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Dear User, Please use the drop downs below to locate your city by first selecting the country and then the state. The role of bioresources in meeting a region's requirement of fuel, food, fodder and timber has increased the interest for quantifying the amount of biomass available in a region.
Vegetation indices were computed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of land cover using remote spectral measurements.
Sustainable energy management requires a detailed planning from National, to State, to District, to Taluk and village levels.
Information on forest volume and biomass is important for developing regional perspectives on bioenergy supply and for computing carbon cycling and climate change analyses.
A pilot study was carried out in Kolar district, Karnataka State, India through a detailed field investigation in selected villages of Kolar and Chikballapur taluks. Villages, taluk and district boundaries and road network were digitized from SOI toposheets.
This is done through stratified random sampling (selection of villages) and pixel level mapping, taking the village as a sampling unit. Detailed mapping of trees growing in an entire village were mapped using GPS (Global Positioning System). In the case of homogenous plantations covering large area, 10 x 10m quadrant was laid and the total number of trees in it was counted, which was later extrapolated to its spatial extent. Mapping of Prosopis juliflora using GPS was done in Iraghasandra and Huthur villages of Kolar taluk. Sampling units were selected such that they included variability in Prosopis juliflora cover. Bioenergy status assessment is based on compilation and computation of bioresource supply for the energy generation. NDVI has the ability to minimise topographic effects while producing a linear measurement scale and is ideally suited for the localities rich with vegetation.
A Land use analysis was carried out for Kolar district using multi-spectral data (IRS 1 LISS). The land use classification for Kolar district using MLC shows that 46.69% of the total area is under various types of agriculture.
The vector layer of a particular species is overlaid to its corresponding raster layer and spectral value is found out. Based on these spectral signatures (field investigations involving detailed mapping), classification for Chikballapur and Kolar taluk was done. Mapping of Prosopis juliflora was done in Iraghasandra and Huthur villages of Kolar taluk where the growth was more due to the favorable edaphic factor.
Woody flora of Kolar and Chikballapur taluks include nearly 180 tree species distributed among 49 families. In most of the villages plantation trees like Eucalyptus constitute more than 65% while the plantation trees like Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Tamarindus indica, etc., comprises the rest leaving very less for other species. Among naturally occurring trees, species like Pongamia pinnata dominates (in most of the taluks), as it is highly adaptive in most of the drier regions and commonly found along streams, field bunds, and small grooves. The highest species density of 0.8386 is seen in Vibhuthipura village wherein 24 species are found in an area of 29 ha. Many of the other reserve forests of Kolar taluk show a very low Shannon value indicating their poor species diversity. As compared to Kolar Taluk, Chikballapur enjoys relatively more number of species diversity and hence the total biomass density may not be distributed among a few species, but a large number of species.
As this Taluk consists of relatively good patches of dry deciduous forest patches, a large number of forest species makeup the total species pool, though fores ts in villages like Haristala have been totally cleared or planted monoculture with trees.
Large numbers of villages have a very low diversity and high dominance due to sparse forest area and wide cultivation of monoculture plantation. Assessment of bioresource status considering the availability of resource and the demand shows that all the taluks situated in Kolar district are facing bioresource scarcity. We thank Lakshminarayana for his assistance in field data collection, Kiran Kumar M, Madhu Kumar M, Pankaj Kumar Mohanta, and Samapika Padhy for their assistance in GIS and remote sensing analysis.
Forest Department, (2001) Forest Department Annual report 2000-01, Government of Karnataka, Government Suburban Press, Bangalore. New PostsWe welcome back Ms Savitri who has resumed her interesting and informative postings on Arunachala-live. Support Arunachala-LiveThe aim of Arunachala-Live is to bring the presence of Arunachala to those at a distance through the internet. If you would like to join us in this service to Arunachala's devotees please contribute to the operating costs of Arunachala-Live.
The Posts from Arunachala-live page has been created in response to Devotees who have requested photo coverage of events relating to Arunachala and its surroundings as well as a section with inspirational reading and topics for meditation.
We will also use these pages for announcements regarding the operation of our cameras and any difficulties we encounter with our hardware or network problems in Tiruvannamalai that interrupt our service.
The Shakti of the Impersonal Absolute is referred to as Durga in the Narayana Upanishad and is qualified as being worthy of worship for the acquisition of material gain in this world and spiritual advancement in the next.
