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When morale is higher, people are happier to come to work and put in the effort to achieve results.
Retention is quickly becoming a major concern for organizations of every size and in every industry.
If you haven’t already, it may be a good time to look at using smartphones within your business. It's probably no surprise to you that when your energy is low your work suffers, but too high energy (constant interruptions and deadlines) can kill your productivity too. Since 2003, Theresa Welbourne, founder of eePulse, Inc., a leadership consulting firm, business professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, has been studying energy levels of business leaders through regular surveys. According to the most recent report, 82% of business leaders aren’t working at their optimal energy level.
If you know how they’re doing, it gives you good insight into how the rest of the organization is doing, she says. Welbourne suggests checking in with your leadership team via Skype to find out what everyone’s working on. For example, Welbourne was working with a call center client and had weekly check-ins with employees.
The performance of a thermal insulation material relies on the amount of air trapped within it. Current Building Regulations require new dwellings to be compliant with an overall energy and carbon performance with the Target Emissions Rate (TER) based on the whole building envelope.
Because of its nature, where loose fibre is used it will form one continuous layer of insulation. The thickness of the loft insulation may be increased to improve the thermal comfort of the dwelling and to save more energy. Realistic 3d battery icons set with full and low charge status energy level isolated vector illustration. Ahead of their meeting Friday, there is recognition that the 12-member Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries will be unable to nudge up prices, at least in the short term.
The Saudis and other OPEC states are looking to maintain their market share at a time when low prices are already cutting into their revenues. The upshot is the meeting will likely decide to maintain the official OPEC level of 30 million barrels a day, urge members to cut back on overproduction and hope for better times next year. Iran’s comeback is tied to the looming end of sanctions imposed over its nuclear program. Senior oil official Amir Hossein Zamaninia said last week Iran hopes to bring an extra 500,000 barrels on the market by early next year. These trends mean that the pressure is on Saudi Arabia, which accounts for about a third of OPEC’s output, to cut back. Saudi opposition to a cut in OPEC output a year ago was calculated to put higher-cost outside competitors, such as U.S.
Cushioned by past profits on oil, the Saudis can hold out, even if production costs exceed sale revenues. That seems to leave only an increase of Middle East turmoil as a potential price driver, for now. The (e,2e) spectrometer vacuum chamber (figure 1) is manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel, the construction being carried out by Vacuum Generators using a design of Jones, Read and Cvejanovic, full details of which may be found in T.
3mm thick mu-metal magnetic shielding is placed both internally and externally to decrease extraneous external magnetic fields to less than 5mG at the interaction region. All inputs and outputs to the spectrometer pass through the vacuum chamber via feedthroughs on the top flange.
The top flange of the vacuum system is a 25mm stainless steel flange with 11 conflat CF70 flanges arranged around a central 200mm flange designed for locating a hydrogen source.
Two flanges are used for the high voltage channeltron and photomultiplier tube inputs and pulse outputs. Three rotary motion feedthroughs allow the analysers and electron gun angles to be changed externally via stepper motors for both analysers and for the electron gun. The ionisation gauge is placed at right angles to the main flange to prevent light from the thoriated iridium filament entering the vacuum system, which would increase noise on the photomultiplier tube.
The ionisation gauge feedthrough is sooted, and a loose cover is placed over the entrance in the chamber flange to prevent stray light from the ion gauge entering the vacuum system. The target gas enters the system via a CF70 flange which has two 6mm stainless steel tubes welded into the flange. The other gas feed is connected to a hypodermic needle set at 90A° to the incident beam for measurements in other geometries. The gas jet which is not currently used in the interaction region can be used to non-locally fill the chamber with gas for background counting measurements.
The final CF70 flange is used when the photomultiplier tube is cooled, usually during baking of the system following exposure to atmosphere. The tube is cooled by passing vapour from a liquid nitrogen source through expansion coils wrapped around the photomultiplier tube housing. The electron gun is a two stage non-selected gun designed by Woolf (Ph.D thesis, University of Manchester) (see figure 3).
The gun consists of a filament, grid and anode source which is focussed using a triple aperture lens through two 1mm defining apertures in the centre of the gun. The apertures define the electron beam pencil and beam angles, and are focussed onto the interaction region using a second triple aperture lens located between the apertures and interaction region.
The electron gun is shielded using advance (constantin) sheet which is grounded to the body of the gun mounting. The gun is mounted onto an x-y translation table to allow placement of the electron beam as accurately as possible to the centre of rotation of the analysers and electron gun rotation axis. The gas jet is mounted from the electron gun using a narrow support of 310 stainless steel, and the Faraday cup can be attached to this support. The original unselected electron gun built by Woolf was completely rewired and a custom built PTFE 25 way inline wire-wrap plug and socket was placed between the 52 way vacuum electrical feedthrough and the electron gun. The wiring from the 52 way feedthrough to the inline plug is shielded colour coded 30 awg PTFE coated advance wire, and the inline plug and socket connectors are non-magnetic gold plated wire wrap pins. The electron analysers are constructed from molybdenum and are mounted from two rotating gear plates controlled externally via the rotation feedthroughs on the top flange (see figure 2). The input electrostatic lenses for each analyser are three element cylindrical lenses as shown in figure 4. The interaction region is focussed onto the entrance aperture of the hemispherical energy analysers with a beam angle of around zero degrees, the image of the analyser entrance aperture being larger than the size of the interaction region. Field gradients around the input and exit apertures are corrected using standard Jost correctors.
