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The (e,2e) spectrometer vacuum chamber (figure 1) is manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel, the construction being carried out by Vacuum Generators using a design of Jones, Read and Cvejanovic, full details of which may be found in T.
3mm thick mu-metal magnetic shielding is placed both internally and externally to decrease extraneous external magnetic fields to less than 5mG at the interaction region.
All inputs and outputs to the spectrometer pass through the vacuum chamber via feedthroughs on the top flange. The top flange of the vacuum system is a 25mm stainless steel flange with 11 conflat CF70 flanges arranged around a central 200mm flange designed for locating a hydrogen source. Two flanges are used for the high voltage channeltron and photomultiplier tube inputs and pulse outputs. Three rotary motion feedthroughs allow the analysers and electron gun angles to be changed externally via stepper motors for both analysers and for the electron gun. The ionisation gauge is placed at right angles to the main flange to prevent light from the thoriated iridium filament entering the vacuum system, which would increase noise on the photomultiplier tube. The ionisation gauge feedthrough is sooted, and a loose cover is placed over the entrance in the chamber flange to prevent stray light from the ion gauge entering the vacuum system. The target gas enters the system via a CF70 flange which has two 6mm stainless steel tubes welded into the flange. The other gas feed is connected to a hypodermic needle set at 90A° to the incident beam for measurements in other geometries. The gas jet which is not currently used in the interaction region can be used to non-locally fill the chamber with gas for background counting measurements.
The final CF70 flange is used when the photomultiplier tube is cooled, usually during baking of the system following exposure to atmosphere. The tube is cooled by passing vapour from a liquid nitrogen source through expansion coils wrapped around the photomultiplier tube housing. The electron gun is a two stage non-selected gun designed by Woolf (Ph.D thesis, University of Manchester) (see figure 3). The gun consists of a filament, grid and anode source which is focussed using a triple aperture lens through two 1mm defining apertures in the centre of the gun. The apertures define the electron beam pencil and beam angles, and are focussed onto the interaction region using a second triple aperture lens located between the apertures and interaction region. The electron gun is shielded using advance (constantin) sheet which is grounded to the body of the gun mounting.
The gun is mounted onto an x-y translation table to allow placement of the electron beam as accurately as possible to the centre of rotation of the analysers and electron gun rotation axis.
The gas jet is mounted from the electron gun using a narrow support of 310 stainless steel, and the Faraday cup can be attached to this support. The original unselected electron gun built by Woolf was completely rewired and a custom built PTFE 25 way inline wire-wrap plug and socket was placed between the 52 way vacuum electrical feedthrough and the electron gun. The wiring from the 52 way feedthrough to the inline plug is shielded colour coded 30 awg PTFE coated advance wire, and the inline plug and socket connectors are non-magnetic gold plated wire wrap pins.
The electron analysers are constructed from molybdenum and are mounted from two rotating gear plates controlled externally via the rotation feedthroughs on the top flange (see figure 2).
The input electrostatic lenses for each analyser are three element cylindrical lenses as shown in figure 4. The interaction region is focussed onto the entrance aperture of the hemispherical energy analysers with a beam angle of around zero degrees, the image of the analyser entrance aperture being larger than the size of the interaction region. Field gradients around the input and exit apertures are corrected using standard Jost correctors. The energy selected electrons passing through the exit apertures are finally collected by Mullard X919BL channel electron multipliers which amplify the single electron to produce a current pulse at their output. A principle source of noise on the signal pulses arises from the turbo-molecular pump motor. The noise from the turbo pump is reduced to ~ 5mV using these techniques, and as the average pulse height from the saturated multiplier is around 20-40 mV, this allows adequate discrimination following amplification. The pre-amplifiers located external to the vacuum system are commercial 100X preamplifiers with 400pS rise-times, manufactured by Phillips Scientific. The NIM signals produced by the discriminators drive two ORTEC 437 Time to Amplitude Converter's via appropriate delay cables and an ORTEC pulse delay unit.
The main TAC output feeds an ORTEC Multichannel Analyser card located in the PC controlling the experiment, whereas the second monitor TAC drives an external MCA, allowing convenient monitoring of the coincidence signal as the experiment progresses. The high voltage supplies to the electron multipliers are two Brandenberg 5kV supplies controlled by the main PC via serial DAC's. Principally the filter is used to reduce pickup noise from entering via the HT cable onto the multiplier output.
Secondly, the filter has a slow response time for high voltage spikes, and reduces the probability of damage to the pulse electronics should the EHT supply suddenly turn on or off. Capacitor C2 decouples the 1kW load resistor to earth for high frequency pulses from the CEM's, and the voltage appearing across this load is connected via the capacitor C3 to the input of the 6954 preamplifier.
Since the input impedance of the preamplifier is 50W and the CEM is effectively an ideal constant current supply, most of the current passes through to the preamplifier. Finally, the 10M resistor prevents the output to the preamp from rising above ground when the preamp is disconnected from the circuit and is therefore a safety device for the preamplifier when initially connected. The original design placed the atomic beam nozzle and Faraday cup on the same support structure fixed to the body of the electron gun, with the atomic beam direction being in the detection plane when the perpendicular plane geometry is chosen (see figure 2).
A second configuration is adopted for exclusively perpendicular plane coincidence experiments, the atomic beam nozzle being oriented at an angle of 45A° to the detection plane so that the gas effusing from the nozzle does not fill the analysers when they oppose the nozzle (see figure 6). In this configuration the support strut for the atomic beam nozzle is terminated lower than the detection plane, as is the nozzle itself. For non-perpendicular plane measurements the Faraday cup is once mounted from the support strut and the gas effuses perpendicular to the electron beam direction.
One difficulty when aligning an (e,2e) coincidence experiment lies in the focussing the incident electron beam and analysers onto the interaction region.
The throughput of electron current as detected by the Faraday cup is insensitive to both position and focusing of the electron beam, since the cup opening is usually made quite large (in this case 6 - 10mm) and the bias voltage applied to the cup to prevent electrons returning to the interaction region allows all electron trajectories within this opening to be detected. Conventionally, following maximisation of the Faraday cup current, the beam is steered and focussed onto the gas jet as detected by counts in the analysers. This has the disadvantage that the overlap volume is maximised for both atomic and electron beam density, which tends to place the interaction volume as close as possible to the output of the atomic beam nozzle, which is almost certainly not in the centre of the detection plane. To eliminate the need for time consuming iterative techniques and the associated errors due to detection geometry, a separate method for tuning the electron gun is adopted that does not depend upon the analysers. The interaction between the target and the electron beam not only produces ionisation, but the valence states of the target also are excited with various probabilities depending upon the incident energy of the electron beam. These photons are detected by the photomultiplier tube, by placing a 450nm A± 50nm optical filter in front of the photocathode.
The interaction region is therefore defined where an aperture in front of the photocathode is focused by the lens. The plano-convex focussing glass lens is covered by a grounded fine tungsten mesh to eliminate surface charging.
The photomultiplier tube may be cooled by circulating nitrogen gas boiled off LN2 through copper coils encircling the photomultiplier tube housing.
The photomultiplier tube used in the experiment is a 9789QB EMI photomultiplier tube with a bi-alkali photocathode peaking in the blue region of the optical spectrum. As with the electron multiplier circuitry, it is important to optimise the load of the photomultiplier tube so that reflections along the feeder line to the counting electronics are minimised. The 1nF 6kV capacitors across the dynodes close to the output stage are used as charge storage pumps that quickly refurbish the surface charge on the dynodes, allowing increased counting rates. The dynode resistors are 1% tolerance metal film resistors as these are more stable with temperature. The EHT supply to the photomultiplier tube is a Brandenberg 2kV supply operating at 1500V for this tube. The negative going output pulses from the tube measure typically 200-500mV in height, and therefore are able to directly drive an ORTEC 473A constant fraction discriminator located in one of the NIM crates. All resistors and capacitors for the dynode chain are soldered to the photomultiplier tube base internal to the vacuum system, using standard 5-core solder. Typical pulse heights from the electron multipliers in saturation mode are 25-40mV, whereas the typical height of the photomultiplier tube pulses is of the order of 250mV. The electron multiplier pulses are obtained from the multiplier supply circuitry as explained above.