On the outer Girivalam path, right opposite the Nityananda ashram, there is a relatively new shrine dedicated to Goddess Rajarajeswari, a most powerful form of Shakthi. Rajarajeshwari is the focussed form of all Gods and Goddess ; the sum total of all energies of the Cosmos. The scriptures describe Her to be seated on a Simhasana, upon Lord Sadashiva – the Cosmic Consciousness whose legs are Lord Brahma, Rudra, Indra and Vishnu.
The Sri Chakra and the Maha Meru are the mystical figures and forms of the Devi Rajarajeshwari. The other names of Rajarajeshwari are Sri Vidya, Lalitha Parameswari, Maha Tripurasundari, Shodashi, Kamakshi,etc.
Rajarajeshwari Brahmotsavam is the Cosmic celebration of the grace and mercy of Devi Sri Rajarajeshwari. The Rajarajeshwari Brahmotsavam falls every year ten days before the Masi Magham which usually falls during Feb-Mar. Sri Vidya homa is a very powerful  fire ritual which sends the energy of Cosmic Mother wherever you are in the Cosmos thereby addressing any issue that is in your inner world or outer world. Mantra Pushpa Mala Seva is the offering of fragrant and beautiful flower garlands to Devi Raja Rajeshwari along with Lakshmi and Saraswati. Soundarya Lahari Seva is the offering of jewels to Devi Rajarajeshwari, Lakshmi and Saraswati. Buyers can view product specifications, suppliers contact details and send business inquiries for listed products through email or sms. If you still can not find your city in the list, please CLICK HERE to submit a request for inclusion of your city. The issue of land use is of paramount importance to environmental issues on all spatial scales. The United Nations estimate of global biomass energy consumption was about 6.7% of the world's energy consumption in 1990. Decisions by policy makers regarding the management and use of bioenergy require accurate and precise information on the state and patterns and rate of change of the resource. Inadequate and inaccurate bioresource data has posed serious problem in decentralised area-based energy planning. This involved remote sensing data analyses, field survey involving villagewise inventorying of the tree diversity and mapping of resources using GPS (Global positioning system) and GIS (Geographic information system). The data sets used for the analysis were procured from NRSA, Hydrabad for the month of March 1998.
When the study area or the population being investigated is small, census survey was carried out wherein all the scattered trees in both cultivated and non-cultivated fields were considered. These quadrants were chosen depending on the density of trees in the plantation and the age of the trees in the stand.
The selected sites were visited with imagery, toposheet, taluk m aps, village maps and GPS. This is based primarily on land use statistics and yield of various crops (agriculture and horticulture), plantation and forest biomass productivities.
Compared to this, TSA VI is intended to minimize the effects of soil background on the vegetation signal and is used for the regions with sparsely spread vegetation.
With the identification of spectral response pattern for the species (considering density and age), mapping was done for the entire Kolar taluk as well as for the neighbouring Gauribidanur taluk (figure 9) with the help of merged remote sensing data (USS III MSS and PAN) in Kolar district.


The number of species is a conservative estimate because it does not include undetermined species in genera that are on the list.
The highest Simpson diversity of 0.81894 is found in Vibhuthipura, which shows high evenness of 24 species in an area of 29 hectare.
This may be due to the loss of many speci es by extravagant exploitation like illegal logging, huge fuel wood collection for local population and mass monoculture plantation of exotic species like Eucalyptus. Trees like Anogeissus latifolia are however slightly dominant in villages like Jakkalamadugu, Kethenahalli, and Nandhi forests but don't have higher standing biomass due to their lower basal area. Many villages are dominated by monocultures like Eucalyptus plantation and other plantations like Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia nilotica, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica and relatively few other trees.
Few villages like Vibhuthipura and Singireddyhalli have slightly good Shannon value compared to other villages, though largely planted.
This is mainly due to mismanagement of resources, neglect of appropriate conservation, over exploitation and grazing. We are grateful to the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India for the financial assistance.
It is believed that Shakti is the power and energy with which the Universe is created, preserved, destroyed and recreated (by the trinity of  Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva). She is both the Energy which is life itself and the Source into whose depths all living things return. During this Brahmotsavam all the Gods and Goddesses join together to celebrate the love, care, mercy and grace of Cosmic Mother who protects and nourishes us.
Sri Vidya homa has the capacity to change any negativity into positivity, any problem into the right solution, any fear into a strength, any disease into health, poverty into prosperity and above all any prayer into reality, for the Sri Vidya Homa radiates Rajarajeshwari’s care, love, grace and mercy in an unimaginable frequency with the maximum possible intensity.