The energy selected electrons passing through the exit apertures are finally collected by Mullard X919BL channel electron multipliers which amplify the single electron to produce a current pulse at their output.
A principle source of noise on the signal pulses arises from the turbo-molecular pump motor.
The noise from the turbo pump is reduced to ~ 5mV using these techniques, and as the average pulse height from the saturated multiplier is around 20-40 mV, this allows adequate discrimination following amplification. The pre-amplifiers located external to the vacuum system are commercial 100X preamplifiers with 400pS rise-times, manufactured by Phillips Scientific. The NIM signals produced by the discriminators drive two ORTEC 437 Time to Amplitude Converter's via appropriate delay cables and an ORTEC pulse delay unit. The main TAC output feeds an ORTEC Multichannel Analyser card located in the PC controlling the experiment, whereas the second monitor TAC drives an external MCA, allowing convenient monitoring of the coincidence signal as the experiment progresses. The high voltage supplies to the electron multipliers are two Brandenberg 5kV supplies controlled by the main PC via serial DAC's.
Principally the filter is used to reduce pickup noise from entering via the HT cable onto the multiplier output. Secondly, the filter has a slow response time for high voltage spikes, and reduces the probability of damage to the pulse electronics should the EHT supply suddenly turn on or off.
Capacitor C2 decouples the 1kW load resistor to earth for high frequency pulses from the CEM's, and the voltage appearing across this load is connected via the capacitor C3 to the input of the 6954 preamplifier. Since the input impedance of the preamplifier is 50W and the CEM is effectively an ideal constant current supply, most of the current passes through to the preamplifier. Finally, the 10M resistor prevents the output to the preamp from rising above ground when the preamp is disconnected from the circuit and is therefore a safety device for the preamplifier when initially connected. The original design placed the atomic beam nozzle and Faraday cup on the same support structure fixed to the body of the electron gun, with the atomic beam direction being in the detection plane when the perpendicular plane geometry is chosen (see figure 2).
A second configuration is adopted for exclusively perpendicular plane coincidence experiments, the atomic beam nozzle being oriented at an angle of 45A° to the detection plane so that the gas effusing from the nozzle does not fill the analysers when they oppose the nozzle (see figure 6).
In this configuration the support strut for the atomic beam nozzle is terminated lower than the detection plane, as is the nozzle itself.
For non-perpendicular plane measurements the Faraday cup is once mounted from the support strut and the gas effuses perpendicular to the electron beam direction. One difficulty when aligning an (e,2e) coincidence experiment lies in the focussing the incident electron beam and analysers onto the interaction region.
The throughput of electron current as detected by the Faraday cup is insensitive to both position and focusing of the electron beam, since the cup opening is usually made quite large (in this case 6 - 10mm) and the bias voltage applied to the cup to prevent electrons returning to the interaction region allows all electron trajectories within this opening to be detected.
Conventionally, following maximisation of the Faraday cup current, the beam is steered and focussed onto the gas jet as detected by counts in the analysers. This has the disadvantage that the overlap volume is maximised for both atomic and electron beam density, which tends to place the interaction volume as close as possible to the output of the atomic beam nozzle, which is almost certainly not in the centre of the detection plane.
To eliminate the need for time consuming iterative techniques and the associated errors due to detection geometry, a separate method for tuning the electron gun is adopted that does not depend upon the analysers.
The interaction between the target and the electron beam not only produces ionisation, but the valence states of the target also are excited with various probabilities depending upon the incident energy of the electron beam. These photons are detected by the photomultiplier tube, by placing a 450nm A± 50nm optical filter in front of the photocathode. The interaction region is therefore defined where an aperture in front of the photocathode is focused by the lens. The plano-convex focussing glass lens is covered by a grounded fine tungsten mesh to eliminate surface charging.
The photomultiplier tube may be cooled by circulating nitrogen gas boiled off LN2 through copper coils encircling the photomultiplier tube housing. The photomultiplier tube used in the experiment is a 9789QB EMI photomultiplier tube with a bi-alkali photocathode peaking in the blue region of the optical spectrum. As with the electron multiplier circuitry, it is important to optimise the load of the photomultiplier tube so that reflections along the feeder line to the counting electronics are minimised.
