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As noted on previous pages, (e,2e) experiments which measure the angular correlations between scattered and ionised electrons following a collision provide a rigorous test of theories of electron impact ionisation of atoms. These experiments have almost always been concerned with ionisation in which the residual ion is left in its ground state, and have principally been carried out in either coplanar geometry or in perpendicular plane geometry.
These studies have almost all been carried out at incident electron energies in excess of 650eV.
These experiments have been of the glancing type, with one of the outgoing electrons carrying away most of the energy and being deflected in the forward direction.
In this page results are presented for a coplanar non-glancing experiment at a much lower incident energy. The excitation energy of the excited (n=2) electron in the He+ ion core is comparable to the kinetic energy of the detected electrons in this experiment, and so strong correlations between all three electrons in the final state might be expected.
Measurements are also presented for direct ionisation to the ionic ground state, where the energy of the detected electrons was selected to be the same as for ionisation with excitation. The doubly-symmetric differential cross-section (DCS) was obtained by varying the angle q and measuring the (e,2e) coincidence signal as a function of this angle.
The ionic 2P substate populations and coherences could additionally be determined by measuring the angular distribution or polarisation of the emitted photons.
The spectrometer used to collect these results is a fully computer controlled and real-time computer optimised (e,2e) coincidence spectrometer. The spectrometer is maintained at its optimum during data accumulation, with frequent adjustment for any long term drifts. The spectrometer is mounted in a vacuum chamber at a background pressure of typically 10E-8 torr. Two hemispherical deflection analysers with acceptance half angles of 3A° rotate in the detection plane (figure 2). Following energy selection the electrons are detected by channel electron multipliers, whose pulses are pre-amplified and noise discriminated. The discriminators feed a time to amplitude converter via appropriate delay lines, resulting in an 8ns FWHM coincidence signal which accumulates in a multi-channel analyser located on the IBM 80286 PC computer bus.
The computer software optimises the spectrometer at regular intervals using a modified simplex technique. The direct ionisation experiments carried out at 104.6eV incident energy were interleaved with the experiments where the ion was left in an excited state. 18 counts per second to approximately 1 count every 30 seconds, for a total runtime of 4.8E5 seconds. These extremely low coincidence rates mean that the spectrometer must be stable for the very long times that data has to be accumulated to become statistically meaningful. The ratio of differential cross-sections for the two processes is therefore given by the ratio of observed coincidence count rates. Figures 3 and 4 show the normalised differential cross-sections plotted on linear and logarithmic scales in order to highlight the differences in the forward and backward scattering directions.
The ratio of cross-sections is seen to be approximately 100 : 1 and so separate scales have been used for the two sets of measurements. It has been suggested that this results from elastic scattering of the incident electron through 180A° from the atomic core followed by a quasi-free binary collision.
By contrast, the result for ionisation with excitation does not appear to exhibit this deep minimum or structure, although the very low measured coincidence counts at these angles make any definite conclusion difficult. There is a slight structure observed at theta ~ 60A° for ionisation with excitation which does not appear for direct ionisation, and since these results were taken at the same time, this is not considered to be an instrumental effect. Direct ionisation from a p-orbital exhibits structure in the cross-section with a splitting of the binary and backscatter peaks, a secondary peak appearing roughly at 50 - 60A° in the forward lobe.
The cross-section for excitation to the 2S ionic state would be expected to forward peak at approximately theta = 45A°, as in the direct ionisation process. The orientation of the Earth's poles relative to the Sun causes the difference in energy received at the Equator and the poles. Look for energy savings opportunities that can be carried out with available budget and resources. The most fundamental premise of an energy audit at any level is to identify what is in the best interest of the building owner.
For example, most utility rebate programs have “trade allies” to promote and support measures that will provide rebates to customers. Can you really expect a mechanical contractor to have expertise or incentive to recommend lighting improvements, when they might be in the owner’s best interest?
Can you really expect an electrical contractor to have expertise or incentive to recommend heating or water heating improvements, when they might be in the owner’s best interest?
Therefore, the premise of this article is fatally flawed and biased, since it only mentions those items that are in the purview of electricians or electrical contractors, and even then may not be complete. Years of using oversized wattage lamps in enclosed ceiling-mounted luminaires may have caused serious damage to the fixture’s parts, including its wiring and even the building wiring in the ceiling outlet box.