After the Brahmotsavam is over, the intense energy Devi radiates in all the 10 days of the Brahmotsavam, is cooled down by offering this Shanti Jala Abhishekam.Offering this Abhishekam heals all diseases of mind and body, be it chronic or acute. These garlands are offered with powerful chanting of mantras that bestow fulfillment in relationships. Changes in land cover and land use have affected bioresource availability and biodiversity at species, genetic and ecosystem levels. Tree vegetation of Kolar and Chikballapur has been studied in detail and tree inventory was prepared for species level mapping. Biomass energy continues to be a major source of energy and fuel in developing countries (Klass 1998). Broad­ based bioenergy development programmes that aim for the efficient, economical and sustainable supply and utilisation of bioenergy, can be viable energy policy and strategy options for many regions. To meet these needs, reliable estimates on the state and change of biomass for all regions over the long term must be made.
Various diversity indices and standing biomass of trees were computed to analyse the species meeting the energy requirement.
The pilot surveys were undertaken to ascertain the sample size - the number of villages needed to be surveyed in order to obtain a reliable picture of bioresources in the region and their growing stock (wood volume in case of trees).
The survey counts and measures all trees with a GBH (Girth at Breast Height) of 3D cm and above in the selected villages.
Later, this information was converted into digital format using GIS (a vector map of respective village using GIS with attribute database). The simplest species richness index is based on the total number of species and the total number of individuals in the sample or the habitat.
In the first phase all the areas with Prosopis juliflora were identified and marked as quadrants.
Details like the age of the tree, its girth, type of soil and associated tree species, if any were noted. The taluk wise area of the dominant crops cultivated was collected from the state agriculture department for the last 6 years (1995­2000). Table 1 gives the land cover analysis of Kolar district considering different vegetation indices. The accuracy of Supervised classification is 86% and that of unsupervised classification is 45%. Frequency distribution of spectral values helped in delineating the reasons for variations. Figure 10 depicts fused image of MSS and PAN data (spatial resolution of 5.8 m and spectral resolution of G, Rand NIR). Families with more than 10 species include Fabaceae, Bignoniaceae, Moraceae, and Rubiaceae. Eucalyptus species have the highest number of individuals with 34,83,417 trees followed by Acacia auriculiformis with 2,92,991 trees, Azadirachta indica having 1,53,855 trees and Acacia leucophloea with 1,38,546 trees). However, in villages like Singireddyhalli, Hutoor, etc., there may be two or more species, which share the total standing biomass. Lowest Simpson diversity of 0.00139 is found in Karadubandehosahalli-2 with 10 species in area of 145 hectares. In Gollahalli plantation, species li ke Firmiana colerata, Dalbergia lanceolaria, and Terminalia paniculata account for more than half of the total biomass. Nandhi forest and Kethenahalli reserve forests have a very rich combination of species and total tree individuals with former having total tree species count of 82, followed by Kethenahalli dry deciduous forests with 68 tree species. They mainly consist of reserve forests planted with large numbers of native species and as a result there is increase in diversity. At the time of Kali Yuga, or cosmic dissolution, it is believed that the physically manifested universe will once again withdraw itself into the formless depths of the Goddess, until a new gestation period commences and the cyclic rhythm of creation is once again set into motion. Pujas to the Divine mother are performed elaborately every day and on New Moon nights the chantings and rituals go well up till 2 o clock at night. She is depicted to be worshipped by all the 330,000,000 Devas and Lord Ganesha and Subrahmanya.
The specialty of this Seva is that these garlands will be adorning the Devis who will be seated just next to Swamiji on the Raja Sabha stage. Biodiversity and biological resources are vital to the very foundation of sustainable development of a region. Bioresource inventorying is done considering the village as sampling unit and based on the stratified random sampling survey approach. In order to meet the growing demand for energy, it is imperative to focus on efficient production and uses of biomass energy to meet both traditional (as a heat supplier) and modem fuel (electricity and liquid fuel) requirements.
Formulating broad-based energy development programmes involves integrated analyses of supply and demand for bioenergy. In this context, emerging technologies such as GIS and remote sensing could be used effectively to carryout inventorying of resources over spatial and temporal scales. The necessary distribution of villages to be surveyed in different taluks was worked out by proportional allocation based on the non-forest area of taluk. All those having a GBH of 30 cm and above were considered as trees, except for highly fast growing plantation trees like Eucalyptus with minimum GBH of 15 cm were considered. Vector layers of the villages were generated and each and every tree was marked on the village layer and the corresponding tree information was recorded in the database. To know the density of the patch, quadrants of 10m x 10m were laid and numbers of trees coming under each type of distribution pattern were noted along with the GPS value.