The 1nF 6kV capacitors across the dynodes close to the output stage are used as charge storage pumps that quickly refurbish the surface charge on the dynodes, allowing increased counting rates. The dynode resistors are 1% tolerance metal film resistors as these are more stable with temperature. The EHT supply to the photomultiplier tube is a Brandenberg 2kV supply operating at 1500V for this tube.
The negative going output pulses from the tube measure typically 200-500mV in height, and therefore are able to directly drive an ORTEC 473A constant fraction discriminator located in one of the NIM crates.
All resistors and capacitors for the dynode chain are soldered to the photomultiplier tube base internal to the vacuum system, using standard 5-core solder. Typical pulse heights from the electron multipliers in saturation mode are 25-40mV, whereas the typical height of the photomultiplier tube pulses is of the order of 250mV. The electron multiplier pulses are obtained from the multiplier supply circuitry as explained above. The amplified pulses from the 6954 amplifiers pass along doubly shielded RG-58 cable to the input of the ORTEC 473A discriminators. The two analyser discriminators are located in separate NIM crates to increase isolation and reduce common mode pickup.
The slow rise-time positive outputs from the 473A discriminators pass to three ORTEC 441 rate-meters which allow counting and monitoring of the pulses. The fast NIM pulses from the analyser 473A CFD's pass through appropriate delay lines to two 437 TAC's. This second multichannel analyser allows the operator to monitor the total accumulated coincidence signal during operation.
The lens supplies that control the voltages impressed onto the lens elements and deflectors in the experiment were developed over a number of years, and therefore take different forms.
Three of these supplies feed the deflectors in the electron gun, the other two supply the input deflectors in the analysers.
In a second 19" crate is located the gun lens high voltage supplies together with the high voltage supplies for the Faraday cup.
In a third 19" crate is located the analyser voltage supplies together with a set of serial loading supplies that control the electron multiplier EHT supplies. A further supply controls the current boost circuitry located in the filament constant current supply unit (see below).
The outputs of each computer controlled supply that drives an individual lens element or deflector are connected to a 70 relay switching board.
The Digital voltmeter is in turn accessed via an IEEE-488 interface which is addressed by an 8086 slave PC which converses with the central PC which controls the experiment.
The outputs from the relay board connect to the spectrometer via shielded multicore cables which take the gun voltages to the 52 way feedthrough and the analyser voltages to the two 19 way feedthroughs located on the vacuum flange. The gun supply multicore also carries the filament supply current to the 52 way feedthrough. The Faraday cup current is measured by the Keithley Digital voltmeter when under computer control but this can also be measured by an external pico-ammeter. In addition to the analyser electrostatic lens and deflector voltage connections, the 19 way CF70 feedthroughs are used to control signals from internal sensing opto-isolators which control the stepper motor interlocks. The stepper motors that drive the analysers and electron gun around the detection plane are five phase motors with integral 10X reduction gearboxes driving the rotary motion feedthroughs.
The intelligent stepper motor drivers are addressed via a serial port located on the controlling PC bus. An additional interference problem was traced to the RS232 serial line from the controlling PC. The PC bus was found to be poorly earthed due to very little copper being used for the bus earth. This was cured by decoupling the 0V RS232 line from the main 0V line for the stepper motors, as is shown in figure 10.


The analyser stepper motor supplies have a facility for halting the motors using limit switches which are optically coupled to the internal 68000 logic circuits driving the supplies. The SD5443-3 phototransistor normally illuminated by the TEMT88PD photodiode during operation ensured a fail-safe mechanism should any of these components fail (this automatically prevent the motors from running).
Should the analysers move into a position as defined by the four criteria (a) - (d) above, a shutter located on the analyser turntables moves between the appropriate photodiode and phototransistor, shutting off the light and thereby shutting down the stepper motor current. Only motion in the opposite direction is allowed by controlling logic, allowing the analyser to move away from the point of imminent collision but no closer.
The six pairs of optocouplers that prevent the analysers moving into the Faraday cup, electron gun and gas jet support are located on the mounting struts supporting the main body of the spectrometer. Two optocouplers are located on the side of analyser 2, and two shutters are located on the sides of analyser 1 to prevent the analysers colliding with each other.
Finally a ninth optocoupler is located over the electron gun counterweight which monitors when the gun is at an angle less than 65A°, where the sweep angle around the detection plane is reduced.