The amplified pulses from the 6954 amplifiers pass along doubly shielded RG-58 cable to the input of the ORTEC 473A discriminators.
The two analyser discriminators are located in separate NIM crates to increase isolation and reduce common mode pickup.
The slow rise-time positive outputs from the 473A discriminators pass to three ORTEC 441 rate-meters which allow counting and monitoring of the pulses. The fast NIM pulses from the analyser 473A CFD's pass through appropriate delay lines to two 437 TAC's. This second multichannel analyser allows the operator to monitor the total accumulated coincidence signal during operation.
The lens supplies that control the voltages impressed onto the lens elements and deflectors in the experiment were developed over a number of years, and therefore take different forms. Three of these supplies feed the deflectors in the electron gun, the other two supply the input deflectors in the analysers. In a second 19" crate is located the gun lens high voltage supplies together with the high voltage supplies for the Faraday cup.
In a third 19" crate is located the analyser voltage supplies together with a set of serial loading supplies that control the electron multiplier EHT supplies. A further supply controls the current boost circuitry located in the filament constant current supply unit (see below). The outputs of each computer controlled supply that drives an individual lens element or deflector are connected to a 70 relay switching board. The Digital voltmeter is in turn accessed via an IEEE-488 interface which is addressed by an 8086 slave PC which converses with the central PC which controls the experiment.
The outputs from the relay board connect to the spectrometer via shielded multicore cables which take the gun voltages to the 52 way feedthrough and the analyser voltages to the two 19 way feedthroughs located on the vacuum flange. The gun supply multicore also carries the filament supply current to the 52 way feedthrough.
The Faraday cup current is measured by the Keithley Digital voltmeter when under computer control but this can also be measured by an external pico-ammeter. In addition to the analyser electrostatic lens and deflector voltage connections, the 19 way CF70 feedthroughs are used to control signals from internal sensing opto-isolators which control the stepper motor interlocks.
The stepper motors that drive the analysers and electron gun around the detection plane are five phase motors with integral 10X reduction gearboxes driving the rotary motion feedthroughs.
The intelligent stepper motor drivers are addressed via a serial port located on the controlling PC bus. An additional interference problem was traced to the RS232 serial line from the controlling PC. The PC bus was found to be poorly earthed due to very little copper being used for the bus earth.
This was cured by decoupling the 0V RS232 line from the main 0V line for the stepper motors, as is shown in figure 10. The analyser stepper motor supplies have a facility for halting the motors using limit switches which are optically coupled to the internal 68000 logic circuits driving the supplies. The SD5443-3 phototransistor normally illuminated by the TEMT88PD photodiode during operation ensured a fail-safe mechanism should any of these components fail (this automatically prevent the motors from running). Should the analysers move into a position as defined by the four criteria (a) - (d) above, a shutter located on the analyser turntables moves between the appropriate photodiode and phototransistor, shutting off the light and thereby shutting down the stepper motor current. Only motion in the opposite direction is allowed by controlling logic, allowing the analyser to move away from the point of imminent collision but no closer.
The six pairs of optocouplers that prevent the analysers moving into the Faraday cup, electron gun and gas jet support are located on the mounting struts supporting the main body of the spectrometer. Two optocouplers are located on the side of analyser 2, and two shutters are located on the sides of analyser 1 to prevent the analysers colliding with each other. Finally a ninth optocoupler is located over the electron gun counterweight which monitors when the gun is at an angle less than 65A°, where the sweep angle around the detection plane is reduced. The current boost circuit operates from a serial driven supply card as detailed previously.
The main filament drive is through six power diodes that feed the current from the constant current supply to the filament.
The Darlington transistor T1 feeds additional current to the filament via three parallel 10 turn 100W trim resistors through a 1N4007 diode.
As the constant current supply acts as an infinite resistance source, the boost circuit supplies additional current only when the voltage at the anode of the feed 1N4007 exceeds the output voltage of the constant current supply.
Finally, the filament bias voltage (and hence energy of the electrons) is set to the midpoint of the filament by two 100W balancing resistors located across the terminals.
In addition to the ADC buffer card, three independent isolated regulated supplies drive REF01 voltage reference sources for measurement of the positions of 10 turn potentiometers located on the analyser and electron gun rotary drive shafts.
The angular position of the electron gun and analysers is calibrated when the system is opened using visible laser diodes that define these angles to an accuracy of A±0.2A°. Figure 13 shows an overall block diagram detailing the computer control and high speed pulse interfacing to the spectrometer.
In this web page we provide detailed (e,2e) studies of electron impact ionization of noble gases including helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon from near threshold to intermediate energies, where the outgoing electrons carry equal energy from the interaction.
The experiments were conducted in the perpendicular plane, where the outgoing electrons are detected orthogonal to the incident electron beam.
The data show the cross sections undergo complex variations as a function of incident energy, and in particular ionization of the heaviest target is at variance to all others that have been studied here.
The (e,2e) process provides the most precise experimental data for the study of the ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. By determining the momenta of the scattered and ejected electrons in a time correlated coincidence measurement, the differential ionization cross section (DCS) is derived for comparison with theoretical models.
Since the scattered and ejected electrons may emerge over a wide range of different angles, experiments usually define a specific scattering geometry in which to carry out the measurements. In the present work, we have constrained the spectrometer to measure the DCS only in the perpendicular geometry, where psi = 90A°. For both electrons to emerge in this geometry it is necessary for an interaction with the target nucleus to occur, and this provides a stringent test of current ionization models.
We have taken measurements with the incident electron energy E0 ranging from near the ionization threshold of the selected target, through to energies up to 80eV above the ionization potential (IP). Understanding these processes is hence important in areas ranging from the production of plasmas in stellar and planetary atmospheres, through to electron impact ionization in lasers and in nuclear reactors. In all cases results are presented for the outgoing electrons having equal energies at the analysers.
The apparatus can measure the DCS from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry by moving the electron gun, gas jet and Faraday cup together around the interaction region (figure 2). The electron analysers consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens that focuses electrons from the interaction region into a hemispherical energy selector. The data were taken over a period of several months, and the electron gun current was varied for each of the data sets so as to ensure linearity of the detection system. The energy of the incident electron beam was determined by observing the negative ion elastic scattering resonance in helium at ~19eV, so as to determine the offset in the gun due to contact potentials. The energies of the outgoing electrons were determined by observing inelastic scattering from the excited targets, and by considering the location of Fano resonances in the ionization continuum. The experimental data for helium are taken from previous work carried out in Manchester re-presented here normalised to unity at the peak of the DCS to allow comparison with other noble gases.
The ground state of helium is 1S0, with an electronic configuration 1s2, and so both bound electrons occupy s-shell orbitals prior to the interaction. For helium, neon and argon targets, the bound electrons occupy either s-orbitals or p-orbitals in their ground state.
It was not possible to resolve these individual channels in our experiment (due to the limited energy resolution of the spectrometer) apart from for xenon, where results were taken for production of the different ion states at incident electron energies from 10eV to 30eV above the IP.
Figure 3 presents results for ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane for ten different incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the IP. As the incident electron energy increases, additional peaks are seen at angles around 90A° & 270A°. By 20eV above the IP three distinct peaks are clearly visible, the relative strength of the central peak to outer lobes decreasing monotonically as the energy increases. The physical reasons behind these structures has been described by several models, ranging from DWBA calculations through to TDCC models.
There is only one process that can produce a peak at 180A? in the perpendicular plane without interaction with the target nucleus.