The maximum likelihood classifier is found to be appropriate (based on confusion matrix analysis). Table 2 lists the talukwise land use pattern, computed using hard classifiers of supervised classification techniques.
Genera with 3 or more species include Acacia (7), Albizzia(3), Cassia (5), Dalbergia (4), Diospyros (4), Ficus (8), Syzygium (3), and Terminalia (6).
SB for some of the reserve forests (table 8) shows that Thondala reserve forest has highest standing biomass whereas the Kaparasiddanahalli reserve forest has the least due to relatively smaller basal area of trees which are harvested regularly.
Kolar taluk is highly dominated by monoculture plantation species and hence in many places like Karadubandehosahalli-2, Simpson dominance value is 0.9986, which is very high due to dominance by Eucalyptus plantations. Reserve forests like the Narasimhadevara betta range though harbor good natural dry deciduous forests have standing biomass, which are not optimum to that area. Similarly in Kethenahalli the total biomass of tree species like Anogeissus latifolia, Pongamia pinnata, Premna tomentosa, Eucalyptus sp" Lagerstroemia parviflora, Shorea talura comprise 65% of total biomass.
Vegetation cover map, PAN image, and spectral response of eucalyptus tree in Bannikupe village are Illustrated III figure 17, 18, and 19 respectively.
Nandhi forests due to its varied climate, topography and large area, provides habitat for a large number of species, which comes under Narasimhadevarabetta forest range. Hence, due to more evenness in species distribution Nandhi forest has good Shannon value (table 15).


However, this has a serious disadvantage since this system does not promote diversity, which is a vital necessity for a healthy ecosystem.
The original forests have long been degraded and what remain now are few patches of secondary forests, scrub vegetation and plantations. A beautiful Sri Chakra Mehru resting on the back of a silver tortoise is a special feature. Recent land use changes have led to species loss, and the loss of ecosystem has affected essential ecological functions. Mapping of village wise tree species was carried out using GPS and village survey maps and these were converted to vector layers using GIS.
This production of biomass in all its forms for fuel, food, and fodder demands environmentally sustainable land use and integrated planning approach (Ramachandra et al. Defining policies and strategies would require the incorporation of bioenergy assessment and analysis in energy planning and other relevant sectoral planning exercise_ such as forestry and agriculture (Ramachandra et al., 2000). In the second phase, sub quadrant was taken within the quadrant with thick patches (density of trees, age of the plantation - juvenile and adult, etc.). Overlaying this field data with the remote sensing data corresponding to the same region helps in identifying the spectral response pattern of the species. The proportion of the area under high yielding variety and the traditional variety of a crop at the district level was used to segregate the area by variety at the taluk level. Among the supervised classification techniques, hard classifiers were tried using Minimum Distance to mean with Standard Distance, Parallelepiped and Maximum Likelihood Classification approach and results are illustrated in figures 6, 7 and 8 respectively. Determination of the level of error was done through computation of contingency and error matrix and is listed in tables 3, 4 and 5 for Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance to mean and Parallelepiped classifier respectively. Average value of the selected range was taken as spectral value of that species and its standard deviation gives the range of spectral signature from its average value.
Some are also regenerating by themselves in many villages along water channels and other moist places.
For example, Kethenahalli plantation, which has good forest cover, has trees whose average height ranges from 10-50 m and rarely have more than this value. In case of plantation reserve forests Singireddyhalli that has seen government afforestation program has slightly better diversity compared to other planted forests. Chikballapur taluk has retained some good patches of forests due its relatively higher rainfall and lesser aridity. Biodiversity has direct (medicines, food, fuel, fiber, etc.), indirect (regulating air and water quality, soil fertility, economic values) as well as ethical, aesthetic and cultural values. Standing biomass estimates for Kolar and Chikballapur were done from field estimates of rJjameter and height of trees in sampled quadrants. In most of the villages the plantation trees like Eucalyptus constitute more than 65% and among naturally occurring trees, species like Pongamia pinnata is more prevalent.
With the results of second phase the spectral pattern was still narrowed down based on the density (spatial spread of trees in a quadrant) and age of the trees.
This analysis demonstrates that the maximum likelihood classifier has least errors (due to commission and omission).
