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On the physical level some people feel heat sensations during Reiki treatments either in hands-on or in distant sessions. Distant treatments are more subtle then Hands-on ones for the obvious reason that there is not physical contact with the hands of the practitioner, but they allow a better reception as they avoid all sorts of possible barriers that may be involuntary happening during the Hands-on treatments. It is fascinating to notice how the rational scientific approach is, due to the latest discoveries in recent years, increasingly merging with the mystic and metaphysical intuitive approach thousands of years old.
Also interesting is that sound which are longitudinal waves cannot be conducted through a vacuum (in outer space no one can hear you scream). More over, the recent exact mathematic calculation of the frequencies of the 7 chakras (centers of aura energy) has been discovered to be in a musical relationship with each other forming a pentatonic (five-tone) scale, called primasounds (there is an octave relationship between the first and the six, and the second and the seven chakras). All music affect moods thus changing human auras but the primasounds resonating with the same core essence of the chakras frequencies help clearing the biofield directly.
Leading to logically being able to consider planet Earth as much alive as all its living things and as much interactive as human beings can be.
Since the most ancient times Mankind have searched in the sky for answers to existential questions. Astrology studies the movement of the planets and stars in correlation with human basic tendencies and destinies. Since the psychological attributions to the planets influences are arbitrary and abstract Astrology is not an exact science and too often it has been denigrated as superstition.
Only through years of non judgmental observation out of pure curiosity I have been amazed by the happenings of events in exact mathematical correlation with the planets transits on individual natal charts. While the fundamental free will to actively build oneE»s own destiny is out of question and here underlined, observations have shown how the bigger planetary energies always do trigger circumstances and events on our small lives in a way that is possible to calculate and easily comprehend for a better understanding of what we really are and what is really going on in a much bigger picture. We are unique cosmic vibrational fields exposed to bigger cosmic vibrational fields that are constantly moving and changing in each unrepeatable instant. Besides since most people do not really know themselves, the Natal Chart, that is the graphic of all the planets positions at the place and moment of birth and which indicates the basic character and tendencies of oneE»s own energy, is a great tool for better knowing one own self for improvement purposes and for better understanding one another in our true essence avoiding the projection playground. It opens up to a cosmic view of a divine positive progressive general growth, from where it is much easier to smile at our small lives pains and joys, frustrations and desires, developing therefore compassion for ourselves and others putting us in prospective of a much better, bigger and amazing order of things. Experimental results are shown for three energies in a coplanar symmetric geometry, and for three energies in an asymmetric geometry.
Ionization of atomic and molecular targets is one of the most complex and fundamental collision processes that can be studied in detail.
To fully characterize these interactions, it is necessary to perform sophisticated measurements where an incident electron of well controlled momentum scatters and ionizes the target. In these (e,2e) experiments, information about the collision is obtained by measuring the outgoing momenta of the collision products. For molecular targets, it is difficult to know the orientation and alignment of the molecule prior to the interaction occurring, unless this can be defined prior to the collision or can be measured following the collision.
The interaction of low to intermediate energy electrons with molecular targets has been much less studied compared with high energy electron collisions. Experiments on molecular targets often employ effusive beams produced at room temperature, and so the targets may have internal rotational and vibrational energy. Results are presented here for an H2O target at significantly lower energies than has been studied before. Figure 1.1 Representation of the 1b1 state of H2O, showing an incident electron ionizing the molecule. The experiments described here were carried out in the fully computer controlled and computer optimized (e,2e) spectrometer that operates in Manchester.
For the coplanar symmetric experiments described here, the electron detectors were moved so that their angles with respect to the incident beam direction were equal to each other throughout measurement (see figure 1.2). For coplanar asymmetric experiments, analyzer 1 was fixed at a scattering angle thetaa = 22A°, while analyzer 2 was swept around the scattering plane.