The current boost circuit operates from a serial driven supply card as detailed previously. The main filament drive is through six power diodes that feed the current from the constant current supply to the filament. The Darlington transistor T1 feeds additional current to the filament via three parallel 10 turn 100W trim resistors through a 1N4007 diode. As the constant current supply acts as an infinite resistance source, the boost circuit supplies additional current only when the voltage at the anode of the feed 1N4007 exceeds the output voltage of the constant current supply. Finally, the filament bias voltage (and hence energy of the electrons) is set to the midpoint of the filament by two 100W balancing resistors located across the terminals. In addition to the ADC buffer card, three independent isolated regulated supplies drive REF01 voltage reference sources for measurement of the positions of 10 turn potentiometers located on the analyser and electron gun rotary drive shafts. The angular position of the electron gun and analysers is calibrated when the system is opened using visible laser diodes that define these angles to an accuracy of A±0.2A°. Figure 13 shows an overall block diagram detailing the computer control and high speed pulse interfacing to the spectrometer. Of the 540 participants, 61% said they were working below their best energy level, while 21% reported working above their optimal energy level. Leaders who are constantly interrupted are in an over-energized state that leads to loss of productivity and burnout, Welbourne notes. One benefit of checking in regularly is receiving information about productivity problems in a timely manner, when you can course-correct. One question she asked was whether anything was getting in the way of employee productivity. If there’s a high rate of change in your company (such as merger or growth), Welbourne recommends weekly or bi-weekly check-ins.
In the context of a loft insulation project, additional thicknesses of insulation can be installed at relatively little extra cost. Embargoes on Iranian oil are to be lifted over the next few months once a nuclear deal it signed with six world powers goes into force.
He said he hopes the extra output will be accommodated within OPEC’s formal ceiling of 30 million barrels a day. Ahead of Friday’s meeting, OPEC already was churning out well over than 31 million barrels a day and OPEC members are likely to continue producing more than their share as they push to compensate for low prices by increasing output. Laser therapy can be used any time a patient needs a non-invasive procedure for the control of pain, when conventional therapies have been ineffective, or when the acceleration of healing from injuries is desired.Is Laser Therapy Safe?A Laser therapy has been successfully used around the world for over 30+ years, with no reported long-term or irreversible side effects. This technical article deals with optimisation tips and energy efficiency savings in heating systems of a building. One of these is internally connected to a gas jet which can be set at 45A° to the incident electron beam and is used in the perpendicular plane experiments.
These stainless steel feeder tubes are connected to the nozzle using grounded shielded PTFE hose.
One follows the anode, another corrects the beam direction between the apertures and a third steers the beam onto the interaction region.
This shield is coated with aerodag colloidal graphite to reduce patch fields on the surface of the metal, and is made as small as possible to allow the analysers to approach the gun as close as is feasible when non-perpendicular plane geometries are selected (see figure 2).
The XY translation table is mounted from the rotating yoke, to which is attached the photomultiplier tube. This allows the gun to be dismounted from the system without the need for rewiring of the feedthrough when the need arises (filament changes, cleaning etc). The wiring between the gun and inline socket is also shielded colour coded PTFE coated advance wire facilitating spot welding to the electrostatic lens elements of the gun. The analysers are mounted onto x-z translation tables that allow them to view the interaction region accurately over the full range of angles accessible.
These lenses have a capability for energy zooming of around 10 : 1, and have a maximum entrance acceptance angle of A±3A° as defined by the entrance apertures.
This ensures that the overlap volume accepted by each analyser encompasses the interaction volume for all detection angles as the analysers move in the detection plane. These devices use an activated lead glass internal surface which has a high coefficient of secondary electron emission when a high voltage (around 3000V) is applied across the multiplier. This noise may be picked up by the channel electron multiplier and the high voltage feed to the multiplier, and is generated internally in the vacuum system. The CFD's are operated in NaI mode as this has a 2ms dead time following the initial pulse, thus reducing the possibility of false triggering due to any mismatching impedance reflections along the delay cable.
These EHT supplies are connected via VERO 200 high voltage couplings to high voltage cable connecting to the pickoff circuitry located on the high voltage feedthroughs.
This allowed the analysers to roam the detection plane over a complete 360A° angular range. The configuration of the target source hypodermic when perpendicular plane measurements are conducted.
The common procedure is to initially maximise the current from the gun onto the Faraday cup, then onto analyser counts as the electron beam is moved through the gas jet. Maximising the Faraday cup current is therefore only a crude preliminary alignment of the incident electron gun beam. This therefore assumes that the analysers are initially focused onto the interaction region, and a slow iterative technique must be adopted where the analysers and electron gun are tuned so as to maximise the signal from both analysers. In this case a true differential cross section is not obtained, since the scattered and ejected electron trajectories lie in a different plane than defined in the initial experimental alignment.
An EMI 9789QB reduced photocathode photomultiplier tube is installed in the vacuum system together with optical focussing and defining elements (figure 2). A group of these excited states decay back to lower valence states with the emission of visible photons at wavelengths around 450nm for both helium and argon targets.