The accuracy of mapping is 88% as 44 polygons out of 50 mapped polygons correlated with the species. This may be due to highly degraded status of the forests, sparse eucalyptus plantation with very low basal area.
Syzigium cumini and S.operculatum mostly are found along streams in most of the villages and also in open areas. Places like Nandhi hills also have natural forests whose basal areas are very less and hence the total biomass. The plot of species diversity versus area (species area curve) show that except in villages like Maralakunte plantation, Kadadibbur and Kanajenahalli, the tree diversity increases with an increase in sampled area and reaches a plateau or slightly decreases from 1000 ha onwards.
Reserve forests like Antaraganga have high SB with high Shannon value due to large number of native tree species with monoculture plantation. Prasad is prepared daily and distributed to all the devotees after the evening puja ritual. Current effort is focused on developing bioresource inventory for Kolar district using Geographical Information System (GfS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and remotely sensed data. Ecological parameters like standing biomass and diversity indices were computed to understand the vegetation composition in meeting the requirement.
Compared to Kolar Taluk, Chikballapur has relatively higher species diversity and hence the total biomass I density is not distributed among a few species. Its 'relatively easy access and simple end-use technologies explain this widespread use despite poor efficiencies. The area under the horticulture plantations of coconut, areca and cashew at the taluk level were obtained from the State horticulture department for the previous four years. Figures 13, 14, and 15 illustrate vegetation cover map, PAN image, and spectral curve of Irigasandra village respectively. Majority of smaller forests of Kolar district is fully degraded with low standing biomass and diversity like Karadubadehosahalli, Muduvadi and few others.
Some of the valleys like Narasimhadevarabetta range exhibit very large species heterogeneity not only in valley bottoms but also along the slopes enhancing their conservation value.
According to the priest, the reason for locating the shrine for the Goddess at this spot is because, from this point there is no view of the Karthigai Deepam flame and hence the Shakthi power is supposed to be greater here! The range of areas that GIS, GPS and remote sensing can aid is vast including inventorying, mapping and monitoring of natural resources. Spectral response pattern of selected fuelwood species is determined using IRS 1 C panchromatic data (of spatial resolution 5.8 m). With this massive utilization of existing bioresources, there is a need for critical evaluation and assessment of the remaining bioresources at micro-level. The average yield figures of the district were used to compute the production at the taluk level.
Reserve forests of Chikballapur like Narasimhadevarabetta, Nandhi etc, though having large number of trees, their SB are not so high due to the relatively lower basal area of trees, with girth usually not more than 30-50 cm GBH.
There are many more forests around Nandhi and other places of Chikballapur, which if conserved properly and restored to their original state, large number of resources including firewood and timber can be utilized, and can prove to be of immense value for the dry and arid district. This enables estimates, for the whole region, to a high degree of reliability and provides a spatial representation useful in coupling with spatial land use change data.
Mapping of Prosopis juliflora - a fuelwood species was done in Gauribidanur taluk (with an accuracy of 88%) using field data (collected in villages of Kolar taluk using GPS) covering parameters such as density, age of the plantation, etc. India with its not so huge landmass of 320 million hectares, when compared to its one billion human population, which directly or indirectly depends on its bioresources, inventorying of bioresources for sustainable management and conservation has emerged as an important scientific challenge in recent years. The biomass productivity of the different types of forests was collected through primary field surveys in selected plots and from Karnataka forest department. Then their corresponding spectral signature is found out by overlaying field data with remote sensing data.
Human activities like logging, charcoal making and manmade forest fire add to the decrease in SB. As Kali, she is also the personification of time, her dark form being symbolic of the unknowable future. However, linkages between landscape metrics and human activity have yet to be demonstrated empirically over the large spatial extents appropriate to remote sensing.
The forest area by type, given division wise in the forest records was used to compute the forest type at the taluk level. Table 6 shows the spectral response patterns of various tree species dominant in the villages of Kolar taluk. The area of plantations raised by the forest department under various schemes was obtained from the State forest department. The biomass that could be obtained for fuel wood purposes was calculated assuming that 30% were adult plantations.
The ratio of productivity and fuel wood demand (considering both higher and lower values) is computed to get an idea of level of bioresource availability in Kolar district. Ratio greater than one indicates the presence of surplus bioresource, while a value less than one characterises a bioresource deficient zone. Additional cost you or your lister engineering works beliaghata, techno electrical generator.




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