The fixed scattering angle thetaa = 22A° was chosen as this was the smallest angle that could be used without the incident electron beam from the gun striking the side of the analyzer (and so producing unacceptable levels of noise on the coincidence signal).
The energy resolution of the spectrometer is set by the resolution of the electron gun and the pass energy of the analyzers.
Production of a high quality molecular beam of H2O required careful monitoring of the experiment as it progressed. The de-gassed water was then transferred to a 150mm long tubular stainless steel flask which was connected to the main vacuum system using a swagelok fitting.
An AD590 sensor was secured to the aluminium block surrounding the flask, so that the temperature of the insulated assembly could be monitored and controlled.
To monitor the molecular beam inside the vacuum chamber produced from the water, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was installed onto the spectrometer. Figure 1.3 shows a typical coincidence energy spectrum obtained from the experiment during operation. The experiments were carried out over a period of several months, using electron beam currents ~200nA for all data runs. As the incident energy increases, the ratio of forward to backward scattering cross section increases, as has been seen for most atomic targets in this geometry. The measured coplanar asymmetric data is shown in figure 4, again normalized to unity at thetab = 45A°. As the incident energy is increased to 55eV above threshold, the forward lobe splits into two clear peaks of approximately equal magnitude, as seen in figure 1.5(b). Results from the 1b1 state of water have been presented for coplanar symmetric and asymmetric energies.
These results have been compared to a DWBA theory in the paper J Phys B, however the averaging used in this theory was not a good approximation, and so is not expected to yield accurate results for this state. Experimental results are presented for electron impact ionization of water in the energy regime from near threshold to intermediate energies. Results of a sophisticated model which approximates the random orientation of the target using a spherical averaging of the wave-function prior to the collision, using sophisticated distorted wave Born calculations that include post-collisional interactions in first order and to all orders of perturbation theory are also shown for comparison (see J.
The calculations predict the data most accurately at the lowest energy studied (4eV above threshold) in a coplanar symmetric geometry, whereas the comparison between theory and experiment is generally poor for higher energies and for non-coplanar geometries. Energy deposition and angular distributions resulting from electron collisions with water are used in charged particle track structure analyses to model radiation damage in biological samples. These low energy electrons have an effect over a much wider volume than the targeted cancer site.
At incident energies less than ~200eV, the collision dynamics are strongly influenced by effects including post-collision interactions, target polarization, distortions in the wave-functions for the participating electrons and multiple collisions. Current models now yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for a range of atoms, implying a good understanding of the collision dynamics under the conditions used in the experiments, and these models are now being extended to low energy (e,2e) collisions from molecules. Recent experiments studying simple diatomic targets including H2 and N2 have provided benchmark data.
The apparatus at Manchester can also access non-coplanar geometries, and so has provided additional data to further test these models. In a previous study the groups at Manchester and Missouri investigated the 1b1 (HOMO) state of H2O in coplanar kinematics. By contrast, the 3a1 orbital of interest here is involved in the O-H bonding and has a charge density distribution distorted from that of a symmetric atomic like orbital. The experimental triple differential cross sections (TDCS) presented here were measured in the (e,2e) apparatus at the University of Manchester. The spectrometer can be operated in a standard coplanar geometry where the momenta of all three electrons (the incident and two outgoing electrons) are within the same detection plane (psi = 0A°, figure 2.1).
The power supplies for the electrostatic lenses in the electron gun and the electron analyzers are fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing for automated tuning at regular intervals, with the analyzers being re-optimized each time they move to a new angle. The energy of the spectrometer was re-calibrated at the start of each new kinematic arrangement, by measuring the coincidence binding energy spectrum.
