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Screening and Diagnosis To help prevent the serious consequences of chlamydia, screening at least annually for chlamydia is recommended for all sexually active women age 25 years and younger. A very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. Genital HPV Infection Genital warts (or Condylomata acuminata, venereal warts, anal warts and anogenital warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Treatment for HPV There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the diseases that HPV can cause: Visible genital warts can be removed by the patient him or herself with prescribed medications. General Characteristics of Viruses Obligatory intracellular parasites Filterable Virus = Latin for poison Contain DNA or RNA Contain a protein coat = capsid made up of capsomeres. Electron micrograph of Aeromonas virus 31, an unassigned virus in the family Myoviridae photograph by Dr Hans Ackermann. Medical Technology Department, Faculty of Science, Islamic University-Gaza MB M ICRO B IOLOGY Dr.
Chapter 10 Viruses Viruses contain DNA or RNA And a protein coat called a The capsid is composed of individual Some are enclosed by an envelope May have.
Viruses: Morphology and Bacteriophage Life Cycle Figure 13.1 What is a Virus and How is it Built?
Virions, Prions, and Viroids: Infectious Agents of Animals and Plants Topics Structure Classification Methods of study Viral infections Viral tumors Human. STDs Chlamydia Trichomoniasis Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genital Herpes Syphilis Gonorrhea Other STDs. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman's reproductive organs. Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Chlamydia is known as a "silent" disease because the majority of infected people have no symptoms. In women, untreated infection can spread into the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease. In pregnant women, there is some evidence that untreated chlamydial infections can lead to premature delivery. An annual screening test also is recommended for older women with risk factors for chlamydia (a new sex partner or multiple sex partners). Although symptoms of the disease vary, most women and men who have the parasite cannot tell they are infected. Trichomoniasis can increase the risk of getting or spreading other sexually transmitted infections. Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Genital warts Rarely, warts in the throat -- a condition called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, or RRP. The HPV tests on the market are only used to help screen women at certain ages and with certain Pap test findings, for cervical cancer. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Results of a nationally representative study show that genital herpes infection is common in the United States.
HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be found in and released from the sores that the viruses cause, but they also are released between outbreaks from skin that does not appear to have a sore.
There is no treatment that can cure herpes, but antiviral medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Viruses and Cancer The genetic material of oncogenic viruses becomes integrated into the host cells DNA ( provirus).
Adolf Mayer, 1886 –tobacco mosaic disease (TMD) transmissible Dimitri Iwanowski, 1892 –Filtered sap still caused. Stein AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Chapter 13, part A Viruses, Viroids, and Prions.


Parasitic Worms Kingdom Animalia: eukaryotic, no cell walls, heterotrophic nutrition, specialized tissues.
Viruses Parasites that are not cells or organisms Infect all forms of life:Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya Virus particle.
Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur "silently" before a woman ever recognizes a problem. In 2010, 1,307,893 chlamydial infections were reported to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Babies who are born to infected mothers can get chlamydial infections in their eyes and respiratory tracts. A single dose of azithromycin or a week of doxycycline (twice daily) are the most commonly used treatments. In women, the most commonly infected part of the body is the lower genital tract (vulva, vagina, or urethra), and in men, the most commonly infected body part is the inside of the penis (urethra).
When trichomoniasis does cause symptoms, they can range from mild irritation to severe inflammation.
For example, trichomoniasis can cause genital inflammation that makes it easier to get infected with the HIV virus, or to pass the HIV virus on to a sex partner. For both men and women, your primary care doctor or another trusted health care provider must do a check and a laboratory test to diagnose trichomoniasis. There is no general test for men or women to check one’s overall "HPV status," nor is there an approved HPV test to find HPV on the genitals or in the mouth or throat. Nationwide, 16.2%, or about one out of six, people 14 to 49 years of age have genital HSV-2 infection. Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. However, if signs and symptoms occur during the first outbreak, they can be quite pronounced.
Health care providers can diagnose genital herpes by visual inspection if the outbreak is typical, and by taking a sample from the sore(s) and testing it in a laboratory.
In addition, daily suppressive therapy for symptomatic herpes can reduce transmission to partners.
It has often been called "the great imitator" because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other diseases. Chlamydia is a leading cause of early infant pneumonia and conjunctivitis (pink eye) in newborns.
HIV-positive persons with chlamydia should receive the same treatment as those who are HIV negative.
In the United States, an estimated 3.7 million people have the infection, but only about 30% develop any symptoms of trichomoniasis. During sex, the parasite is usually transmitted from a penis to a vagina, or from a vagina to a penis, but it can also be passed from a vagina to another vagina. Some people with symptoms get them within 5 to 28 days after being infected, but others do not develop symptoms until much later. Cervical cancer and other, less common but serious cancers, including cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx (back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils). HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners—even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms.
Over the past decade, the percentage of Americans with genital herpes infection in the U.S.
Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore and may not know that he or she is infected. The first outbreak usually occurs within two weeks after the virus is transmitted, and the sores typically heal within two to four weeks.
Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating.
Some can be performed on urine, other tests require that a specimen be collected from a site such as the penis or cervix. Infection is more common in women than in men, and older women are more likely than younger women to have been infected.


Pregnant women with trichomoniasis are more likely to have their babies too early (preterm delivery).
Trichomoniasis can be cured with a single dose of prescription antibiotic medication (either metronidazole or tinidazole), pills which can be taken by mouth. The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can cause cancers. A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person. HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, but it more commonly causes infections of the mouth and lips, so-called “fever blisters.” HSV-1 infection of the genitals can be caused by oral-genital or genital-genital contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection.
Other signs and symptoms during the primary episode may include a second crop of sores, and flu-like symptoms, including fever and swollen glands. Blood tests, which detect antibodies to HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection, can be helpful, although the results are not always clear-cut. Viral species: A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host).
Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth. If the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry fertilized eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods.
Infection sometimes spreads to the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm from the testis), causing pain, fever, and, rarely, sterility. Persons with chlamydia should abstain from sexual intercourse for 7 days after single dose antibiotics or until completion of a 7-day course of antibiotics, to prevent spreading the infection to partners. Also, babies born to infected mothers are more likely to have an officially low birth weight (less than 5.5 pounds). There is no way to know which people who get HPV will go on to develop cancer or other health problems. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to a sex partner. But women who get routine Pap tests and follow up as needed can identify problems before cancer develops. Genital HSV-2 infection is more common in women (approximately one out of five women 14 to 49 years of age) than in men (about one out of nine men 14 to 49 years of age). However, most individuals with HSV-2 infection never have sores, or they have very mild signs that they do not even notice or that they mistake for insect bites or another skin condition.
Rarely, genital chlamydial infection can cause arthritis that can be accompanied by skin lesions and inflammation of the eye and urethra (Reiter's syndrome). Some people who drink alcohol within 24 hours after taking this kind of antibiotic can have uncomfortable side effects. Transmission from an infected male to his female partner is more likely than from an infected female to her male partner. People diagnosed with a first episode of genital herpes can expect to have several (typically four or five) outbreaks (symptomatic recurrences) within a year. Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Very rarely, the child can develop juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP).
It is possible that a person becomes aware of the "first episode" years after the infection is acquired. Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner.



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