It’s been a while since we first tested your knowledge on the electrical symbols front. Take this weekly quiz to test your knowledge of the 2014 National Electrical Code requirements.
Take a look at how the items used to protect workers on the job have changed over the years. Aligning varying sources and types of data to generate overall estimations of unhealthy diet prevalence is not possible.
The amount of dietary salt consumed is an important determinant of blood pressure levels and overall cardiovascular risk.
A population salt intake of less than 5 grams per person per day is recommended by WHO for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
It is estimated that decreasing dietary salt intake from the current global levels of 9a€“12 grams per day a€“ to the recommended level of 5 grams per day a€“ would have a major impact on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. High consumption of saturated fats and trans-fatty acids is linked to heart disease; replacement with polyunsaturated vegetable oils lowers coronary heart disease risk. In the absence of comparable data on individual dietary intakes around the world, the availability of food for human consumption derived from national Food balance sheets are shown in the figure below. There were large variations across WHO regions in the amount of total fats available for human consumption. The availability of total fat increases with income level, while the availability of saturated fats clusters around the value of 8% in low and lower middle income countries and 10% in upper middle income and in high income countries. In this web page we provide detailed (e,2e) studies of electron impact ionization of noble gases including helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon from near threshold to intermediate energies, where the outgoing electrons carry equal energy from the interaction.
The experiments were conducted in the perpendicular plane, where the outgoing electrons are detected orthogonal to the incident electron beam.
The data show the cross sections undergo complex variations as a function of incident energy, and in particular ionization of the heaviest target is at variance to all others that have been studied here. The (e,2e) process provides the most precise experimental data for the study of the ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact.
By determining the momenta of the scattered and ejected electrons in a time correlated coincidence measurement, the differential ionization cross section (DCS) is derived for comparison with theoretical models. Since the scattered and ejected electrons may emerge over a wide range of different angles, experiments usually define a specific scattering geometry in which to carry out the measurements.
In the present work, we have constrained the spectrometer to measure the DCS only in the perpendicular geometry, where psi = 90A°.
For both electrons to emerge in this geometry it is necessary for an interaction with the target nucleus to occur, and this provides a stringent test of current ionization models.
We have taken measurements with the incident electron energy E0 ranging from near the ionization threshold of the selected target, through to energies up to 80eV above the ionization potential (IP).
Understanding these processes is hence important in areas ranging from the production of plasmas in stellar and planetary atmospheres, through to electron impact ionization in lasers and in nuclear reactors.
In all cases results are presented for the outgoing electrons having equal energies at the analysers. The apparatus can measure the DCS from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry by moving the electron gun, gas jet and Faraday cup together around the interaction region (figure 2). The electron analysers consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens that focuses electrons from the interaction region into a hemispherical energy selector.
The data were taken over a period of several months, and the electron gun current was varied for each of the data sets so as to ensure linearity of the detection system.
The energy of the incident electron beam was determined by observing the negative ion elastic scattering resonance in helium at ~19eV, so as to determine the offset in the gun due to contact potentials. The energies of the outgoing electrons were determined by observing inelastic scattering from the excited targets, and by considering the location of Fano resonances in the ionization continuum. The experimental data for helium are taken from previous work carried out in Manchester re-presented here normalised to unity at the peak of the DCS to allow comparison with other noble gases. The ground state of helium is 1S0, with an electronic configuration 1s2, and so both bound electrons occupy s-shell orbitals prior to the interaction. For helium, neon and argon targets, the bound electrons occupy either s-orbitals or p-orbitals in their ground state. It was not possible to resolve these individual channels in our experiment (due to the limited energy resolution of the spectrometer) apart from for xenon, where results were taken for production of the different ion states at incident electron energies from 10eV to 30eV above the IP. Figure 3 presents results for ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane for ten different incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the IP. As the incident electron energy increases, additional peaks are seen at angles around 90A° & 270A°.
By 20eV above the IP three distinct peaks are clearly visible, the relative strength of the central peak to outer lobes decreasing monotonically as the energy increases.
The physical reasons behind these structures has been described by several models, ranging from DWBA calculations through to TDCC models.
There is only one process that can produce a peak at 180A? in the perpendicular plane without interaction with the target nucleus. The peaks at around 90A° & 270A° are found to result from elastic scattering of the incident electron from the core, followed by a single binary collision between the incident electron and a bound electron.