Over the course of this study the binding energy spectra were recorded for various energies and geometries, and it is estimated that contamination from neighbouring orbitals was always less than 10%, and is more typically in the range of 0.5%. The distilled water sample used to provide the molecular target beam was contained within a 50mm diameter 100mm long stainless steel vessel sealed by a CF-70 flange to a 6.35mm swagelok fitting. The sample vessel and gas handling line were held at a constant temperature of 50A?C throughout data collection, so as to create sufficient driving pressure for the target beam. The purity of the target beam was verified with a Spectra VacScan mass spectrometer fitted to the scattering chamber. The background pressure within the scattering chamber was set to 1.1 x 10-5 torr during operation, and was found to remain constant throughout all data runs. During these experiments we observed an unusual behaviour of the tungsten hairpin filament used as the incident electron source.
To facilitate this, the current measured by the Faraday cup located on the opposite side of the interaction region to the electron gun was monitored by the computer control software, and the current through the filament adjusted to maintain a beam current of 300nA throughout data collection. In the present study we also measured the coincidence energy resolution from ionization of helium, and found this did not change, indicating that the temperature of emission remained approximately constant. The data presented in figures 3-5 were then averaged over these angular sweeps, and the uncertainties in the measurements determined from the complete set of data for each scattering angle. The experimental data are not measured on an absolute scale and so experiment and theory are normalized to a maximum of unity at each energy, as shown in figure 2.2. As the energy of the outgoing electrons is lowered, it would be expected that the Coulomb repulsion between the outgoing electrons should play an increasingly important role, driving the electrons apart. The best agreement between experimental data and theory is at the lowest energy, where the experimental data and MDW model are in excellent agreement for the binary peak. A key advantage of the spectrometer in Manchester is the ability to measure data for kinematics in non-coplanar geometries.
Non-coplanar measurements were hence taken here with both outgoing electrons having an energy of 10eV. As shown in figure 1, the geometry adopted in this spectrometer provides a common normalization point (xi1 = xi2 = 90A°) for all gun angles psi, which allows ALL data at a given energy to be referenced to a common point. For the current measurements, the coplanar data have been normalized to a maximum of unity, as before. The data in figure 2.3 show a clear trend indicating the binary and recoil peaks diminish in magnitude as the angle of the electron gun angle increases. The data contrasts strongly with the theoretical models for the larger gun angles y, where the theories predict significantly more structure than is seen in the data. The final kinematic configuration used symmetric geometries and 20eV excess energy as above, however in this case the data are for unequal energy sharing between the outgoing electrons.
The data were only taken for coplanar and perpendicular plane geometries, so as to contrast differences in these two extremes. The key differences that can be seen in these data for the coplanar geometry are that the binary peak moves to a smaller angle as the energy asymmetry increases, as might be expected from post collisional interactions.
Agreement is mixed, and rather surprisingly gives best results at low energies, where it might be expected that the approximations are least accurate. The experimental results for both equal and non-equal energy sharing in the perpendicular plane show almost no structure, whereas the theoretical calculations predict that three clearly defined lobes should be seen.
This work was supported by the University of Manchester and the US National Science Foundation under Grant. 12.A A  Naja A, Staicu-Casagrande E M, Lahmam-Bennani A, Nekkab M, Mezdari F, Joulakian B, Chuluunbaatar O and Madison D H 2007 J. Electron-electron angular correlation experiments, or so-called (e,2e) coincidence experiments, provide the most detailed test of theories which attempt to describe the ionisation of a target atom by an incoming electron. The parameters (Ea,qa,fa,Eb,qb,fb) are freely selectable experimentally within the constraints that energy and momentum must be conserved during the collision.
In the experiments described here the DCS has been measured in the perpendicular plane using a helium target with incident electron energies ranging from 10eV to 80eV above the ionisation threshold. The electron coincidence spectrometer was designed to measure angular and energy correlations between low energy electrons emerging from near-threshold electron impact ionisation of helium and is capable of accessing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to coplanar geometry.


A number of modifications to the original spectrometer as described in Hawley-Jones et al (1992) have been implemented and are detailed elsewhere. Unique to this (e,2e) electron spectrometer is the computer interface which controls and optimises the spectrometer during normal operation.
Figure 2 is a block diagram of the hardware interface between the computer and the spectrometer.