The peaks at around 90A° & 270A° are found to result from elastic scattering of the incident electron from the core, followed by a single binary collision between the incident electron and a bound electron. It should be noted that although agreement between theory and experiment in the perpendicular plane has proven to be very good, the results in a coplanar geometry are not as satisfactory, particularly for non-equal outgoing electron energies. The results at the lowest energy are similar in shape to that for helium, with a single broad peak observed centred around 180A°. As the incident energy increases, the DCS for neon shows a very different character to that for helium. The mechanisms that produce these structures in neon must be quite different to that proposed for helium, apart from at the lowest energy where PCI is expected to dominate for all targets.
Al-Hagan and co-workers recently considered the low energy regime for both He and H2 from threshold to ~10eV above threshold, and concluded that for these targets PCI dominates at energies <2eV, which is also consistent with the observations for neon presented here. The results in figure 4 indicate that the interaction is clearly more complex, and may be due to the momentum distribution of the ionized p-electron and polarizability of the atom (which is 1.9 times greater for neon than for helium).
A similar study was carried out for argon, whose outer electronic structure ([Ne]3s23p6) is similar to neon ([He]2s22p6). In the frozen-core approximation as used in many theories, the inner electrons are considered as spectators during the interaction, and so in this approximation the structure of the DCS should be similar for neon and argon. For argon, nine separate energies were chosen for study, so as to reveal the complex variation in the DCS as a function of energy. Once again the results for argon are not consistent with the simple models found successful for helium.
Figure 6 shows the results for krypton, which unlike helium, argon and neon also has bound electrons occupying the 3d-shell. Once again results were taken for a lowest energy 2eV above the IP, with the data having much better statistical significance compared to those for argon at the same energy.
As the energy increases, the results for krypton show a similar trend to that for argon, with the central minimum deepening until around 10eV above the IP where a central peak starts to emerge. The similarity between argon and krypton data tends to indicate that the d-shell electrons in the heavier target are not playing a significant role in the ionization process. As the heaviest isotopically stable noble gas target, xenon has the largest calculated size (108 pm) due to full occupation of the 4d, 5s and 5p shells. The ionic ground states of Xe+ are sufficiently separated that it was possible to resolve ionization to individual states during the experiments, for energies up to 30eV above the IP.
The data are particularly surprising since they do not follow the general trend seen for all other noble gas targets at higher energies. The minimum at 180A° is significantly deeper than for krypton under the same outgoing energy conditions, and unlike krypton this minimum then becomes shallower as the incident energy increases.
These results show that the mechanism for ionization of xenon must once again be different to all other targets that have been studied. As far as we are aware this phenomenon has never been observed for any other target, and it remains to be seen why this should occur for xenon. Only three energies were selected for these experiments, due to the difficulty of obtaining good statistical data. The set of data presented here for isotopically stable noble gases shows there is a large variation in the probability of ionization in the perpendicular plane. The perpendicular plane is particularly poignant for testing the most sophisticated electron impact ionization models, since multiple scattering must occur for electrons to emerge in this plane.
The perpendicular plane has proven to be a fertile ground to test recent theoretical models, which have found success for simple targets such as helium and molecular hydrogen.
It appears that PCI plays a role at the lowest measured energy for each target, although the significance of this process reduces as the target weight increases. The most surprising result is for the heaviest target xenon, since the relative magnitude of the central peak continues to increase as the incident energy increases, and the side lobes reduce to insignificance. It is worth noting that the resolved data for ionization to the different Xe+ states indicate there is little variation to the measured cross section due to fine structure effects. KLN thanks the Royal Society for an International Newton Research Fellowship held at the University of Manchester. To report on the performance of the line stage AND the phono stage at one time would be too much information. A pair of 6922-family tubes is used in the phono stage and a pair of 6922 is used as the a€?nominala€? tube type for the line stage. One of the unique design aspects of the WV is its support of 12-volt based tubes (12AU7, E180CC, 7062, 6829, 5965, etc.) in the line stage.
Another attractive WV feature is the ability to use this as a home-theater pass-through and NOT require the WV to be powered on. As nice as the stepper-motor based remote volume control is here, I wish I had remote mute capability rather than simply the level adjustment. When I heard the ARC SP-8 at a dealer in 1983, the preamp bar had been raised; I came to realize the significant role that a preamp played in the result of a systema€™s musicality. After a few years with the BAT units, I was ready for a major leap in performance like I had attained with the SP-10 purchase 17 years before.
With my focus on portrayal of space, other sonic attributes such as a strong bass foundation, low-level resolution and upper-frequency extension and detail have been secondary to me.
I think we often equate sonic characteristics such as tonal coherency, extended trebles and dynamic contrasts as contributors to clarity and purity.
I was scrambling for a high-resolution source to get a handle on the WVa€™s line stage capability compared to the Bent. A return to the Bent and the silence along with the carry-on of the harmonics as they decayed, was much diminished. A return to the WV and the difference was significant: midrange and upper-midrange piano tones had much more energy in their harmonics. After the initial impressions of the WV line stage with the Io Sig and APL player for a couple nights, I played a little bit with the WVa€™s phono stage before I started the line-stage tube-rolling trials. As stated earlier here, with the flip of an internal switch, the line stage supports tubes of the 12au7 family.
With the 7062s in the line stage and the Amperex 6922 PQa€™s in the WVa€™s phono stage, I played for a few nights with various PS tubes. Throughout the tube evaluation process, I had one primary thing on my mind: I wanted to recover some of the 3-dimensionality midrange magic that was so inherently strong with the Callisto Sig and somewhat lacking with the Bent.
As I was assembling my notes from the last 2-3 months for this report, I wanted to try the Bent one last time this week. The differences between the WV and the Bent are greater now than before due to the WV custom tube set. With the WV loaded with the custom tube set, I have bottom-to-top resolution and dynamic contrasts like never before. Not only has this retest confirmed to me the incredible performance of the WV, but I have greater respect for the Bent as well. Line Stage Output Impedance: This is not a fixed number, it varies according to the tubetype used. 3.1 Students learn to explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function.
It follows that a fixed concentration of substrate and enzymes is necessary for reactions to proceed at an ideal rate. 3.2 Students learn to explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity.
3.3 Students learn to identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals. 3.4 Students perform a first-hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection, use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products. Renal dialysis is similar to kidney function except that essential substances passively filtered from the blood are replaced by adding them to the blood. Active animals produce considerable quantities of nitrogenous wastes that must be removed quickly.
3.7 Students learn to distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney. In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubule (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule. The way the kidney filters the blood is analogous to a student tidying his desk by throwing everything onto the floor, then replacing only the materials he needs on the desk. 3.8 Students learn to explain how the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition. The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.

The filtrate then passes down and up the loop of Henle in the medulla (inner) part of the kidney.
The distal (distant from the glomerulus) convoluted tubule is mainly responsible for the regulation of potassium, pH (acidity) and calcium concentration in the body.
From the distal tubule, the filtrate passes to the collecting tubule which joins other tubules, connects to the ureter and transports the urine to the bladder. 3.9 Students learn to outline the role of the hormones, aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water and salt levels in blood. You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics. Sense organs in the pituitary gland detect falls in osmotic pressure caused by a reduction of blood volume. A range of other sensors (including stretch receptors in the atria of the heart) detect falls in blood pressure due to dehydration and loss of salts from the blood. Aldosterone and ADH are both hormones that increase the reabsorption of water and sodium ions from the filtrate in the tubules of the nephron. 3.11 Students learn to define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations. Work extra hard and reduce your social activities so that you can maintain your standard and avoid getting into trouble with parents or teachers? Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get? Estuaries are places where the salinity of water changes during the day as the tides move in or out. If you can handle these concepts, it would be in your interest to find out the meaning of the words a€?osmoregulatorsa€? and a€?osmoconformersa€? so that you can improve the quality of your answers to questions on this dot point. 3.12 Students analyse information from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and freshwater fish.
Marine fish have no trouble getting enough minerals - the oceana€™s water is full of minerals. Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out. 3.14 Students process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments. 3.15 Students perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water. 3.16 Students learn to describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss. In the photograph of an Acacia sp seedling below, you can see that the first leaf to form was a bipinnate (compound) leaf. In the next photograph, the leaves of a Casuarina sp (She-Oak) are shown to be reduced to tiny brown scales - the stems are acting as leaves. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.