Tuning of the electron gun to PMT counts therefore guarantees that the electron gun is steered and focussed to the point at the centre of the detection plane independent of the analysers or gas beam density. This is mainly used when the vacuum system is baked at temperatures above 55A°C, since the photocathode is rapidly damaged by temperatures exceeding this. The tube is a venetian blind dynode construction, and has a reduced photocathode to decrease the noise on the output of the tube to less than 20Hz. The photomultiplier tube base was thoroughly cleaned in an ultrasound following location of these components, to displace any flux residue from the solder joints. It is therefore necessary to amplify the channeltron pulses prior to transmission to the discriminators, whereas the photomultiplier tube pulses are sufficiently large to not require further amplification. These pulses are amplified by Phillips Scientific 6954 100X amplifiers located external to the EHT feedthroughs connected by 10cm lengths of RG-58 cable. These crates are further decoupled from the AC mains supply using filter circuitry on each supply line.
Internal to these rate-meters buffer 7400 TTL chips have been added to send to 32 bit counters located in the main PC via RG-58 cable. These supplies are fully floating, their mid-point voltage being equal to the lens element voltage in which the deflectors are housed. All these supplies are fully computer controlled isolated units with low output impedance to reduce noise and eliminate current loops. This relay switching unit allows either the voltage or the current on each lens element to be measured by a Keithley Digital voltmeter. This drive is further reduced internally by 10X reduction gears, resulting in a reduction ratio of 100:1. This led to the ground line of the RS232 serial line moving around with respect to the 0V stepper motor reference as drive current to the motors returned along the ground line. The optocoupler logic circuit circuit that controls the stepper motors and avoids collisions between the analysers, the electron gun, the Faraday cup and the hypodermic support.
Added to this filament supply is a computer controlled current boost circuit that can be used to increase the filament current during electron gun tuning. The additional current then returns to the 12V DC regulated supply via a second 1N4007 diode. This therefore depends upon both the current driving the filament, as well as the resistance of the filament when hot (typically 4W - 6W). This supply feeds current to the filament without changing the characteristics of the main constant current supply used while operating the spectrometer.
These high stability reference sources ensure that the analyser and electron gun positions are accurately measured with time.
A datalogger internal to the controlling PC establishes a cubic spline relationship between the measured angles and the corresponding ADC conversion from the potentiometers.
This PC also controls the selection of the relay motherboard for measurement of the required lens element either in voltage or current mode when a request is sent from the controlling computer via an RS232 serial line. The findings are problematic to Welbourne, who notes that research from hundreds of thousands of people shows optimizing and directing energy drives high performance and growth.
On the other hand, leaders working too far below their optimal energy level often avoid challenges and are bored. Because heat can be lost through the joists themselves a second layer of loft insulation is laid across the top of the joists, at right angles to them. And within the cartel, Iran and Iraq want to start pumping more, even though regional rival Saudi Arabia appears unwilling to play along by reducing its own output. Our Laser has been cleared by the FDA for the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and other joint and muscle problems.
Heating systems in buildingHeating systems have always been used when the outside temperature drops below a certain comfort threshold (a highly relative concept in terms of time and space). The spectrometer is shown configured in the perpendicular plane, the electron gun being placed in the vertical position with respect to the analysers which span the horizontal detection plane.
The electron source is a heated tungsten hairpin filament heated by passing around 2A of DC current through the filament. The saturated gain of these devices yields around 1E8 electrons in the output current pulse for a single electron which enters the input cone.
This allows the analyser to roam over a complete 360 degrees of the detection plane when in this geometry (apart from the position where the analysers would clash wth each other). The analysers are then adjusted for maximum signal count and the procedure is iterated until a maximum is found. The dark noise count is also reduced when cooled, however since the reduced cathode PMT only produces dark counts of less than 20Hz at room temperature, this is not necessary during routine operations. The 1.82M resistor was chosen to optimise the single photon counting efficiency of the tube.
It is not found that these solder connections significantly affect the ultimate vacuum pressure in the system. Isolated DC supplies to these amplifiers is obtained from a standard +15V supply, the circuit diagram being given in figure 8.
The power supply to these TTL buffers is derived from the rate-meter supplies via 7805 5V regulators located internally. This supply boosts the current without changing the main supply, thus ensuring supply stability before and after the electron gun is tuned. It has successfully treated chronic and acute pain, wounds, sports injuries, and more.How does laser light heal?Low-level lasers supply energy to the body in the form of non-thermal photons of light. The electron gun is a two stage non-energy selected gun that produces an incident electron beam current of up to 4 microamps at an incident energy from around 30eV to 300eV.
The 470k resistors bias the dynodes to achieve saturation of the current pulse at the output of the tube, hence biasing the tube for single photon counting applications.
This was found to be necessary to eliminate problems associated with current loops from the 20A peak motor current feeding the common point of the logic circuitry.
Light is transmitted through the skin's layers (the dermis, epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue or tissue fat under the skin) at all wavelengths in the visible range; however, light waves in the near infrared ranges penetrate the deepest of all light waves in the visible spectrum. Limiting heat losses from the buildingDepending on the level of and variation in the outside temperature, heating or cooling (air conditioning) systems maintain the inside temperature at a comfortable level (typically from 18 to 22°C).