At the heart of the operation is an IBM 80286 PC which controls the spectrometer and receives information about the system status from monitors around the spectrometer. The electrostatic lens and deflector voltages in the system are supplied by separate optically isolated active supplies controlled by 12A bit digital to analogue converter (DAC) cards, while a digital monitor measures the voltages and currents on the various lens and deflector elements around the system.
The analyser positions are measured by potentiometers located in the drive shafts external to the spectrometer, and are monitored by a datalogger located on the main PC bus, which also monitors the EHT supplies and the vacuum pressure in the system. Count rates from the channel electron multipliers and photomultiplier tube are monitored by a 32 bit counter board, and the TAC output is sent directly to an MCA card installed in the main PC. The software controlling the electron coincidence spectrometer is written to address specific tasks unique to the coincidence experiment. The main PC controls the spectrometer lens and deflector tuning during operation, optimising these voltages using a Simplex method.
Following input of relevant control information, the system is switched to computer control. The electron gun is then optimised to the counts detected by the photomultiplier tube, thus ensuring that the electron current is focussed to a beam of diameter approximately 1mm at the gas jet. The analyser input lenses and deflectors are then adjusted by the computer to optimise the non-coincidence counting rate of each analyser. A coincidence correlation spectrum is then acquired for a predetermined time, after which the analysers are moved to a new position and the optimisation procedure repeated in the inner loop. Once the analysers have moved around the detection plane, the whole system is reoptimised and the process of data collection repeated.
A correlation function between the scattered and ejected electrons is therefore accumulated over many sweeps of the detection plane until the results are statistically significant.
During operation the running conditions are monitored every 50 seconds by the data logger, allowing any anomalies in the data to be accounted for when final results are considered. Results from experiment for the symmetric case, where the outgoing electrons following the collision have equal energy, are shown in the figures 4a - 4h. In the perpendicular plane, the symmetry about the incident electron beam direction requires that the DCS must be symmetric about f = 180A° and this is evident in the data.
Inspection of the 94.6eV data (35eV scattered and ejected electron energies) indicates that this result does not follow the trends of the other data in the set. The resolution of the spectrometer (~ 1eV) does not allow these contributions to be excluded, and so the 94.6eV data set cannot strictly be considered as part of the overall set of data which is presented here. The first result in this data set therefore is the same as the first result in the previous set, allowing a convenient point for common normalisation of the data sets. Above 54.6eV incident energy the results differ markedly, the angular correlation evolving into a single broad peak instead of the three distinct peaks observed in the symmetric case. This is most clearly evident at 74.6eV incident energy, where the symmetric case shows three distinct peaks of approximately equal intensity, whereas the non-symmetric case shows only a broad featureless structure centred about 180A°.
The sets of data shown in figures 4 and 5 were each normalised relative to the result obtained at 34.6eV incident energy, where both the electrons emerge from the interaction region with an energy of 5eV. The relative angular data presented at any particular energy is normalised by consideration of the electron singles counting rate, which depends on the Double Differential Cross Section at 90A° but is independent of the azimuthal angle f.
The procedure adopted here allows an upper and lower bound to be estimated, as no facility exists to allow these overlap volumes to be accurately determined experimentally as is implemented by other electron scattering groups. The DDCS gives the probability of obtaining an electron from the scattering event at an angle q1 in a solid angle dW1 at an energy E1 A± dE1.
The solid angle of detection depends upon the geometry and operating potentials of the electrostatic lenses, and is therefore also a function of the detected electron energy. VA(E1) is given by the three way overlap of the gas beam, electron beam and volume as seen by the analyser. The DDCS varies only slowly over the energy range dE accepted by the analyser (Jones et al 1991) as does the efficiency and solid angle of detection of the analyser as determined from electrostatic lens studies. The energy resolution DEA is independent of E1 because the pass energy of the hemispherical deflector is kept constant. This expression can be rearranged to yield the ratios of analyser efficiency and solid angle in terms of the DDCS, singles count rates and overlap volumes at the two energies E1 and E2 for an incident energy Einc.. The ratios on the left-hand side of this equation were obtained from the DDCS data of MA?ller-Fiedler et al (1986) at an incident energy of 200eV for each analyser at the selected energies of interest. The first three terms in this expression are evaluated directly from the experiment, while the fourth and fifth terms are taken from the data of MA?ller-Fiedler et al (1986).
