU) and in China (CHN).


In the case of NH3, agriculture-dependent countries show large emissions in particular from agricultural soils and manure management. Moreover, the time-series back in time to 1970 provides for the UNFCCC trends a historical evolvement. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy.
In the latter the implementation of end-of-pipe abatement measures is only recently started, as the example of the measures for passenger cars in Germany confronted with those in China reveal in Figure 8. However, the latter has to be interpreted with care at the break-up of some countries such as the former Soviet Union.
End-of-pipe abatement measures included are country-specific or at least regional (over 4000 are taken into account). When comparing regional air pollution of CO, NMVOC, NOx, NH3, and SO2 emissions, it is noted that highest emitting countries are mainly amongst non-Annex I countries. CO2 from large-scale biomass burning and post-burn decay of remaining biomass in IPCC sector 5 (categories 5A1&2 and 5F2) are added separately. NOx emissions in China show an almost 50% increase in the period 2000-2005, while in the period 1995-2000 the increase was modest (5%).



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