The analysers are identical, and consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens focussing the interaction region onto the entrance of a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser. The Anode deflector pair corrects for any misalignment of the filament emission point with respect to the axis of the electron gun. When low level laser light waves penetrate deeply into the skin, they optimize the immune responses of our blood.
The Chamber is lined internally with 3mm thick mu-metal, and a mu-metal cylinder encloses the chamber externally as shown. The electrons selected in angle and energy are amplified using Mullard 919BL channel electron multipliers.
The defining apertures limit the pencil and beam angles of the electron beam following focussing by lens 2 onto the interaction region.
The load is set by the 50W resistor across the anode to the HT feed, the pulse being decoupled to ground via the 1nF capacitor. This reduces the magnetic field at the interaction region to less than 5mG, an acceptable level for the electron energies used in this experiment. The interaction region defined by the interaction of the gas target beam and the electron beam is focussed onto the photocathode of an EMI 9789QB photomultiplier tube via a lens, 450nmA±50nm optical filter and defining aperture. Placement of the apertures ensures that the beam angle is close to zero degrees at the interaction region over a wide range of energies, whereas the aperture opening reduces the pencil angle to around A±2 degrees over this energy range.
It is a scientific fact that light transmitted to the blood in this way has a positive effect through-out the whole body, supplying vital oxygen and energy to every cell.A What to Expect During a Laser Therapy Treatment Sessiona€?For most people, laser therapy is quite passive. The target gas effuses from a 0.6mm ID hypodermic needle constructed from platinum iridium alloy.


The 10MW safety resistor prevents the output charging up to a high voltage if the feed is disconnected.
The deflectors between the apertures correct for space and surface charge beam variations inside the field free region, whereas the final deflectors allow the beam to be steered onto the interaction region defined by focussing a 1mm aperture in front of the photomultiplier tube onto the gas target beam. Some patients have reported a slight tingling or tapping in a nerve or along a nerve pathway. The electrons passing through the interaction region which are not scattered are collected in a Faraday cup opposite the electron gun.
The gun, photomultiplier tube, gas hypodermic and Faraday cup all rotate on a common yoke with an axis through the centre of the horizontal detection plane, allowing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry to be accessed. But for the most part, the treatment, which may last from 15 to 30 minutes, is not noticed at all. Following (and even during) a laser therapy session, approximately 75-80% of patients being treated can notice an immediate improvement in their condition.
This will depend primarily on the type of condition and the length of time the condition has been present. Optimize the output of heat generatorsHeating systems can be either individual or centralized.Individual systems generally draw on electric radiators (convector, radiant or blower type) which heat each area of the building separately (offices, rooms, common areas).
However, although the efficiency of an electric radiator is 100% (all of the energy used is converted into heat in the building), this type of heating is seldom the most economical. Once again, the number of treatments depends upon the severity of the condition and its duration. There are some conditions that will never completely resolve but can be helped and maintained with laser therapy.
When heat is purchased from a supplier, the energy is delivered via hot water pipes and thermal metering is used for billing purposes. Cells and tissues that are compromised have been shown to have a significantly higher response to LLLT irradiation than normal healthy structures.
Cell membranes, mitochondria and damaged neurological structures exhibit less than optimal metabolism and stasis conditions.
Use heat pumpsHeat pumps can be used alone or in combination with a boiler, with the type used depending on the heat source.The heat source may be the surrounding air, but in this case the pump cannot be used effectively below a certain temperature, because of icing. Multiple studies have demonstrated that under these compromised conditions, the introduction of energy transfers response and the resultant enhancement of metabolic activity pronounced in biologically challenged cells, thus selectively targeting compromised cells, in reality, these cells exhibit a lowered reaction threshold to the effects of laser light and are more easily triggered to energy transfer responses. The result is that LLLT has a significant effect on damaged cells and tissues while normative biological constituents are appreciably less affected.1The cellular cascade effect a€” precipitated by the actions of enzymes and having a significant response in the presence of LLLT a€” has a significant impact on cellular and tissue function. Since a considerable number of the reactive proteins that respond to laser stimulation are enzymes, laser light effects are amplified in the stimulation of beneficial enzymes and depression of deleterious enzymes.A At the cellular level, cytochromes can be defined as electron or proton-transfer proteins that act as energy producers for human biological functions.
Both of the cytochrome enzymes, Cytochrome c Oxydase and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) have been found to be particularly reactive to laser photon stimulation.
The particular affinity of these and other photo-reactive enzymes to accelerate their functions in the presence of LLLT provides critical increases in the molecule ATP and Nitric Oxide (NO) which enhances cellular activity & repairAlthough the various actions of LLLT in regards to inflammation, pain and healing have been separated categorically here for the purpose of process identification, their interactions are not so easily distinguished.
Use solar heatingThis solution presents two difficulties: it requires good exposure (orientation) for the installation of the solar panels, and the availability of heat is by its very nature subject to variations in the weather.