As no experimental facilities existed to measure these parameters, a SIMION ray-tracing model was set-up to allow a computational determination of these volumetric terms.
The analyser input electrostatic lenses were also modelled to determine the volume viewed at the interaction point for the varying energies of electrons selected. Figure 6 indicates the experimental geometry as viewed by the analysers in the perpendicular plane, where the atomic beam direction is at 45A° to the incident electron beam trajectory. Table 1 indicates the calculated relationship GV as determined from the SIMION ray tracing model, and these values have been used to calculate the normalisations as given in figure 4. The dominant error in the expression is given by the double differential cross sections as measured by MA?ller-Fiedler et al (1986), since these terms arise four times in the expression, and typically have measurement errors of A± 15%.
This is possible since the q = 90A° coplanar symmetric energy-sharing result is identical to the perpendicular plane f = 180A° energy-sharing result.
Since data was not obtained at an incident energy of 100eV in these experiments, an interpolation between the energy normalised symmetric results yields a relative value.
The uncertainty in the normalisations of the relative energy is approximately A±30%, as discussed in the previous section. The absolute differential cross sections as presented in figures 4 and 5 therefore have uncertainties of approximately A±44%. These latter calculations, normalised to one energy, produced results that were close to those of the experiment.
A simple descriptive model for the symmetric case illuminates a possible scattering processes involved.
On the other hand the peak that is observed at 180A° can be explained in terms of either single or multiple scattering.
In terms of single scattering it is due to the incident electron selecting a bound electron whose momentum is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to its own momentum.
In terms of multiple scattering, particularly at the lower incident energies, the peak at 180A° has additional contributions that may be described by outgoing electron correlations as in the Wannier model. The mass equivalence of the scattered and ejected electrons requires that a quasi-free collision results in electrons emerging at approximately 90A° to each other irrespective of their resulting energies, and so application of this model would once again yield three peaks, although the relative peak intensities might be expected to change. These results predict a single peak at 180A° due to a mechanism following elastic scattering of the incident electron from the nucleus that is more delicate and complex than the quasi-free collision, however the wings at the lower energies in the experiment are not predicted by this model.
This may not be entirely unexpected as the DWBA model gives better results at higher energies. The central peak predicted by the theory also differs in width and height from the results presented here, when normalised to the 34.6eV data.
Besides receiving and feeling the Reiki energy during distant treatments it is the most fascinating experience as it surely opens one to a higher awareness that is not commonly found, thus showing all the beauty and unlimited reality of the spiritual level. Often people report to feel refreshed and energized and being able to accomplish more things more easily.
Transversal waves instead, such as light, can travel through the vacuum of space, which is why we can see the sun but cannot hear it.
If the visible Moon, that is so small compared to Jupiter or Uranus yet closer to Earth, affects living things daily (agriculture, tides, woman cycle), then it is logically acceptable to realize that all other planets in the Solar System have a constant impact as well although invisible to our physical eyes, and even more so the bigger galaxies.
While faith is the warmest reply of all and worlda€™s religions the most helpful, there is still space for researching.
Coplanar symmetric and asymmetric electron impact ionization studies from the 1b1 state of H2O at low to intermediate impact energies. The experimental data show a wide variation in the cross section over this range of energies.
These ionizing collisions are important in a wide range of different areas, ranging from plasma physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, medical and biological processes involving low energy electrons through to the study of high voltage discharges. The scattered electron is then detected in time correlated coincidence with either the electron ejected during ionization, or with the resulting ion. This is usually accomplished by determining a cross section that is five fold differential in angle and energy. In most cases, this means that an averaging over the orientation of the target must be included for theory to compare with experimental results.