It should be noted that although agreement between theory and experiment in the perpendicular plane has proven to be very good, the results in a coplanar geometry are not as satisfactory, particularly for non-equal outgoing electron energies. The results at the lowest energy are similar in shape to that for helium, with a single broad peak observed centred around 180A°.
As the incident energy increases, the DCS for neon shows a very different character to that for helium.


The mechanisms that produce these structures in neon must be quite different to that proposed for helium, apart from at the lowest energy where PCI is expected to dominate for all targets. Al-Hagan and co-workers recently considered the low energy regime for both He and H2 from threshold to ~10eV above threshold, and concluded that for these targets PCI dominates at energies <2eV, which is also consistent with the observations for neon presented here. The results in figure 4 indicate that the interaction is clearly more complex, and may be due to the momentum distribution of the ionized p-electron and polarizability of the atom (which is 1.9 times greater for neon than for helium).
A similar study was carried out for argon, whose outer electronic structure ([Ne]3s23p6) is similar to neon ([He]2s22p6). In the frozen-core approximation as used in many theories, the inner electrons are considered as spectators during the interaction, and so in this approximation the structure of the DCS should be similar for neon and argon. For argon, nine separate energies were chosen for study, so as to reveal the complex variation in the DCS as a function of energy. Once again the results for argon are not consistent with the simple models found successful for helium. Figure 6 shows the results for krypton, which unlike helium, argon and neon also has bound electrons occupying the 3d-shell. Once again results were taken for a lowest energy 2eV above the IP, with the data having much better statistical significance compared to those for argon at the same energy. As the energy increases, the results for krypton show a similar trend to that for argon, with the central minimum deepening until around 10eV above the IP where a central peak starts to emerge. The similarity between argon and krypton data tends to indicate that the d-shell electrons in the heavier target are not playing a significant role in the ionization process. As the heaviest isotopically stable noble gas target, xenon has the largest calculated size (108 pm) due to full occupation of the 4d, 5s and 5p shells.
The ionic ground states of Xe+ are sufficiently separated that it was possible to resolve ionization to individual states during the experiments, for energies up to 30eV above the IP. The data are particularly surprising since they do not follow the general trend seen for all other noble gas targets at higher energies. The minimum at 180A° is significantly deeper than for krypton under the same outgoing energy conditions, and unlike krypton this minimum then becomes shallower as the incident energy increases. These results show that the mechanism for ionization of xenon must once again be different to all other targets that have been studied. As far as we are aware this phenomenon has never been observed for any other target, and it remains to be seen why this should occur for xenon. Only three energies were selected for these experiments, due to the difficulty of obtaining good statistical data. The set of data presented here for isotopically stable noble gases shows there is a large variation in the probability of ionization in the perpendicular plane.
The perpendicular plane is particularly poignant for testing the most sophisticated electron impact ionization models, since multiple scattering must occur for electrons to emerge in this plane. The perpendicular plane has proven to be a fertile ground to test recent theoretical models, which have found success for simple targets such as helium and molecular hydrogen.
It appears that PCI plays a role at the lowest measured energy for each target, although the significance of this process reduces as the target weight increases.
The most surprising result is for the heaviest target xenon, since the relative magnitude of the central peak continues to increase as the incident energy increases, and the side lobes reduce to insignificance.
It is worth noting that the resolved data for ionization to the different Xe+ states indicate there is little variation to the measured cross section due to fine structure effects. KLN thanks the Royal Society for an International Newton Research Fellowship held at the University of Manchester.
The incident electron energy ranges widely from near threshold to many keV above threshold, allowing different theoretical approximations to be investigated.
The measurements show a marked contrast to those for direct ionisation, with the backscatter peak being larger than the forward scatter peak.
This allows a direct comparison to be made between the two processes, since the analyser efficiencies remained unchanged. The (e,2e) Experimental Geometry chosen to be in Coplanar Geometry with equal selection of energy for the scattered and ejected electrons. Such an experiment would, however, be very difficult in practice due to the extremely low triple coincidence yields that would be obtained. This is essential in experiments which require long data accumulation times such as the one described here. If the spectrometer drifts over these times in energy, electron beam current , tuning conditions or gas density then the results are far more difficult to interpret.