3.A A  Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid.
Osmosis and diffusion are passive - no energy is required from the organism.A  Active transport requires the expenditure of energy. In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubuleA  (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule.A  This process requires energy because the materials must pass against a diffusion gradient. The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.A A  Most of the mineral ions and water are also reabsorbed here. It is important to keep the volume and salt concentration of blood at a constant level.A  The hormones aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) control blood volume and salt concentration. You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics.A  ADH and aldosterone do the opposite - they reduce the volume of urine produced by the kidney. 2.Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get?
Organisms that live in aquatic environments have the same a€?choicea€?.A A  If the water becomes more or less salty than usual, they can either work hard to maintain homeostasis or they can tolerate the change (and compensate in some way - just like you might keep a low profile).
Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.A  As a result, to help overcome these problems, freshwater fish produce large volumes of very dilute urine. This dot point will be (has been) covered in practical lessons.A A  Refer to your Practical Record Book. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.A A  The hairs slow the movement of air and hence reduce the rate of water loss from the pits and hence from the stomates. Laser therapy can be used any time a patient needs a non-invasive procedure for the control of pain, when conventional therapies have been ineffective, or when the acceleration of healing from injuries is desired.Is Laser Therapy Safe?A Laser therapy has been successfully used around the world for over 30+ years, with no reported long-term or irreversible side effects. One of these is internally connected to a gas jet which can be set at 45A° to the incident electron beam and is used in the perpendicular plane experiments. These stainless steel feeder tubes are connected to the nozzle using grounded shielded PTFE hose. One follows the anode, another corrects the beam direction between the apertures and a third steers the beam onto the interaction region. This shield is coated with aerodag colloidal graphite to reduce patch fields on the surface of the metal, and is made as small as possible to allow the analysers to approach the gun as close as is feasible when non-perpendicular plane geometries are selected (see figure 2). The XY translation table is mounted from the rotating yoke, to which is attached the photomultiplier tube. This allows the gun to be dismounted from the system without the need for rewiring of the feedthrough when the need arises (filament changes, cleaning etc). The wiring between the gun and inline socket is also shielded colour coded PTFE coated advance wire facilitating spot welding to the electrostatic lens elements of the gun.
The analysers are mounted onto x-z translation tables that allow them to view the interaction region accurately over the full range of angles accessible. These lenses have a capability for energy zooming of around 10 : 1, and have a maximum entrance acceptance angle of A±3A° as defined by the entrance apertures. This ensures that the overlap volume accepted by each analyser encompasses the interaction volume for all detection angles as the analysers move in the detection plane.
These devices use an activated lead glass internal surface which has a high coefficient of secondary electron emission when a high voltage (around 3000V) is applied across the multiplier. This noise may be picked up by the channel electron multiplier and the high voltage feed to the multiplier, and is generated internally in the vacuum system. The CFD's are operated in NaI mode as this has a 2ms dead time following the initial pulse, thus reducing the possibility of false triggering due to any mismatching impedance reflections along the delay cable. These EHT supplies are connected via VERO 200 high voltage couplings to high voltage cable connecting to the pickoff circuitry located on the high voltage feedthroughs. This allowed the analysers to roam the detection plane over a complete 360A° angular range. The configuration of the target source hypodermic when perpendicular plane measurements are conducted. The common procedure is to initially maximise the current from the gun onto the Faraday cup, then onto analyser counts as the electron beam is moved through the gas jet.
Maximising the Faraday cup current is therefore only a crude preliminary alignment of the incident electron gun beam. This therefore assumes that the analysers are initially focused onto the interaction region, and a slow iterative technique must be adopted where the analysers and electron gun are tuned so as to maximise the signal from both analysers.
In this case a true differential cross section is not obtained, since the scattered and ejected electron trajectories lie in a different plane than defined in the initial experimental alignment.
An EMI 9789QB reduced photocathode photomultiplier tube is installed in the vacuum system together with optical focussing and defining elements (figure 2). A group of these excited states decay back to lower valence states with the emission of visible photons at wavelengths around 450nm for both helium and argon targets.
Tuning of the electron gun to PMT counts therefore guarantees that the electron gun is steered and focussed to the point at the centre of the detection plane independent of the analysers or gas beam density. This is mainly used when the vacuum system is baked at temperatures above 55A°C, since the photocathode is rapidly damaged by temperatures exceeding this. The tube is a venetian blind dynode construction, and has a reduced photocathode to decrease the noise on the output of the tube to less than 20Hz.
The photomultiplier tube base was thoroughly cleaned in an ultrasound following location of these components, to displace any flux residue from the solder joints. It is therefore necessary to amplify the channeltron pulses prior to transmission to the discriminators, whereas the photomultiplier tube pulses are sufficiently large to not require further amplification. These pulses are amplified by Phillips Scientific 6954 100X amplifiers located external to the EHT feedthroughs connected by 10cm lengths of RG-58 cable.
These crates are further decoupled from the AC mains supply using filter circuitry on each supply line. Internal to these rate-meters buffer 7400 TTL chips have been added to send to 32 bit counters located in the main PC via RG-58 cable. These supplies are fully floating, their mid-point voltage being equal to the lens element voltage in which the deflectors are housed. All these supplies are fully computer controlled isolated units with low output impedance to reduce noise and eliminate current loops. This relay switching unit allows either the voltage or the current on each lens element to be measured by a Keithley Digital voltmeter. This drive is further reduced internally by 10X reduction gears, resulting in a reduction ratio of 100:1. This led to the ground line of the RS232 serial line moving around with respect to the 0V stepper motor reference as drive current to the motors returned along the ground line. The optocoupler logic circuit circuit that controls the stepper motors and avoids collisions between the analysers, the electron gun, the Faraday cup and the hypodermic support. Added to this filament supply is a computer controlled current boost circuit that can be used to increase the filament current during electron gun tuning. The additional current then returns to the 12V DC regulated supply via a second 1N4007 diode.
This therefore depends upon both the current driving the filament, as well as the resistance of the filament when hot (typically 4W - 6W).
This supply feeds current to the filament without changing the characteristics of the main constant current supply used while operating the spectrometer. These high stability reference sources ensure that the analyser and electron gun positions are accurately measured with time.
A datalogger internal to the controlling PC establishes a cubic spline relationship between the measured angles and the corresponding ADC conversion from the potentiometers. This PC also controls the selection of the relay motherboard for measurement of the required lens element either in voltage or current mode when a request is sent from the controlling computer via an RS232 serial line. For electrons to emerge in this geometry they must undergo multiple scattering including scattering from the nucleus of the target, and so this provides a highly sensitive test for scattering theories. In these experiments a single electron of well defined momentum impacts with a target in the interaction region, resulting in target ionization and a scattered and ejected electron which emerge after the interaction has taken place.
Our (e,2e) apparatus can access a wide range of geometries from a coplanar geometry, where the incident, scattered and ejected electrons all occupy the same plane, through to the perpendicular geometry, where the scattered and ejected electrons emerge in a plane orthogonal to the incident electron trajectory (figure 1). In this regime the probability of single ionization is a maximum, and so it is here that most ionizing collisions with electrons occur in nature. Low energy electron ionization has also been attributed to the production of DNA damage in biological tissue, and so it is important to understand these collisions at a fundamental level to describe the physics of these processes. The helium results are reproduced from previous studies carried out in Manchester, re-presented here for completeness.
By choosing the analyser residual energy to pass electrons around the selector, a channel electron multiplier detects electrons of the specified energy for subsequent amplification and counting. In the perpendicular plane, only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant, where xi1, xi2 are as shown in figure 1.
The orbital angular momentum of each electron is hence zero, with a momentum distribution that peaks around zero a.u.
The configuration of the 10 electrons in neon is 1s22s22p6, whereas argon has 18 electrons occupying a configuration [Ne]3s23p6. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Helium.txt. Experimental results for the ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the ionization potential for this target.