This energy region (from threshold to ~200eV) is important as it is here that the cross section for ionization is largest. The ionization potential from these ground ro-vibrational states is usually less defined than for atomic targets, due to the associated Franck-Condon overlap between the potential energy curves of the neutral molecules and the resulting ions.
This apparatus is described in detail on other web pages on this fileserver, and has been designed to operate in the energy regime from ~10eV to ~300eV. In this configuration, the energies selected for the scattered and ejected electrons were equal.
The inner diameter of this flask was 9mm, and the outside diameter was 12.7mm, so that a standard swaged fitting could be used.
This was accomplished using a Newport model 325 temperature controller, which supplied drive current to the TEC. This proved invaluable, as it was then possible to continuously monitor the background gases in the chamber during operation. In this example, the analyzers were set to pass electrons of energy 20eV, and a symmetric geometry was chosen with thetaa = thetab = 45A°. Over this period of time, the filament current driving the cathode had to be steadily decreased, probably since the water vapour within the vacuum chamber slowly reduced the diameter of the filament. The data is normalized to unity at thetaa = thetab = theta = 45A°, since the results have not been placed on an absolute scale. Results were taken in symmetric coplanar and non-coplanar geometries, with both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The human body, and other biological material comprise of ~80% water, which makes it an ideal test case to investigate processes occurring in the body. These models are an active area of research since the observation that high energy radiation that is used to treat cancers also liberates many low energy electrons, causing additional damage to cell DNA. Knowledge of the collision dynamics of low energy electrons with biological systems is hence needed, so as to develop robust models of these processes. In such experiments the energy and momenta of the outgoing electrons are measured, giving a five fold differential cross section. In this regime these processes must be considered on an equal basis, and so the complexity of the interactions means that theoretical studies have mainly been limited to atomic targets.
This contrasts to atoms which have a single nuclear scattering centre, and which can hence be described using a spherical basis. A further challenge arises since the experiments cannot, at present, align the molecules prior to the collision, so the models must consider the random orientation of the targets for accurate comparison. The majority of data is recorded in a coplanar geometry, where the incident and two outgoing electrons are in the same plane, and were conducted at a higher incident energy than the studies presented here. The symmetry of the 2py oxygen atomic orbital, representing the lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atoms, prevents it from hybridizing with the H atomic orbital, leaving the molecular 1b1 HOMO orbital essentially atomic like, and therefore symmetric. However, the orientation averaged molecular orbital used in the theoretical calculation is a bad approximation for that state given the cancellations due to the orbital symmetry.


The molecular orbital used in the model therefore should not suffer from the same cancellation problem during the orientational averaging procedure.
This apparatus is fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing it to operate continuously without user intervention. A coplanar geometry (psi = 0A?) is defined when all three electrons are in the detection plane. The angular resolution of the apparatus is estimated as A±3A°, based on geometric considerations of the electrostatic lenses at those energies. Several freeze-pump-thaw cycles were performed using a salted ice slurry bath, to remove dissolved gas impurities from the water prior to admission into the scattering chamber. Over time the emission current from the filament dramatically increased, when a constant current was delivered to the filament. The data were normalized to a collection time of 1000sec for each measurement, and up to 30 sweeps of the detection plane were used to produce statistically significant results. The overall shape of the TDCS measured at corresponding energies in a previous study of the 1b1 state are qualitatively similar, however the 1b1 state shows a second peak in the binary region emerging at higher energies that is not observed in the 3a1 state. PCI would also be expected to shift the recoil peak towards xi = 90A°, although this cannot be confirmed in the data. This agreement diminishes as the energy increases, which is unexpected since the MDW model is usually more accurate at higher energies. The TDCS measured in the perpendicular plane is almost constant over all analyzer angles, which is very different to what is observed for atomic targets.