The DCS for ionisation and excitation of the ion plotted on a linear scale, normalised to unity at theta = 90 degrees. The DCS for ionisation and excitation of the ion plotted on a logarithmic scale, normalised to unity at theta = 90 degrees. The forward scattering cross-sections are qualitatively similar in form, in contrast to the results for the high energy asymmetric geometry. It is perhaps not unreasonable to assume that analogously, excitation to the excited 2P state might exhibit similar structure. A similar structure might be expected in a backscatter peak at approximately 120A°, where the incident electron is initially scattered elastically by the atom prior to ionisation and excitation, and a suggestion of such a peak can be seen in figure 4. This is because the low latitudes (near the Equator) receive relatively large amounts of radiation all year, AND at high latitudes (near the poles), the more oblique angle of the Sun's rays together with long periods of darkness in the winter, result in a low average amount of received radiation. At the lowest level (Level 0), you basically do a walk-through to identify low-hanging-fruit types of opportunities. However, most trade allies are contractors, tradesmen, or consultants with limited expertise in energy audits, such as mechanical or electrical contractors. For example, how many electricians or contractors of any type are competent to evaluate whether the building is on the most advantageous rates?
For that reason, estimates of specific elements of unhealthy diets are presented separately in this text. Adequate consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces the risk for cardiovascular diseases, stomach cancer and colorectal cancer.
However, data from various countries indicates that most populations are consuming much more salt than this.
Higher unsaturated fatty acids from vegetable sources and polyunsaturated fatty acids have also been shown to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these may not accurately reflect actual consumption and should be treated as indicative only. The lowest quantities available were recorded in the South East Asia Region, and the highest availability in the European Region. For electrons to emerge in this geometry they must undergo multiple scattering including scattering from the nucleus of the target, and so this provides a highly sensitive test for scattering theories. In these experiments a single electron of well defined momentum impacts with a target in the interaction region, resulting in target ionization and a scattered and ejected electron which emerge after the interaction has taken place. Our (e,2e) apparatus can access a wide range of geometries from a coplanar geometry, where the incident, scattered and ejected electrons all occupy the same plane, through to the perpendicular geometry, where the scattered and ejected electrons emerge in a plane orthogonal to the incident electron trajectory (figure 1).
In this regime the probability of single ionization is a maximum, and so it is here that most ionizing collisions with electrons occur in nature. Low energy electron ionization has also been attributed to the production of DNA damage in biological tissue, and so it is important to understand these collisions at a fundamental level to describe the physics of these processes. The helium results are reproduced from previous studies carried out in Manchester, re-presented here for completeness. By choosing the analyser residual energy to pass electrons around the selector, a channel electron multiplier detects electrons of the specified energy for subsequent amplification and counting.
In the perpendicular plane, only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant, where xi1, xi2 are as shown in figure 1. The orbital angular momentum of each electron is hence zero, with a momentum distribution that peaks around zero a.u. The configuration of the 10 electrons in neon is 1s22s22p6, whereas argon has 18 electrons occupying a configuration [Ne]3s23p6. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Helium.txt. Experimental results for the ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the ionization potential for this target.
This is considered to be due to the dominance of post-collisional interactions (PCI) between the outgoing electrons, which drives electrons emerging with equal energies from the interaction region asymptotically towards opposite directions. At ~50eV excess energy the three lobes have equal amplitudes, whereas at higher energies the outer lobes dominate.
The DWBA theory most easily allows the different processes involved in the interaction to be switched on and off, and this has explained the origin of these lobes. This process requires the momentum of the incident electron to be exactly matched by the momentum of the bound electron, with both electrons moving in opposite directions prior to the interaction. In this case, since the particles have equal mass and energy, they emerge from the interaction region at a mutual angle of 90A° & 270A° as observed. It is therefore clear that further work is needed to fully describe the ionization reaction, even for a simple target like helium. The lowest energy studied was 5eV above the IP, with six measurements being taken up to 50eV above the IP as shown.
Experimental results for the ionization of neon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 5eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The width for this peak in neon is ~120A°, which is broader than ~80A° for the same outgoing electron energy in helium. As the energy is raised to 10eV above the IP, the broad single peak seen at the lowest energy increases in width, and develops a flat structure at the peak. However, at higher energies the mechanisms proposed for helium ionization described above would be expected to produce similar structures in all targets that have a central ionic core. The calculated atomic radius of argon (71pm) is however significantly larger than that for helium (31pm) or neon (38pm) due to the n=3 shell being occupied. Experimental results for the ionization of argon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The lowest energy studied was 2eV above the IP, the data at this energy having poor statistics due to experimental difficulties working with argon at this energy.