This is considered to be due to the dominance of post-collisional interactions (PCI) between the outgoing electrons, which drives electrons emerging with equal energies from the interaction region asymptotically towards opposite directions. At ~50eV excess energy the three lobes have equal amplitudes, whereas at higher energies the outer lobes dominate. The DWBA theory most easily allows the different processes involved in the interaction to be switched on and off, and this has explained the origin of these lobes.
This process requires the momentum of the incident electron to be exactly matched by the momentum of the bound electron, with both electrons moving in opposite directions prior to the interaction.
In this case, since the particles have equal mass and energy, they emerge from the interaction region at a mutual angle of 90A° & 270A° as observed.
It is therefore clear that further work is needed to fully describe the ionization reaction, even for a simple target like helium. The lowest energy studied was 5eV above the IP, with six measurements being taken up to 50eV above the IP as shown.
Experimental results for the ionization of neon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 5eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The width for this peak in neon is ~120A°, which is broader than ~80A° for the same outgoing electron energy in helium. As the energy is raised to 10eV above the IP, the broad single peak seen at the lowest energy increases in width, and develops a flat structure at the peak. However, at higher energies the mechanisms proposed for helium ionization described above would be expected to produce similar structures in all targets that have a central ionic core.
The calculated atomic radius of argon (71pm) is however significantly larger than that for helium (31pm) or neon (38pm) due to the n=3 shell being occupied. Experimental results for the ionization of argon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The lowest energy studied was 2eV above the IP, the data at this energy having poor statistics due to experimental difficulties working with argon at this energy. This minimum flattens at 10eV above the IP and rapidly evolves into a clear peak 15eV above the IP.
The results further indicate that the use of a A”frozen-coreA• approximation is unlikely to be accurate in any theory attempting to emulate these data. The physical size of krypton (88pm) is slightly larger than argon due to occupation of this shell, and due to closed occupation of the 4s and 4p shells.
Experimental results for the ionization of krypton in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. Ionization of krypton no longer shows the dominance of PCI as predicted by Wannier, since there is now a central minimum at 180A°.
This central peak is not as significant in krypton compared to the side lobes, and by 30eV above the IP is once again diminishing. It also appears that the variation in cross section as a function of energy follows a similar pattern for each of these targets. A coincidence energy loss spectrum is shown in figure 7 to illustrate this separation at an incident electron energy 10eV above the IP for this target. The results were taken from 2eV above the IP to 70eV above the IP for this target, so as to establish the variation in the cross section that is observed. At the lowest energy 2eV above the IP, a clear two-peak structure is observed which is similar to that observed from krypton. The results at higher energies are surprising, as the mechanism that produces the central peak with the electrons moving opposite each other is clearly dominating all other scattering processes. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon2.txt. These data indicate that fine structure in the final ion state does not play a significant role in the ionization process, since the comparison between this data and that reproduced from figure 8 shows that the shapes of the cross section for each energy are very similar. This contrasts to the coplanar geometry most often adopted, where the dominant scattering mechanism is usually a single binary scattering between electrons, resulting in a high probability that forward scattering occurs. The results presented here will hence further test these models for heavier targets, so as to elucidate the scattering mechanisms that result in the observations. Argon, krypton and xenon also all evolve a central peak as the incident electron energy increases from near threshold, which cannot be due to PCI. The side lobes observed previously in the perpendicular plane have been attributed to a binary collision between the incident electron elastically scattered into this plane and a bound electron.
It is hence likely that the results for neon, argon and krypton are also not significantly altered by these effects, even though the spectrometer was not capable of resolving their individual ion states. CK would like to thank the University of Manchester for providing a PhD scholarship while carrying out this work.
The WV5 contains a phono stage (MM and MC) and a fully balanced line stage as a single integrated design. Elliot has reported that listening sessions of the WV compared to his Counterpoint preamps, stock or upgraded, result in the WV outperforming them all. Elliot was preparing for a new product line that would take his amplifier designs to a new level. I looked for such a tube line stage a few years ago, and contacted some manufactures to find this feature for the HT system that I have in another room.
One not-so-obvious benefit here is that the amps do not need to be powered off if the user wants to power down the WV. With the exception of a few ICa€™s, nearly all other components auditioned in my system have retained the portrayal of space and decays to some level of acceptance. Each upgrade here was a refinement from the previous with greater tonal coherency, a lower noise floor and clearly more retrieval of information. With the Bent, there was a presence in the upper octaves that was very much lacking with the Callisto. The APL Denon player has much more treble extension than the Io Sig, but I needed to hear LPs.
The Io Siga€™s strong fundamental was still prominent but there was now some a€?available timea€? for the notes to breathe and show some of their own presence rather than to immediately be smeared by the subsequent note.
It was not in the loudness level of the tones but rather a a€?dimensionala€? signature of the tones. Elliot discusses in his website, the stock tubes in the WV are a good starting point but the WVa€™s performance will be significantly improved through the efforts of the customer to try many tubes. I was not surprised to learn that the Amperex Bugle Boy rectifier tube had clarity and dynamics compared to the other 3 rectifier tubes I had on hand for this evaluation. And there is this new experience of depth with sounds so beautifully placed throughout the region behind the speakers.
That top-tiered TVCa€™s are selling for a few hundred to a few thousand $$ makes them an unbeatable choice for someone not willing or not quite ready to jump in to the costly arena of the great active preamps. Our Laser has been cleared by the FDA for the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and other joint and muscle problems. The spectrometer is shown configured in the perpendicular plane, the electron gun being placed in the vertical position with respect to the analysers which span the horizontal detection plane. The electron source is a heated tungsten hairpin filament heated by passing around 2A of DC current through the filament.
The saturated gain of these devices yields around 1E8 electrons in the output current pulse for a single electron which enters the input cone. This allows the analyser to roam over a complete 360 degrees of the detection plane when in this geometry (apart from the position where the analysers would clash wth each other). The analysers are then adjusted for maximum signal count and the procedure is iterated until a maximum is found. The dark noise count is also reduced when cooled, however since the reduced cathode PMT only produces dark counts of less than 20Hz at room temperature, this is not necessary during routine operations.
The 1.82M resistor was chosen to optimise the single photon counting efficiency of the tube. It is not found that these solder connections significantly affect the ultimate vacuum pressure in the system.
Isolated DC supplies to these amplifiers is obtained from a standard +15V supply, the circuit diagram being given in figure 8.
The power supply to these TTL buffers is derived from the rate-meter supplies via 7805 5V regulators located internally.
This supply boosts the current without changing the main supply, thus ensuring supply stability before and after the electron gun is tuned. Hence it is possible to accumulate a full range of DCS measurements over all scattering angles using this spectrometer.
The incident electron can move from the coplanar geometry (psi = 0A°) to the perpendicular plane (psi = 90A°), the outgoing electrons being measured in the detection plane.
The shape of the DCS for a given energy and target is then of importance, for comparison with theory. This contrasts with the other noble gas targets whose levels are 1S0, but whose valence electrons occupy closed p-orbitals. By contrast, the bound electrons in both of the heavier targets also occupy d-orbitals, with a correspondingly more complex momentum distribution. As the outgoing electron energy is lowered, the post collisional interaction time increases, resulting in an increased flux in the 180A° direction. At excess energies over 80eV above the IP the central lobe has virtually disappeared, leaving only the two outer lobes in the DCS. In this case, momentum conservation requires the outgoing electrons to move in opposite directions (180A°) in the perpendicular plane. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Neon.txt. At 15eV above the IP this flat structure has evolved into two peaks with 180A° now being a local minimum. The static polarization of argon is eight times larger than for helium, so scattering effects due to polarization of the target are expected to be significantly larger than for neon or helium. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Argon.txt. This central peak is visible for incident energies up to 40eV above the IP, until at the highest energy (50eV above the IP) this has once again disappeared, the side peaks having also moved outwards compared to at the lower energies. The relative magnitude of this minimum compared to the peaks around 110A° & 250A° is however larger than for higher incident energies, so there is probably a contribution to the cross section at this angle due to PCI. This central peak has virtually disappeared 40eV above the IP and there is no evidence of a peak 50eV above the IP. It might hence be expected that the cross section for the heaviest target (xenon) would follow a similar trend to that of argon and krypton. The data are fitted to two Gaussians, showing that contamination from each ionic state is <10% when the spectrometer is set to each peak in the cross section.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon1.txt. This indicates that PCI is once again not the dominant mechanism producing the cross section at this energy.