The progression in both models shows a decrease in cross section from psi = 0A° to 45A°, after which the intensity once again increases.
There also appears to be a narrowing in the main binary peak as the asymmetry increases, with a new shoulder appearing around xi = 60A°.
This contrasts markedly with the calculations, which predict triple peaks in the perpendicular plane that change magnitude only marginally with the asymmetry.
This discrepancy is seen both for equal energy and for non-equal energy data, which have been taken in coplanar and perpendicular geometries.
These experiments measure the angular correlation between a projectile electron which is scattered from a target and a resulting electron which is ionised from the target.
For an unpolarised target and unpolarised incident electron beam the only azimuthal angle of significance is given by f = fa - fb. When the electrons are detected in the perpendicular plane, the two angles qa and qb are both equal to 90A°.
The perpendicular plane is accessed mainly through double collision processes (Hawley-Jones et al (1992), which represent only part of the full dynamical picture.
The computer loads all the voltage supplies from either a manually selected set of voltages or from the results of a previous optimisation run. This decouples the tuning of the electron gun from any tuning requirements of the electron analysers. This should be compared with the data obtained near threshold by Hawley-Jones et al (1992), which also shows a single peak with an approximately Gaussian structure.
This is considered to be due to the contribution to the cross section of a number of resonances in helium for scattered and ejected electron energies around 35eV. The model indicated that the electron gun operating at the voltages determined by the optimisation routines produced an electron beam of diameter approximately 1.0mm at the interaction region, consistent with the tuning of the electron beam onto counts from the photomultiplier which views a 1mm3 volume. For the non-symmetric data no compensation is required for volume effects since GV = 1.0 at all values of Ei. The electrons are then able to emerge at approximately 90A° with respect to each other in the perpendicular plane, as is observed. As the momentum distribution of the bound electron peaks at zero for helium, the peak at 180A° diminishes with increased incident electron energy as the probability of finding a bound electron with the required momentum decreases. Eventually it all comes down to mathematic from minus to plus infinite to systematically expand our awareness. Our thoughts and feelings are cosmic vibrations too that constantly change our biofields and destinies at any time and yet for the most part weE»ll unfold following the basic soul imprinting readable in the Natal Chart. Theoretical approximations accurate at high impact energies can no longer be applied, and so there are stringent demands on theory which must be satisfied for accurate comparison with data. The (e,2e) coincidence signal for molecules may then have a correspondingly lower yield compared to an atomic target where the ionization potential is well defined. A pictorial representation of the water molecule in the 1b1 state is given in figure 1.1 below. The spectrometer allows measurements to be conducted from a coplanar geometry through to the perpendicular plane, although in the present measurements only a coplanar geometry was used.
The analyzer pass energy was then set to measure electrons so that the overall resolution of the coincidence signal (as measured using a helium atomic target) was 600meV.
The pump removed background gas from the flask, and extracted dissolved gases held in the water.
The flask was secured to the cold side of a 50mm x 50mm thermo-electric cooler (TEC) using a large aluminium block, and the assembly (flask + block) was insulated from the air using Styrofoam. The 1b1, 3a1 and 1b2 states are clearly resolved in this spectrum, which is fitted to three Gaussian peaks to ascertain the widths of the spectral profiles. These data were measured in a coplanar geometry with outgoing electron energies of 20eV detected at theta1 = theta2 = 55A°. Figure 1.5(a) shows the lowest energy results, with an incident energy 15eV above the ionization threshold. Molecular wave-functions are generally not spherical, the nuclei within the molecule providing multiple scattering centres.
This becomes a computationally intensive problem, and so approximations are usually made to allow these calculations to become tractable. In this study the analyzers were always kept in a symmetric configuration with xi1 = xi2 = xi. A needle valve at the entrance to the scattering chamber controlled the flow of target H2O vapour into the interaction region.
