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In this web page we provide detailed (e,2e) studies of electron impact ionization of noble gases including helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon from near threshold to intermediate energies, where the outgoing electrons carry equal energy from the interaction. The experiments were conducted in the perpendicular plane, where the outgoing electrons are detected orthogonal to the incident electron beam. The data show the cross sections undergo complex variations as a function of incident energy, and in particular ionization of the heaviest target is at variance to all others that have been studied here. The (e,2e) process provides the most precise experimental data for the study of the ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. By determining the momenta of the scattered and ejected electrons in a time correlated coincidence measurement, the differential ionization cross section (DCS) is derived for comparison with theoretical models. Since the scattered and ejected electrons may emerge over a wide range of different angles, experiments usually define a specific scattering geometry in which to carry out the measurements.
In the present work, we have constrained the spectrometer to measure the DCS only in the perpendicular geometry, where psi = 90A°. For both electrons to emerge in this geometry it is necessary for an interaction with the target nucleus to occur, and this provides a stringent test of current ionization models. We have taken measurements with the incident electron energy E0 ranging from near the ionization threshold of the selected target, through to energies up to 80eV above the ionization potential (IP). Understanding these processes is hence important in areas ranging from the production of plasmas in stellar and planetary atmospheres, through to electron impact ionization in lasers and in nuclear reactors. In all cases results are presented for the outgoing electrons having equal energies at the analysers. The apparatus can measure the DCS from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry by moving the electron gun, gas jet and Faraday cup together around the interaction region (figure 2).
The electron analysers consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens that focuses electrons from the interaction region into a hemispherical energy selector. The data were taken over a period of several months, and the electron gun current was varied for each of the data sets so as to ensure linearity of the detection system. The energy of the incident electron beam was determined by observing the negative ion elastic scattering resonance in helium at ~19eV, so as to determine the offset in the gun due to contact potentials. The energies of the outgoing electrons were determined by observing inelastic scattering from the excited targets, and by considering the location of Fano resonances in the ionization continuum. The experimental data for helium are taken from previous work carried out in Manchester re-presented here normalised to unity at the peak of the DCS to allow comparison with other noble gases. The ground state of helium is 1S0, with an electronic configuration 1s2, and so both bound electrons occupy s-shell orbitals prior to the interaction. For helium, neon and argon targets, the bound electrons occupy either s-orbitals or p-orbitals in their ground state. It was not possible to resolve these individual channels in our experiment (due to the limited energy resolution of the spectrometer) apart from for xenon, where results were taken for production of the different ion states at incident electron energies from 10eV to 30eV above the IP.
Figure 3 presents results for ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane for ten different incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the IP.
As the incident electron energy increases, additional peaks are seen at angles around 90A° & 270A°. By 20eV above the IP three distinct peaks are clearly visible, the relative strength of the central peak to outer lobes decreasing monotonically as the energy increases. The physical reasons behind these structures has been described by several models, ranging from DWBA calculations through to TDCC models. There is only one process that can produce a peak at 180A? in the perpendicular plane without interaction with the target nucleus.
The peaks at around 90A° & 270A° are found to result from elastic scattering of the incident electron from the core, followed by a single binary collision between the incident electron and a bound electron. It should be noted that although agreement between theory and experiment in the perpendicular plane has proven to be very good, the results in a coplanar geometry are not as satisfactory, particularly for non-equal outgoing electron energies.
The results at the lowest energy are similar in shape to that for helium, with a single broad peak observed centred around 180A°. As the incident energy increases, the DCS for neon shows a very different character to that for helium.
The mechanisms that produce these structures in neon must be quite different to that proposed for helium, apart from at the lowest energy where PCI is expected to dominate for all targets. Al-Hagan and co-workers recently considered the low energy regime for both He and H2 from threshold to ~10eV above threshold, and concluded that for these targets PCI dominates at energies <2eV, which is also consistent with the observations for neon presented here.
The results in figure 4 indicate that the interaction is clearly more complex, and may be due to the momentum distribution of the ionized p-electron and polarizability of the atom (which is 1.9 times greater for neon than for helium).