The relative magnitude of this peak compared to the lobes at 110A° and 250A° then increases in magnitude as the energy increases, as with krypton and argon. This result indicates that fine structure does not appear to play a significant role in electron collision processes at these energies.
The marked contrast between results for helium and all other noble gas targets demand that these models carefully consider the intricacies of the interaction, since a simple extension of the basic physical ideas presented for helium cannot explain the experimental data.
For argon and krypton the relative magnitude of this peak increases with respect to the side lobes until it reaches a maximum, then decreases to become insignificant at the highest energies measured. This process has always been considered as the dominant mechanism at higher incident energies, yet the new results presented here indicate these ideas need to be revisited for this heavy target.
Only the power transformer is in a separate chassis; this is less than half the size of the main chassis. Beyond this, there are options to upgrade the Cardas RCA jacks to WBT, upgrade to the new top-level Vishay TX2575 resistors and a silver-wired umbilical. I was unsuccessful to find such a product and thus stayed with a solid-state product for the HT setup. With the volume all the way down, the WV in Standby, and then powering down the WV, there was a faint buzz through the speakers for a few seconds. But with regular interruptions, being able to silence the system in an instant would be nice. However, I have dismissed far too many preamps and line stages as they failed in this key parameter. But unlike any preamp change before, the Aria WV line stage (and phono stage) has made it clear to me what I have missed up to this point. I could still hear the smearing but the benefits of this new silence between the notes were becoming clear. After hearing the WV for only a short amount of time, returning to the Bent made me only want to get the WV back into the system. The difference was all about the tonal signature of each instrument from its initial sound through the follow-on.

And it was only a matter of seconds coming off the Io Sig and into the SUT MC input of the WV, that I realized it was not only the WVa€™s line stage here to redefine performance. The one tube that he has regularly stated to make a major improvement is the power supply rectifier tube. Out of these, the Amperex 6922 PQ pinched waist tubes were my favorite as they have been in the CAT 6922 sockets. A CD getting lots of play here has been the Mike and the Mechanics, a€?Beggar on a Gold Beacha€?. A friend of mine who heard this many times here always commented that something was wrong even though it sounded good. This is plenty good for driving cables with no more than 1200pF capacitance and power amps with no less than 50K ohm imput impedance (higher is always better).
It has successfully treated chronic and acute pain, wounds, sports injuries, and more.How does laser light heal?Low-level lasers supply energy to the body in the form of non-thermal photons of light. The electron gun is a two stage non-energy selected gun that produces an incident electron beam current of up to 4 microamps at an incident energy from around 30eV to 300eV. The 470k resistors bias the dynodes to achieve saturation of the current pulse at the output of the tube, hence biasing the tube for single photon counting applications. This was found to be necessary to eliminate problems associated with current loops from the 20A peak motor current feeding the common point of the logic circuitry.
For the data presented here, the perpendicular plane was chosen, so only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant. The combined coincidence energy resolution of the unselected energy electron gun and the two analysers is ~1eV.
Krypton has 36 electrons and has a ground state configuration [Ar]3d104s24p6, while xenon has 54 electrons with a ground state configuration [Kr]4d105s25p6.
This type of threshold behaviour was first predicted by Wannier and was later considered by Peterkop, Rau and others to explain results in this regime. This mechanism was considered as being the main reason for the peak at 180A° until the work of Madison and co-workers in 2009 showed the probability of this occurring was low.
As the energy increases further, the peaks separate in angle, and the minimum at 180A° deepens. This angular shift of the side lobes is consistent with PCI playing a continuing role in the interaction, since as the energy increases the effects of PCI diminish, and the electrons move away from 180A° as is observed. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Krypton.txt. However, unlike krypton and argon whose central peak reaches a maximum and then decreases, the central peak in xenon continues to dominate the cross section as the energy rises. Further, the frozen core approximation often adopted in these models which treat all non-ionized electrons as spectators does not appear valid for the heavier targets when compared to neon, even thought the outer valence electrons have the same p-type character. The Aria amps got little press coverage but from what I had read about them, and owning an upgraded NPS400 myself, I had a good feeling that they could be special. An umbilical cable of customer-specified length (typically 6 feet) and captive at the transformer-chassis connects to the audio chassis with a 9-pin connector.
I still have to wonder what the sound of the WV might have been with the beefy PS design but the added reliability of the simpler design has its merit as well.
The model reviewed here is the WV5 XL (line and phono model) with the TX2575 resistors, the silver-wired umbilical, and the remote volume control. He also notes that rolling the power supply tubes, particularly the rectifier, will significantly increase the WVa€™s performance as well.
This a€?featurea€? is great for tube-rolling tests without the need to power down the amps.
However, adding a stepper motor is one thing; adding additional switching or circuitry to accommodate a muting function would likely compromise the performance that Mr. The BAT brought on a different presentation with the music now at the plane of (and behind) the speakers whereas the ARC projected the sound more out into the room. There was clearly a compromise for which one set of priorities had to be chosen over another. When a Bent TX-102 TVC (with the rare silver transformers) was available in late 2007 at a local dealer, I took it home to play. Even with the Io Siga€™s softened trebles and average dynamic capabilities, with the WV line stage there was a greater hint of massed strings as a collection of stringed instruments rather than simply a a€?beautifula€? sound. Low-level detail in the music by other musicians was now coming through that had been previously masked.
I never had the opportunity to own his previous top models, but I feel mighty fortunate to own the WV. Light is transmitted through the skin's layers (the dermis, epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue or tissue fat under the skin) at all wavelengths in the visible range; however, light waves in the near infrared ranges penetrate the deepest of all light waves in the visible spectrum. The analysers are identical, and consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens focussing the interaction region onto the entrance of a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser.
The Anode deflector pair corrects for any misalignment of the filament emission point with respect to the axis of the electron gun. They proposed a triple scattering mechanism to describe this peak, where the incident electron first scatters elastically from the nucleus so as to enter the detection plane, followed by a binary inelastic collision with a bound electron, followed by elastic scattering of one of the electrons back from the nucleus. This trend continues up to the highest energy which was possible to measure (70eV above the IP), where the central peak is seen to be broad with a width ~100A°. It is hence likely that these assumptions will need to be relaxed to accurately model the data.
But for a system configured with balanced sources, I would think at least 2 balanced inputs would be neededa€¦.for a digital player and a tuner or balanced external phono stage. The result was altogether different: the smearing and grain that I had been accustomed to hearing for so many years was gone.
The Io Sig renders the fundamental of notes in the mids like no other phono stage I have heard. I was aware of the cable upgrades (done months ago) to bring on greater resolution to the system, particularly in percussion, but the WV took this to a new level of refinement over its peers. But the WV was altogether in a different league as it was not only about upper-frequency coverage but also in the purity of the delivery of the trebles, and the all-important mids as well. These tones decayed several seconds from behind the speakers as if the speakers were much further into the room. But it was the SUT input and the WVa€™s phono stage that I was to use for 2 months for all subsequent listening sessions for the line stage and power supply tube-rolling efforts. Evaluating many tubes in 2 of the other 3 PS sockets allowed me to find a combination of PS tubes that worked incredibly well with the Amperex rectifier tube. One interesting note was that I changed the ECC99 tube in the APL Denon player with a 7062 and I was stunned by the benefits. Perhaps this is what this new experience refers to but I have owned some of the preamps and amps that got high praise of transparency. When low level laser light waves penetrate deeply into the skin, they optimize the immune responses of our blood.