In response to LLLT, the reduction in inflammation, pain and healing time all compliment each other and many of the processes are either simultaneous or overlapping.Acute Inflammation ReductionImmediately after an acute injury event, the body, in response to the disruption of the integrity of vascular, soft tissue, begins a series of biological responses. BAPV solar facade on a municipal building located in Madrid, Spain (photo credit: Wikipedia) Go back to Heating Actions ^ 7. Injury responsive components such as Mast cells, Bradykinins and Prostaglandins are activated along with the vascular responses and cellular membrane reactions.
Optimize heating circuitsIn the case of a centralized heating system where thermal energy is distributed to various buildings via a water or air circuit, it is also advisable to save energy by reducing heat loss along the pipes. All of these combined processes and events are represented by the symptoms of edema, inflammation, pain and functional debility. It is essential to insulate water pipes or air flues, especially in unheated areas (ducting, boiler rooms, service areas).The electricity consumption of pumps or fans must also be reduced by fitting variable speed drives to provide a level of propulsion which exactly meets the requirement. LLLT can be effective in mediating both the symptoms and the underlying inflammatory process by the following actions:1.
Stabilization of cellular membrane a€” Ca+ +, Na+ and K+ concentrations as well as the proton gradient over the mitochondria membrane are positively in This is accomplished in part by the production of beneficial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) wherein triplet oxygen molecules absorb laser light pro ducing singlet oxygen molecules. These ROS modulate intracellular Ca+ + concentrations and laser therapy improves Ca+ + uptake in the mitochondria.2,3,4A 2. Optimize heating controlThe heating control system must ensure the user comfort at minimal energy consumption as shown in figure 3 below.In normal operation, all of the premises which are actually used must be at a comfortable temperature. ATP production and synthesis are significantly enhanced, contributing to cel lular repair, reproduction and functional ability. For periods when the buildings are not being used (nights, weekends, holidays) the temperature can be lowered by several degrees.
Laser stimulation of Cytochrome c Oxidase, a chromophore found on the mitochondria of cells, plays a major role in this rapid increase in production and synthesis of ATP.3A 3. A minimum temperature just above freezing must be permanently maintained to avoid damage to buildings and their contents. Vasodilatation is stimulated via Histamine, Nitric Oxide (NO) and Serotonin increases, resulting in reduction of ischemia and improved perfusion. Laser-mediated vasodilatation enhances the transport of nutrients and oxygen to the damaged cells and facilitates repair and removal of cellular debris.5,6A 4.
The heating must therefore come on a few hours before the occupants arrive, and it may similarly be switched off before they leave. Beneficial acceleration of leukocytic activity results in enhanced removal of non-viable cellular and tissue components, allowing for a more rapid repair and regeneration process.A 5. Increased Prostaglandin synthesis, particularly in conversion of the prostaglandins PGG2 and PGH2 periossides into prostaglandin PGI2.
These free contributions are taken into account by the internal thermostats.Finally, to improve user comfort, it is desirable to be able to adjust the temperature setting for each office individually.
PGI2 (Prostacyclin), has a vasodilating and anti-inflammatory action with some attributes similar to Cox-I and Cox-II inhibitors.7A  6. In addition to increasing the number of lymphocytes, laser irradiation mediates the action of both lymphatic helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells in the inflammatory response. Highly specialized for design of LV high power busbar trunking (<6300A) in power substations, buildings and industry fascilities. Along with laser modification of beta cell activity, the entire lymphatic response is beneficially affected by LLLT.98. Both blood capillaries and lymphatic capillaries have been clinically documented to undergo significant increase and regeneration in the presence of laser irradiation. The resulting improvement in circulation and perfusion enhances all repair and healing processes.
Laser induced increases in NO and the growth factors a€” in particular cytokine INF-g a€” are contributory to this process.10,11A 9. Areas of inflammation typically demonstrate temperature variations with the inflamed portion having an elevated temperature. Laser stimulated increases in cytokine SOD levels interact with other anti-inflammatory processes to accelerate the termination of the inflammatory process. Every day, the generation and usage of energy produces more pollution than any other single industry.It's our time to use energy on smart and more efficent way.
This rapid initiation of therapy in acute inflammation will assist in limiting the scope and duration of the inflammatory event and minimize the pain and severity associated with it.While the treatment regimen and course of therapy may be modified in chronic situations, the physiological responses and interactions remain consistent. Chronic conditions may require longer treatment times.Pain ReductionThe unique pain reduction abilities of LLLT have been exten documented in numerous clinical studies and medical papers.