A similar study was carried out for argon, whose outer electronic structure ([Ne]3s23p6) is similar to neon ([He]2s22p6). In the frozen-core approximation as used in many theories, the inner electrons are considered as spectators during the interaction, and so in this approximation the structure of the DCS should be similar for neon and argon. For argon, nine separate energies were chosen for study, so as to reveal the complex variation in the DCS as a function of energy. Once again the results for argon are not consistent with the simple models found successful for helium. Figure 6 shows the results for krypton, which unlike helium, argon and neon also has bound electrons occupying the 3d-shell. Once again results were taken for a lowest energy 2eV above the IP, with the data having much better statistical significance compared to those for argon at the same energy. As the energy increases, the results for krypton show a similar trend to that for argon, with the central minimum deepening until around 10eV above the IP where a central peak starts to emerge.
The similarity between argon and krypton data tends to indicate that the d-shell electrons in the heavier target are not playing a significant role in the ionization process. As the heaviest isotopically stable noble gas target, xenon has the largest calculated size (108 pm) due to full occupation of the 4d, 5s and 5p shells. The ionic ground states of Xe+ are sufficiently separated that it was possible to resolve ionization to individual states during the experiments, for energies up to 30eV above the IP. The data are particularly surprising since they do not follow the general trend seen for all other noble gas targets at higher energies. The minimum at 180A° is significantly deeper than for krypton under the same outgoing energy conditions, and unlike krypton this minimum then becomes shallower as the incident energy increases.
These results show that the mechanism for ionization of xenon must once again be different to all other targets that have been studied. As far as we are aware this phenomenon has never been observed for any other target, and it remains to be seen why this should occur for xenon. Only three energies were selected for these experiments, due to the difficulty of obtaining good statistical data.
The set of data presented here for isotopically stable noble gases shows there is a large variation in the probability of ionization in the perpendicular plane. The perpendicular plane is particularly poignant for testing the most sophisticated electron impact ionization models, since multiple scattering must occur for electrons to emerge in this plane. The perpendicular plane has proven to be a fertile ground to test recent theoretical models, which have found success for simple targets such as helium and molecular hydrogen. It appears that PCI plays a role at the lowest measured energy for each target, although the significance of this process reduces as the target weight increases. The most surprising result is for the heaviest target xenon, since the relative magnitude of the central peak continues to increase as the incident energy increases, and the side lobes reduce to insignificance. It is worth noting that the resolved data for ionization to the different Xe+ states indicate there is little variation to the measured cross section due to fine structure effects.
KLN thanks the Royal Society for an International Newton Research Fellowship held at the University of Manchester. I have decided to give names to all my columns from now on (and may even go back through all the old ones and give names to them!). I asked her all the standard questions about her background and training, which I will relate to you shortly, but the question I really wanted to ask her was “What does the dance mean to you?” The reason for this is that it was clear to me that what I had seen was not the performance of a mere “showman,” but that something else, something far deeper and much more important than mere technical virtuosity was going on. So, without any further ado, let me tell you what I learned about Filiz Duran, “performance artist,” as her business card describes her. I said above that when I saw Filiz perform that I knew I wasn’t just witnessing mere technical virtuosity so I questioned her about what the dance meant to her knowing that the answers were going to more than a little interesting. Here is what she told me.
The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region.
In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S.
On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.
In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history.
In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public.
The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings.
The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes.
With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation. The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director.
In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W.
As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video).
37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J.


In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay.
Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. For electrons to emerge in this geometry they must undergo multiple scattering including scattering from the nucleus of the target, and so this provides a highly sensitive test for scattering theories. In these experiments a single electron of well defined momentum impacts with a target in the interaction region, resulting in target ionization and a scattered and ejected electron which emerge after the interaction has taken place. Our (e,2e) apparatus can access a wide range of geometries from a coplanar geometry, where the incident, scattered and ejected electrons all occupy the same plane, through to the perpendicular geometry, where the scattered and ejected electrons emerge in a plane orthogonal to the incident electron trajectory (figure 1). In this regime the probability of single ionization is a maximum, and so it is here that most ionizing collisions with electrons occur in nature. Low energy electron ionization has also been attributed to the production of DNA damage in biological tissue, and so it is important to understand these collisions at a fundamental level to describe the physics of these processes. The helium results are reproduced from previous studies carried out in Manchester, re-presented here for completeness. By choosing the analyser residual energy to pass electrons around the selector, a channel electron multiplier detects electrons of the specified energy for subsequent amplification and counting. In the perpendicular plane, only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant, where xi1, xi2 are as shown in figure 1. The orbital angular momentum of each electron is hence zero, with a momentum distribution that peaks around zero a.u.