The Chamber is lined internally with 3mm thick mu-metal, and a mu-metal cylinder encloses the chamber externally as shown. The electrons selected in angle and energy are amplified using Mullard 919BL channel electron multipliers. The defining apertures limit the pencil and beam angles of the electron beam following focussing by lens 2 onto the interaction region.
The load is set by the 50W resistor across the anode to the HT feed, the pulse being decoupled to ground via the 1nF capacitor. This complex mechanism was found to emulate the cross section more closely compared to the single scattering process originally envisaged.
As for all measurements in this study, the DCS must be zero for the electrons emerging at the same angle (0A°, 360A°), due to post collisional interactions between outgoing electrons of equal energy. At all energies greater than 40eV above the IP, the outer peaks seen in all other targets have disappeared. This blog has been removed which is unfortunate as it gave the reader an opportunity to follow the design decisions for the power supply, audio circuit, volume control, comparison of several step-up transformers, choice of passive parts, etc.
Also, if the WV were to be used in an HT setup, it would likely be part of a top-tier HT setup, and these are often balanced systems as well. Harmonics, ambiance and decays were there like I had not before heard from an audio system.
And all subsequent preamp models have had this presentation back at the plan of the speakers. But this comes at a cost with the follow-on of the notesa€™ tonal signature highly truncated. Still the trebles were a bit weak (due to the Io Sig) compared to piano music that I tried on the APL CD player but I was hearing musical details with the Io Sig like I had not before with the Bent or the Callisto Sig.
I would bring in the APL player to confirm the tube differences I heard when changing line stage or power supply tubes. I now had a nice refinement over the stock PS tubes in terms of midrange smoothness, dynamics and treble clarity. Perhaps the colorations from before added to the sense of what I liked about the Callisto Sig with its strengths clearly coming through in the bottom half of the range. After playing a few tracks 2-3 times and the system powered on for nearly 3 hours, I put the Bent into the system. And the WV is in such a different performance level than those that I will continue to be cautious of the use of transparency. To pay $8k for a line stage at this performance level is a bargain with all the $15-20k line stages coming out now. This reduces the magnetic field at the interaction region to less than 5mG, an acceptable level for the electron energies used in this experiment. The interaction region defined by the interaction of the gas target beam and the electron beam is focussed onto the photocathode of an EMI 9789QB photomultiplier tube via a lens, 450nmA±50nm optical filter and defining aperture. Placement of the apertures ensures that the beam angle is close to zero degrees at the interaction region over a wide range of energies, whereas the aperture opening reduces the pencil angle to around A±2 degrees over this energy range.
But two tubes here took the WV to yet another level beyond the Amperex 6922 PQ with one clearly being the top performer in smoothness, harmonic structure and dynamic contrasts without adding any anomalies that the Amperex 6922 did not have.
As outstanding as the Callisto Sig had been for me, the WV is altogether in a whole different league of performance.
But a return to the WV and now the decays that fade are those from the fundamental AND the harmonics.
A jump to the Bent and the sound is beautiful, but there is no presence of vibrating strings.
And here we have a full function preamp whose phono stage, even with SUTs, significantly outperforming phono stages I have owned that cost from $4-8k. It is a scientific fact that light transmitted to the blood in this way has a positive effect through-out the whole body, supplying vital oxygen and energy to every cell.A What to Expect During a Laser Therapy Treatment Sessiona€?For most people, laser therapy is quite passive. The target gas effuses from a 0.6mm ID hypodermic needle constructed from platinum iridium alloy. The 10MW safety resistor prevents the output charging up to a high voltage if the feed is disconnected. The deflectors between the apertures correct for space and surface charge beam variations inside the field free region, whereas the final deflectors allow the beam to be steered onto the interaction region defined by focussing a 1mm aperture in front of the photomultiplier tube onto the gas target beam. Elliot, I am sure any customer could have these additional connections made to a WV upon order. I compared the Callisto and Bent for several weeks until I passed the Callisto onto a new owner.
After the first night with the WV, I concluded there was one effect taking place that was a new experience to mea€¦.in a word, purity.
And this was the first night with the WVa€¦with its stock EH tubes in the line and phono stages and stock PS tubes as well.
The WV has this same purity that is far beyond any other line stage to ever be tried in my system.
And it was mighty coincidental that the tube to become the reference was also Amperex: the 7062 PQ pinched waist.
No doubt the latest Callisto version addresses some of the shortcomings for which the WV excels. It gives a sense of far greater dynamics but I think it is more to do with the notesa€™ loudness levels lasting longer as the tones shift to the higher frequencies. Some patients have reported a slight tingling or tapping in a nerve or along a nerve pathway. The electrons passing through the interaction region which are not scattered are collected in a Faraday cup opposite the electron gun. The temptation for me to swap those tubes was strong but I needed to hear the WVa€™s sonic signature for a few days. And this gives each sound that more distinct dimensional signature as it decays in one direction across the room or to the rear for a longer period of time and if there is nothing stopping it. A final return to the WV and the result is layers upon layers of harmonic structured details with the decays seeing no boundaries. When you think of the added cost of another power cord and interconnect for separate phono and line stages, the WVa€™s value is even more apparent.
The gun, photomultiplier tube, gas hypodermic and Faraday cup all rotate on a common yoke with an axis through the centre of the horizontal detection plane, allowing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry to be accessed. And I followed Mr Elliota€™s suggested burn-in process for two weeks with the CD player driving the phono stagea€™s MM input during the night and day for 2 weeks to achieve 300 hours. The Bent and WV have nearly identical bass extension but with the Bent, there is a bit of bass a€?thumpynessa€? vs. And add to this the possibility of custom design work and modifications, which is unheard of with all the top preamp manufacturers out there, the WV customer has more options than ever before. But for the most part, the treatment, which may last from 15 to 30 minutes, is not noticed at all.
Just as a few tubes were able to take the WV to top-end performance, a few, most notably the 6H30, let none of the WVa€™s capability through. Following (and even during) a laser therapy session, approximately 75-80% of patients being treated can notice an immediate improvement in their condition.
This will depend primarily on the type of condition and the length of time the condition has been present. Once again, the number of treatments depends upon the severity of the condition and its duration. There are some conditions that will never completely resolve but can be helped and maintained with laser therapy.
Cells and tissues that are compromised have been shown to have a significantly higher response to LLLT irradiation than normal healthy structures.
Cell membranes, mitochondria and damaged neurological structures exhibit less than optimal metabolism and stasis conditions. Multiple studies have demonstrated that under these compromised conditions, the introduction of energy transfers response and the resultant enhancement of metabolic activity pronounced in biologically challenged cells, thus selectively targeting compromised cells, in reality, these cells exhibit a lowered reaction threshold to the effects of laser light and are more easily triggered to energy transfer responses. The result is that LLLT has a significant effect on damaged cells and tissues while normative biological constituents are appreciably less affected.1The cellular cascade effect a€” precipitated by the actions of enzymes and having a significant response in the presence of LLLT a€” has a significant impact on cellular and tissue function. Since a considerable number of the reactive proteins that respond to laser stimulation are enzymes, laser light effects are amplified in the stimulation of beneficial enzymes and depression of deleterious enzymes.A At the cellular level, cytochromes can be defined as electron or proton-transfer proteins that act as energy producers for human biological functions.
Both of the cytochrome enzymes, Cytochrome c Oxydase and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) have been found to be particularly reactive to laser photon stimulation. The particular affinity of these and other photo-reactive enzymes to accelerate their functions in the presence of LLLT provides critical increases in the molecule ATP and Nitric Oxide (NO) which enhances cellular activity & repairAlthough the various actions of LLLT in regards to inflammation, pain and healing have been separated categorically here for the purpose of process identification, their interactions are not so easily distinguished. In response to LLLT, the reduction in inflammation, pain and healing time all compliment each other and many of the processes are either simultaneous or overlapping.Acute Inflammation ReductionImmediately after an acute injury event, the body, in response to the disruption of the integrity of vascular, soft tissue, begins a series of biological responses.