This minimum flattens at 10eV above the IP and rapidly evolves into a clear peak 15eV above the IP. The results further indicate that the use of a A”frozen-coreA• approximation is unlikely to be accurate in any theory attempting to emulate these data.


The physical size of krypton (88pm) is slightly larger than argon due to occupation of this shell, and due to closed occupation of the 4s and 4p shells.
Experimental results for the ionization of krypton in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. Ionization of krypton no longer shows the dominance of PCI as predicted by Wannier, since there is now a central minimum at 180A°. This central peak is not as significant in krypton compared to the side lobes, and by 30eV above the IP is once again diminishing. It also appears that the variation in cross section as a function of energy follows a similar pattern for each of these targets.
A coincidence energy loss spectrum is shown in figure 7 to illustrate this separation at an incident electron energy 10eV above the IP for this target. The results were taken from 2eV above the IP to 70eV above the IP for this target, so as to establish the variation in the cross section that is observed. At the lowest energy 2eV above the IP, a clear two-peak structure is observed which is similar to that observed from krypton. The results at higher energies are surprising, as the mechanism that produces the central peak with the electrons moving opposite each other is clearly dominating all other scattering processes. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon2.txt.
These data indicate that fine structure in the final ion state does not play a significant role in the ionization process, since the comparison between this data and that reproduced from figure 8 shows that the shapes of the cross section for each energy are very similar. This contrasts to the coplanar geometry most often adopted, where the dominant scattering mechanism is usually a single binary scattering between electrons, resulting in a high probability that forward scattering occurs. The results presented here will hence further test these models for heavier targets, so as to elucidate the scattering mechanisms that result in the observations.
Argon, krypton and xenon also all evolve a central peak as the incident electron energy increases from near threshold, which cannot be due to PCI. The side lobes observed previously in the perpendicular plane have been attributed to a binary collision between the incident electron elastically scattered into this plane and a bound electron. It is hence likely that the results for neon, argon and krypton are also not significantly altered by these effects, even though the spectrometer was not capable of resolving their individual ion states.
CK would like to thank the University of Manchester for providing a PhD scholarship while carrying out this work. The use of the computer control to maintain the operating conditions at a stable point over the 2 months continuous accumulation time was essential for success of these experiments. There is convincing evidence that the consumption of high levels of high-energy foods, such as processed foods that are high in fats and sugars, promotes obesity compared to low-energy foods such as fruits and vegetables. For saturated fatty acids (SFA), the lowest rates were in the African Region, and the highest was in the European Region and the Region of the Americas, with very high values observed in some of the Pacific Islands. Hence it is possible to accumulate a full range of DCS measurements over all scattering angles using this spectrometer. The incident electron can move from the coplanar geometry (psi = 0A°) to the perpendicular plane (psi = 90A°), the outgoing electrons being measured in the detection plane. The shape of the DCS for a given energy and target is then of importance, for comparison with theory.
This contrasts with the other noble gas targets whose levels are 1S0, but whose valence electrons occupy closed p-orbitals.
By contrast, the bound electrons in both of the heavier targets also occupy d-orbitals, with a correspondingly more complex momentum distribution.
As the outgoing electron energy is lowered, the post collisional interaction time increases, resulting in an increased flux in the 180A° direction. At excess energies over 80eV above the IP the central lobe has virtually disappeared, leaving only the two outer lobes in the DCS. In this case, momentum conservation requires the outgoing electrons to move in opposite directions (180A°) in the perpendicular plane.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Neon.txt. At 15eV above the IP this flat structure has evolved into two peaks with 180A° now being a local minimum. The static polarization of argon is eight times larger than for helium, so scattering effects due to polarization of the target are expected to be significantly larger than for neon or helium. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Argon.txt.