This indicates that an H2O target molecular beam of high purity was created, as confirmed from binding energy spectral studies. This increase in emission current was often more than a factor of 2 within a 24 hour period.
The solid line shows results from the Molecular Distorted Wave Born Approximation (MDW) while the dashed line was generated from the Molecular 3-body Distorted Wave Approximation (M3DW). This trend is much clearer in the present data compared to that from the 1b1 state measured at higher energies. For the theoretical model, the coplanar TDCS has also been normalized to unity for both MDW and M3DW models. These measurements were taken in a series of symmetric non-coplanar geometries with outgoing electron energies of 10eV. The M3DW model follows a trend that is closer to the experimental data, although neither model accurately predicts the results that have been obtained. The theoretical calculations are also shown, where once again the data and theory have been normalized to unity at the peak in the coplanar geometry.
The minimum around 90A° in this geometry does not change substantially as the energy sharing changes. Further it allows the electron gun to be aligned and focussed accurately onto the interaction region whose centre is located at the intersection of the axes of rotation of the analysers and the electron gun. This type of double collision process must therefore be modelled using higher order scattering terms as is done using the DWBA. The angles that could be accessed in this configuration ranged from thetaa = thetab = 25A° through to thetaa = thetab = 135A°. The acceptance angle of the analyzer lenses was A±3A°, as set by input apertures at the entrance to the electrostatic lenses. This de-gassing procedure was carried out for ~2 hours before the water sample was used in the experiment, to ensure that the proportion of dissolved gases in the water was minimized. The hot side of the TEC was attached using thermal conducting paste to an aluminium heatsink to which a 12VDC boxer fan was secured, so that heat from the TEC could be dissipated efficiently. If this ratio reduced, the experiment was halted and the water changed to a newly de-gassed sample.
In this case, the 1b1 state was found to have a width of 620meV, which is comparable to that for an atomic target.
The contrast between the maximum and minimum in the cross section increases as the energy increases. As the energy increases further to 95eV above threshold (figure 1.5(c)), the double peak in the forward direction is still visible but the magnitudes of the peaks are now different.
The purity of this beam was monitored regularly using the mass spectrometer throughout this study.
To ensure constant incident electron beam current throughout the measurements as required, the filament current was hence also placed under computer control. The experimental and theoretical data has been independently normalised to unity at each energy. Dr Kate Nixon thanks the British Council for funding under the research exchange programme, and the Royal Society for a Newton International Fellowship.
This is essential for experiments where all of these may be varied over 3-Dimensional space. Also recovering much faster from major strains (even the marathon), fatigue, illness or stressful situations. For asymmetric geometries, thetaa is fixed at 22A° while analyzer 2 is swept around the scattering plane. A glass flask was used for this procedure as this allowed the process to be visually monitored. This indicates that the energetic effects of ro-vibrational transitions from the ground state to the ion state are negligible for this state.
Further checks were made regularly on the energy of the incident electron beam by monitoring the coincidence energy spectrum (figure 1.3), and regular monitoring of the partial pressures of the gases in the vacuum chamber. A second peak occurs in the backscatter region, however the maximum of this peak appears to occur at thetab < 225A°. For non-coplanar geometries the electron gun is lifted out of the plane, and is defined by the angle psi. If already tired one often falls asleep even briefly and usually reports waking up more refreshed then normally. There is an offset of 1eV in the position of the peaks which is due to contact potentials in the spectrometer. The full line represents a three-Gaussian fit, whereas the dotted lines show the individual Gaussians from this fit, illustrating the degree of separation measured with the current energy resolution.
The results in the backward direction also have structure, with a minimum occurring when thetab ~ 250A°. When receiving a distant treatment make sure you will be relaxing and not driving or doing anything that needs your alert attention. Reiki gently re-align one to the balance center within from which all things develop smoothly and almost effortlessly. Very little contamination is expected from neighbouring orbitals in the measured TDCS for the 3a1 state.



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