The configuration of the 10 electrons in neon is 1s22s22p6, whereas argon has 18 electrons occupying a configuration [Ne]3s23p6. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Helium.txt. Experimental results for the ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the ionization potential for this target. This is considered to be due to the dominance of post-collisional interactions (PCI) between the outgoing electrons, which drives electrons emerging with equal energies from the interaction region asymptotically towards opposite directions. At ~50eV excess energy the three lobes have equal amplitudes, whereas at higher energies the outer lobes dominate. The DWBA theory most easily allows the different processes involved in the interaction to be switched on and off, and this has explained the origin of these lobes. This process requires the momentum of the incident electron to be exactly matched by the momentum of the bound electron, with both electrons moving in opposite directions prior to the interaction. In this case, since the particles have equal mass and energy, they emerge from the interaction region at a mutual angle of 90A° & 270A° as observed. It is therefore clear that further work is needed to fully describe the ionization reaction, even for a simple target like helium.
The lowest energy studied was 5eV above the IP, with six measurements being taken up to 50eV above the IP as shown. Experimental results for the ionization of neon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 5eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The width for this peak in neon is ~120A°, which is broader than ~80A° for the same outgoing electron energy in helium. As the energy is raised to 10eV above the IP, the broad single peak seen at the lowest energy increases in width, and develops a flat structure at the peak.
However, at higher energies the mechanisms proposed for helium ionization described above would be expected to produce similar structures in all targets that have a central ionic core. The calculated atomic radius of argon (71pm) is however significantly larger than that for helium (31pm) or neon (38pm) due to the n=3 shell being occupied. Experimental results for the ionization of argon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The lowest energy studied was 2eV above the IP, the data at this energy having poor statistics due to experimental difficulties working with argon at this energy. This minimum flattens at 10eV above the IP and rapidly evolves into a clear peak 15eV above the IP. The results further indicate that the use of a A”frozen-coreA• approximation is unlikely to be accurate in any theory attempting to emulate these data. The physical size of krypton (88pm) is slightly larger than argon due to occupation of this shell, and due to closed occupation of the 4s and 4p shells.
Experimental results for the ionization of krypton in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. Ionization of krypton no longer shows the dominance of PCI as predicted by Wannier, since there is now a central minimum at 180A°.
This central peak is not as significant in krypton compared to the side lobes, and by 30eV above the IP is once again diminishing.
It also appears that the variation in cross section as a function of energy follows a similar pattern for each of these targets.
A coincidence energy loss spectrum is shown in figure 7 to illustrate this separation at an incident electron energy 10eV above the IP for this target.
The results were taken from 2eV above the IP to 70eV above the IP for this target, so as to establish the variation in the cross section that is observed.
At the lowest energy 2eV above the IP, a clear two-peak structure is observed which is similar to that observed from krypton. The results at higher energies are surprising, as the mechanism that produces the central peak with the electrons moving opposite each other is clearly dominating all other scattering processes. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon2.txt.
These data indicate that fine structure in the final ion state does not play a significant role in the ionization process, since the comparison between this data and that reproduced from figure 8 shows that the shapes of the cross section for each energy are very similar.
This contrasts to the coplanar geometry most often adopted, where the dominant scattering mechanism is usually a single binary scattering between electrons, resulting in a high probability that forward scattering occurs. The results presented here will hence further test these models for heavier targets, so as to elucidate the scattering mechanisms that result in the observations. Argon, krypton and xenon also all evolve a central peak as the incident electron energy increases from near threshold, which cannot be due to PCI. The side lobes observed previously in the perpendicular plane have been attributed to a binary collision between the incident electron elastically scattered into this plane and a bound electron.
It is hence likely that the results for neon, argon and krypton are also not significantly altered by these effects, even though the spectrometer was not capable of resolving their individual ion states. CK would like to thank the University of Manchester for providing a PhD scholarship while carrying out this work.
While being held under house arrest there, Paul received a visitor named Onesimus, whose name meant profitable or advantage.
The word ‘again’ appears here because way, way back in my third column, which was written in August 2000, I wrote about halk music and dance. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms".
Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring.
It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I.
Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process.
The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know?
Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts.
Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik.
Hence it is possible to accumulate a full range of DCS measurements over all scattering angles using this spectrometer. The incident electron can move from the coplanar geometry (psi = 0A°) to the perpendicular plane (psi = 90A°), the outgoing electrons being measured in the detection plane.
The shape of the DCS for a given energy and target is then of importance, for comparison with theory.
This contrasts with the other noble gas targets whose levels are 1S0, but whose valence electrons occupy closed p-orbitals. By contrast, the bound electrons in both of the heavier targets also occupy d-orbitals, with a correspondingly more complex momentum distribution. As the outgoing electron energy is lowered, the post collisional interaction time increases, resulting in an increased flux in the 180A° direction. At excess energies over 80eV above the IP the central lobe has virtually disappeared, leaving only the two outer lobes in the DCS. In this case, momentum conservation requires the outgoing electrons to move in opposite directions (180A°) in the perpendicular plane.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Neon.txt. At 15eV above the IP this flat structure has evolved into two peaks with 180A° now being a local minimum. The static polarization of argon is eight times larger than for helium, so scattering effects due to polarization of the target are expected to be significantly larger than for neon or helium.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Argon.txt.
This central peak is visible for incident energies up to 40eV above the IP, until at the highest energy (50eV above the IP) this has once again disappeared, the side peaks having also moved outwards compared to at the lower energies. The relative magnitude of this minimum compared to the peaks around 110A° & 250A° is however larger than for higher incident energies, so there is probably a contribution to the cross section at this angle due to PCI.
This central peak has virtually disappeared 40eV above the IP and there is no evidence of a peak 50eV above the IP. It might hence be expected that the cross section for the heaviest target (xenon) would follow a similar trend to that of argon and krypton. The data are fitted to two Gaussians, showing that contamination from each ionic state is <10% when the spectrometer is set to each peak in the cross section. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon1.txt. This indicates that PCI is once again not the dominant mechanism producing the cross section at this energy.
The relative magnitude of this peak compared to the lobes at 110A° and 250A° then increases in magnitude as the energy increases, as with krypton and argon.
This result indicates that fine structure does not appear to play a significant role in electron collision processes at these energies. The marked contrast between results for helium and all other noble gas targets demand that these models carefully consider the intricacies of the interaction, since a simple extension of the basic physical ideas presented for helium cannot explain the experimental data. For argon and krypton the relative magnitude of this peak increases with respect to the side lobes until it reaches a maximum, then decreases to become insignificant at the highest energies measured.
This process has always been considered as the dominant mechanism at higher incident energies, yet the new results presented here indicate these ideas need to be revisited for this heavy target.
The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909.


It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions).
Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft.
United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy.
He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins.
They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent.
Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national.
A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP.
Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12.
Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
For the data presented here, the perpendicular plane was chosen, so only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant. The combined coincidence energy resolution of the unselected energy electron gun and the two analysers is ~1eV.
Krypton has 36 electrons and has a ground state configuration [Ar]3d104s24p6, while xenon has 54 electrons with a ground state configuration [Kr]4d105s25p6.
This type of threshold behaviour was first predicted by Wannier and was later considered by Peterkop, Rau and others to explain results in this regime.
This mechanism was considered as being the main reason for the peak at 180A° until the work of Madison and co-workers in 2009 showed the probability of this occurring was low. As the energy increases further, the peaks separate in angle, and the minimum at 180A° deepens.
This angular shift of the side lobes is consistent with PCI playing a continuing role in the interaction, since as the energy increases the effects of PCI diminish, and the electrons move away from 180A° as is observed. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Krypton.txt. However, unlike krypton and argon whose central peak reaches a maximum and then decreases, the central peak in xenon continues to dominate the cross section as the energy rises.
Further, the frozen core approximation often adopted in these models which treat all non-ionized electrons as spectators does not appear valid for the heavier targets when compared to neon, even thought the outer valence electrons have the same p-type character.
This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead.
Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr.
Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. They proposed a triple scattering mechanism to describe this peak, where the incident electron first scatters elastically from the nucleus so as to enter the detection plane, followed by a binary inelastic collision with a bound electron, followed by elastic scattering of one of the electrons back from the nucleus. This trend continues up to the highest energy which was possible to measure (70eV above the IP), where the central peak is seen to be broad with a width ~100A°. It is hence likely that these assumptions will need to be relaxed to accurately model the data.