This central peak is visible for incident energies up to 40eV above the IP, until at the highest energy (50eV above the IP) this has once again disappeared, the side peaks having also moved outwards compared to at the lower energies. The relative magnitude of this minimum compared to the peaks around 110A° & 250A° is however larger than for higher incident energies, so there is probably a contribution to the cross section at this angle due to PCI. This central peak has virtually disappeared 40eV above the IP and there is no evidence of a peak 50eV above the IP. It might hence be expected that the cross section for the heaviest target (xenon) would follow a similar trend to that of argon and krypton. The data are fitted to two Gaussians, showing that contamination from each ionic state is <10% when the spectrometer is set to each peak in the cross section. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon1.txt.
This indicates that PCI is once again not the dominant mechanism producing the cross section at this energy.
The relative magnitude of this peak compared to the lobes at 110A° and 250A° then increases in magnitude as the energy increases, as with krypton and argon. This result indicates that fine structure does not appear to play a significant role in electron collision processes at these energies. The marked contrast between results for helium and all other noble gas targets demand that these models carefully consider the intricacies of the interaction, since a simple extension of the basic physical ideas presented for helium cannot explain the experimental data.
For argon and krypton the relative magnitude of this peak increases with respect to the side lobes until it reaches a maximum, then decreases to become insignificant at the highest energies measured. This process has always been considered as the dominant mechanism at higher incident energies, yet the new results presented here indicate these ideas need to be revisited for this heavy target.
Even with this sophisticated feedback control, there is evidence of variations in the cross sections obtained as seen in figures 3 & 4.
Energy from SFA usually accounts for a third of the energy from total fat, with the notable exception of the South East Asia Region, where SFAs account for over 40% of total fat intake.
For the data presented here, the perpendicular plane was chosen, so only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant. The combined coincidence energy resolution of the unselected energy electron gun and the two analysers is ~1eV. Krypton has 36 electrons and has a ground state configuration [Ar]3d104s24p6, while xenon has 54 electrons with a ground state configuration [Kr]4d105s25p6. This type of threshold behaviour was first predicted by Wannier and was later considered by Peterkop, Rau and others to explain results in this regime. This mechanism was considered as being the main reason for the peak at 180A° until the work of Madison and co-workers in 2009 showed the probability of this occurring was low.
As the energy increases further, the peaks separate in angle, and the minimum at 180A° deepens. This angular shift of the side lobes is consistent with PCI playing a continuing role in the interaction, since as the energy increases the effects of PCI diminish, and the electrons move away from 180A° as is observed. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Krypton.txt.
However, unlike krypton and argon whose central peak reaches a maximum and then decreases, the central peak in xenon continues to dominate the cross section as the energy rises. Further, the frozen core approximation often adopted in these models which treat all non-ionized electrons as spectators does not appear valid for the heavier targets when compared to neon, even thought the outer valence electrons have the same p-type character. They proposed a triple scattering mechanism to describe this peak, where the incident electron first scatters elastically from the nucleus so as to enter the detection plane, followed by a binary inelastic collision with a bound electron, followed by elastic scattering of one of the electrons back from the nucleus. This trend continues up to the highest energy which was possible to measure (70eV above the IP), where the central peak is seen to be broad with a width ~100A°. It is hence likely that these assumptions will need to be relaxed to accurately model the data.
This complex mechanism was found to emulate the cross section more closely compared to the single scattering process originally envisaged.
As for all measurements in this study, the DCS must be zero for the electrons emerging at the same angle (0A°, 360A°), due to post collisional interactions between outgoing electrons of equal energy. At all energies greater than 40eV above the IP, the outer peaks seen in all other targets have disappeared.
23 L641(1990) at 100eV as expected, although the magnitude differs slightly because the incident energy is different. So before conducting that big formal audit, look for these opportunities: Shut things off. Take a survey of which items can be put on their own circuits, so that you can add manually operated off switches (if administrative procedures will be followed) or automatic timers. What about replacing entire lighting systems with LED systems (new fixtures, new layout, new controls)? If so, what about light sensors to cut back on artificial lighting when the doors are open?
When is the last time someone cleaned the condensors of HVAC units and combed the cooling fins of  condensors, evaporators, chillers, and similar equipment?
A huge energy drain in nearly any industrial facility is leaks in the compressed air system.
A common method of controlling pressure in a hydraulic system is to run the pump motor at full speed, then bleed off extra output via a pressure valve. Rather than waste energy this way, simply throttle back the motor speed automatically using a VFD that responds based on the pressure in the system.




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