Injury responsive components such as Mast cells, Bradykinins and Prostaglandins are activated along with the vascular responses and cellular membrane reactions.
All of these combined processes and events are represented by the symptoms of edema, inflammation, pain and functional debility.
LLLT can be effective in mediating both the symptoms and the underlying inflammatory process by the following actions:1.
Stabilization of cellular membrane a€” Ca+ +, Na+ and K+ concentrations as well as the proton gradient over the mitochondria membrane are positively in This is accomplished in part by the production of beneficial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) wherein triplet oxygen molecules absorb laser light pro ducing singlet oxygen molecules. These ROS modulate intracellular Ca+ + concentrations and laser therapy improves Ca+ + uptake in the mitochondria.2,3,4A 2.
ATP production and synthesis are significantly enhanced, contributing to cel lular repair, reproduction and functional ability. Laser stimulation of Cytochrome c Oxidase, a chromophore found on the mitochondria of cells, plays a major role in this rapid increase in production and synthesis of ATP.3A 3. Vasodilatation is stimulated via Histamine, Nitric Oxide (NO) and Serotonin increases, resulting in reduction of ischemia and improved perfusion. Laser-mediated vasodilatation enhances the transport of nutrients and oxygen to the damaged cells and facilitates repair and removal of cellular debris.5,6A 4. Beneficial acceleration of leukocytic activity results in enhanced removal of non-viable cellular and tissue components, allowing for a more rapid repair and regeneration process.A 5. Increased Prostaglandin synthesis, particularly in conversion of the prostaglandins PGG2 and PGH2 periossides into prostaglandin PGI2. PGI2 (Prostacyclin), has a vasodilating and anti-inflammatory action with some attributes similar to Cox-I and Cox-II inhibitors.7A  6. In addition to increasing the number of lymphocytes, laser irradiation mediates the action of both lymphatic helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells in the inflammatory response.
Along with laser modification of beta cell activity, the entire lymphatic response is beneficially affected by LLLT.98.
Both blood capillaries and lymphatic capillaries have been clinically documented to undergo significant increase and regeneration in the presence of laser irradiation. The resulting improvement in circulation and perfusion enhances all repair and healing processes. Laser induced increases in NO and the growth factors a€” in particular cytokine INF-g a€” are contributory to this process.10,11A 9. Areas of inflammation typically demonstrate temperature variations with the inflamed portion having an elevated temperature.
Laser stimulated increases in cytokine SOD levels interact with other anti-inflammatory processes to accelerate the termination of the inflammatory process.
This rapid initiation of therapy in acute inflammation will assist in limiting the scope and duration of the inflammatory event and minimize the pain and severity associated with it.While the treatment regimen and course of therapy may be modified in chronic situations, the physiological responses and interactions remain consistent.
Chronic conditions may require longer treatment times.Pain ReductionThe unique pain reduction abilities of LLLT have been exten documented in numerous clinical studies and medical papers. While there remains much to learn in re pain reduction characteristics, there is a wealth of knowledge currently available to demonstrate the effectiveness of laser therapy in this regard.Because the pain amelioration capabilities of LLLT are ac combination of local and systemic actions a€” utilizing enzymatic, chemical and physical interventions a€” the process is very complex. However, there is a preponderance of medical evidence that justifies a conclusion that effective pain reductions can be achieved via LLLT.
The localized and systemic in-crease of this endogenous peptide after LLLT irradiation has been clinically reported in multiple studies with subsequent pain reductions.A  2.
The pain blocking effect of LLLT can be pronounced, particularly in low velocity neural pathways, such as non-mylenated afferent axons from nociceptors. Laser irradiation suppresses the exci tation of these fibers in the afferent sensory pathway.13,14A  3. As a neurotransmitter it is essential for normal nerve cell action potential in impulse transmission activity and, indirectly, the vasodilatation effect of NO can enhance nerve cell perfusion and oxygenation.A 4. Both compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values and nerve latency values have shown improvement with laser therapy.15A 5. Several studies have documented the ability of LLLT to induce axonal sprouting and some nerve regeneration in damaged nerve tis sues. Where pain sensation is being magnified due to nerve structure damage, cell regeneration and sprouting may assist in pain decrease.16,176. Since Bradykinins elicit pain by stimulating nociceptive afferents in the skin and viscera, mitigation of elevated levels through LLLT can result in pain re Kininase II, and increase in NO are considered the contributors to this Bradykinin decrease.A 7.
By increasing the avail-able acetylcholine, LLLT help s in normalizing nerve signal trans-mission in the autonomic, somatic and sensory neural pathways.A 8. LLLT promotes normalization in Ca+ +, NA+ and K+ concentrations resulting in beneficial pain reduction results from these ion concentration shifts. Figure 2 presents a simplified representation of the effects of LLLT on pain improvement at the cellular level.Tissue HealingOne of the truly unique characteristics of LLLT is that it has the ability to actually promote and enhance healing, not just treat symptoms. The irradiation by low-level laser light accelerates and enhances healing activities carried out by the body. LLLT can provide the following beneficial impacts in both open surface wounds and closed connective or soft tissue injuries as follows:1. LLLT accelerates macrophage activity in phagocytosis, growth factor secretion and stimulation of collagen synthesis.A 3. The significant angiogenesis that occurs with laser therapy promotes revascularization with subsequent improvement in perfusion and oxygenation.
The beneficial synthesis active factor ability of keratinocytes are enhanced by proliferation secondary to LLLT.20A 6. Laser-stimulated acceleration of epithelial cell regeneration speeds up wound healing, minimizes scarring, and reduces infection opportunities.A 7.
Two to five fold increases in growth-phase-specific DNA synthesis in normal fibroblasts, mus cells irradiated with IR light are reported.
Increases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) secondary to IR light irradiation have also been reported.8. Laser-in duced increases in NO, ATP and other compounds that stimulate differentiation into mature cells. Increased numbers of myofibroblasts, myofibrils, myotubes etc., as well as bone cell proliferation, have been clinically demonstrated with LLLT.
Satellite cells, the precursor cells in the process of muscle regeneration, show significant increase in proliferation when irradiated with LLLT.21,22,239. Governmental agencies such as NASA are currently using tech medical conditions in space applications. Olympic training facilities have just released state validate the growing acceptance in mainstream medicine for the medical efficacy of laser therapy as a viable, often superior therapeutic treatment modality.With over 200 clinical studies a€” many of which are double-blind, placebo-controlled a€” and in excess of 2000 published articles on LLLT, this innovative new technology has a well-documented research and application history. Having grown far beyond its distant Institutional Review Board (IRB) and experimental treatment status, LLLT is now being considered a therapy of choice for many difficult pain management challenges such as fibromyalgia and myofascial pain. He has served as manager for several biomedical design and service facilities and participated as lead researcher for biomedical devices involved in emergency cardiac care, warmed intravenous fluid therapy and laser therapy. Richard has participated in medical clinical trials for 15 years as a clinical trial analyst and contributing clinician.References1. Analysis in vitro of the cellular proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts with low level laser. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low-intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation. What is optimal dose, power density and timing for low level laser therapy in tendon injuries?
Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.A 9.
In vitro effects of low level laser irra diation at 660 nm on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Wound healing process: influence of LLLT on the proliferation of fi broblasts and on the lymphatic regeneration. Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.12. Diode laser irradiation selectively diminishes slow component of axonal volleys to dor sal roots from the saphenous nerve. Laser therapy as a new modali ty in the treatment of incomplete peripheral nerve in-juries: Prospective Clinical Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study.
Department of Neuro surgery, Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.16. Comparison of the low level laser therapy effects on cultured human gingival fibroblasts proliferation using different irradiance and same fluence. Enhancement of the blood growth promoting activity after exposure of volun teers to visible and infrared polarized light. Low energy laser irradiation pro-motes the survival and cell cycle entry of skeletal muscle satellite cells. The biological ef fects of laser therapy and other modalities on con nective tissue repair processes. Low level laser therapy of soft tissue injuries upon sport activities and traffic acci dents: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controled clinical study on 132 patients.

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