When Onesimus ran away, he probably took with him money and goods which belonged to his master Philemon. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
This complex mechanism was found to emulate the cross section more closely compared to the single scattering process originally envisaged. As for all measurements in this study, the DCS must be zero for the electrons emerging at the same angle (0A°, 360A°), due to post collisional interactions between outgoing electrons of equal energy.
At all energies greater than 40eV above the IP, the outer peaks seen in all other targets have disappeared. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education.
The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come.
Paul, however, honored the social tie that bound a slave to his master and respected the duty Onesimus owed to Philemon, his master. Guided by the tenth commandment, which forbids coveting another man's worker, and by the law of love, Paul decided Onesimus should return to Philemon. Paul was about to send Tychicus, a co-worker, to Colosse with a letter Paul had written to the church there.
Tychicus' traveling to Colosse offered Paul the opportunity to send Onesimus with Tychicus to Philemon. Onesimus went willingly as a penitent Christian to seek his master's forgiveness and to return to his service in Philemon's household. Rather, Paul commended Philemon for the loving compassion he showed to his fellow Christians and then interceded in Onesimus' behalf. Slaves, such as Onesimus, who were brought back to their masters were often treated most harshly and under Roman law could be killed. Paul noted that Philemon was having Onesimus come back to him as more than a slave but as a brother in Christ and fellow believer.
Since it was quite possible that Onesimus had wronged Philemon and was indebted to Philemon for what he had stolen, Paul even offered to have Philemon charge the debt to him so that Paul might repay him. In offering to repay Philemon for Onesimus' indebtedness, Paul reminded Philemon that he owed him his very life, for it appears that in some way as a result of Paul's gospel ministry Philemon had become a believer in Christ the Savior. In the course of his letter Paul hinted that he would very much like to have Onesimus back with him in Rome. An automobile may be filled with enough fuel to drive a long distance, but it wona€™tA go anywhere until someone puts the key into the ignition and then turns the key. Even though Goda€™s Word says I have a sound mind, I continually feelA like I dona€™t have control of my thought life. And in spite of the fact the Bible says God has blessedA me with gifts and talents, I feel like a dope who has nothing to offer to this world. But for that potential in you to be released, you have to hold the right key in yourA hand.A Furthermore, it isna€™t enough for you to just possess the key. You have to put that key into theA a€?ignitiona€? and turn it so the latent potential that resides inside you will be ignited. This is a person so sure of his information that when he speaks, he does so with confidence and boldness. You should study, read, listen to teaching material a€” inA other words, you should use every available resource to discover what Goda€™s Word says youa€™ve beenA given in Jesus Christ. The moment you open your mouth and start confessing the good things that are in you by Jesus Christ, a supernatural connection is made between your faith and allA that Jesus has deposited inside you.
At that moment, the gifts and treasures God has placed insideA you become supernaturally activated.
Instead of speaking what God says about them, they ridicule themselves, put themselves down, and speak badly of themselves. By acknowledging the basic truths of what you have been given in Jesus, you will release so much divine energy that it will radically transform your life. When I hear my own words, even I can tell ita€™s wrong for me to speak so lowly about myself. Forgive me for speaking so wrongly and for allowing myself to remain imprisoned in self-defeat. I am truly repentant for theseactions, and I ask You to forgive me and to give me the power to change my behavior. I agree with all that Goda€™s Word declares me to be, and I speak these truths about myself. Every dayA Iam getting more positive and more faith-filled, and my mouth is speaking what God says about me. Do you speak well of yourself, or do you find that you constantly criticize yourself and continually point out all your flaws?
If you were to ask your friends what they hear you saying about yourself, would they say you speak positively or negatively?A 2.
What changes do you need to make in your life in order to change your confessions about yourself? Guided by the tenth commandment, which forbids coveting another man's worker, and by the law of love, Paul decided Onesimus should return to Philemon. Tychicus' traveling to Colosse offered Paul the opportunity to send Onesimus with Tychicus to Philemon. Rather, Paul commended Philemon for the loving compassion he showed to his fellow Christians and then interceded in Onesimus' behalf.



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