While there remains much to learn in re pain reduction characteristics, there is a wealth of knowledge currently available to demonstrate the effectiveness of laser therapy in this regard.Because the pain amelioration capabilities of LLLT are ac combination of local and systemic actions a€” utilizing enzymatic, chemical and physical interventions a€” the process is very complex. However, there is a preponderance of medical evidence that justifies a conclusion that effective pain reductions can be achieved via LLLT. The localized and systemic in-crease of this endogenous peptide after LLLT irradiation has been clinically reported in multiple studies with subsequent pain reductions.A  2. The pain blocking effect of LLLT can be pronounced, particularly in low velocity neural pathways, such as non-mylenated afferent axons from nociceptors. Laser irradiation suppresses the exci tation of these fibers in the afferent sensory pathway.13,14A  3. As a neurotransmitter it is essential for normal nerve cell action potential in impulse transmission activity and, indirectly, the vasodilatation effect of NO can enhance nerve cell perfusion and oxygenation.A 4. Both compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values and nerve latency values have shown improvement with laser therapy.15A 5.
Several studies have documented the ability of LLLT to induce axonal sprouting and some nerve regeneration in damaged nerve tis sues.
Where pain sensation is being magnified due to nerve structure damage, cell regeneration and sprouting may assist in pain decrease.16,176. Since Bradykinins elicit pain by stimulating nociceptive afferents in the skin and viscera, mitigation of elevated levels through LLLT can result in pain re Kininase II, and increase in NO are considered the contributors to this Bradykinin decrease.A 7. By increasing the avail-able acetylcholine, LLLT help s in normalizing nerve signal trans-mission in the autonomic, somatic and sensory neural pathways.A 8.
LLLT promotes normalization in Ca+ +, NA+ and K+ concentrations resulting in beneficial pain reduction results from these ion concentration shifts. Figure 2 presents a simplified representation of the effects of LLLT on pain improvement at the cellular level.Tissue HealingOne of the truly unique characteristics of LLLT is that it has the ability to actually promote and enhance healing, not just treat symptoms.
The irradiation by low-level laser light accelerates and enhances healing activities carried out by the body.
LLLT can provide the following beneficial impacts in both open surface wounds and closed connective or soft tissue injuries as follows:1.
LLLT accelerates macrophage activity in phagocytosis, growth factor secretion and stimulation of collagen synthesis.A 3. The significant angiogenesis that occurs with laser therapy promotes revascularization with subsequent improvement in perfusion and oxygenation. The beneficial synthesis active factor ability of keratinocytes are enhanced by proliferation secondary to LLLT.20A 6. Laser-stimulated acceleration of epithelial cell regeneration speeds up wound healing, minimizes scarring, and reduces infection opportunities.A 7.
Two to five fold increases in growth-phase-specific DNA synthesis in normal fibroblasts, mus cells irradiated with IR light are reported.
Increases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) secondary to IR light irradiation have also been reported.8.
Laser-in duced increases in NO, ATP and other compounds that stimulate differentiation into mature cells. Increased numbers of myofibroblasts, myofibrils, myotubes etc., as well as bone cell proliferation, have been clinically demonstrated with LLLT. Satellite cells, the precursor cells in the process of muscle regeneration, show significant increase in proliferation when irradiated with LLLT.21,22,239.
Governmental agencies such as NASA are currently using tech medical conditions in space applications. Olympic training facilities have just released state validate the growing acceptance in mainstream medicine for the medical efficacy of laser therapy as a viable, often superior therapeutic treatment modality.With over 200 clinical studies a€” many of which are double-blind, placebo-controlled a€” and in excess of 2000 published articles on LLLT, this innovative new technology has a well-documented research and application history. Having grown far beyond its distant Institutional Review Board (IRB) and experimental treatment status, LLLT is now being considered a therapy of choice for many difficult pain management challenges such as fibromyalgia and myofascial pain. He has served as manager for several biomedical design and service facilities and participated as lead researcher for biomedical devices involved in emergency cardiac care, warmed intravenous fluid therapy and laser therapy. Richard has participated in medical clinical trials for 15 years as a clinical trial analyst and contributing clinician.References1.
Analysis in vitro of the cellular proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts with low level laser. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low-intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation. What is optimal dose, power density and timing for low level laser therapy in tendon injuries? Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.A 9. In vitro effects of low level laser irra diation at 660 nm on peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Wound healing process: influence of LLLT on the proliferation of fi broblasts and on the lymphatic regeneration. Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.12.
Diode laser irradiation selectively diminishes slow component of axonal volleys to dor sal roots from the saphenous nerve. Laser therapy as a new modali ty in the treatment of incomplete peripheral nerve in-juries: Prospective Clinical Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study. Department of Neuro surgery, Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.16.
Comparison of the low level laser therapy effects on cultured human gingival fibroblasts proliferation using different irradiance and same fluence.
Enhancement of the blood growth promoting activity after exposure of volun teers to visible and infrared polarized light. Low energy laser irradiation pro-motes the survival and cell cycle entry of skeletal muscle satellite cells. The biological ef fects of laser therapy and other modalities on con nective tissue repair processes. Low level laser therapy of soft tissue injuries upon sport activities and traffic acci dents: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controled clinical study on 132 patients.



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