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NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 23 June 2012All ISS systems continue to function nominally, except those noted previously or below. Project Ideas Roundup: September 2009Support the development of new Earth science-related Project Ideas. Seems like a heretical statement coming from someone who spent the last 15 years helping to develop an installed base of renewable energy projects. Environmental concerns with shale gas production are being raised throughout the global landscape where it is technically feasible to extract the natural gas. The two primary sectors that use fossil fuels are electricity generation through coal-fired power generation stations and the transportation industry through petroleum. In closing, more than any other fuel source today and for the near future, natural gas is the only fuel that can be utilized across major fossil fuel hungry sectors. Global demand for natural gas is increasing day by day as due to rapidly growing gas market of developing countries. For conventional gas, since less gas has been used so far compared to oil, the world will increases its dependability to gas as oil declines.
Present scenario shows that with the physical resource limits and depletion of oil there is exponential increase the demand of gas.
Worldwide Natural gas resources shows North America contain the largest reserves of 300 Trillion cubic meters in which unconventional resources is around 230 Trillion cubic meters.
Tight gas refers to natural gas reservoirs locked in extraordinarily impermeable, hard rock, making the underground formation extremely "tight." Tight gas can also be trapped in sandstone or limestone formations that are typically impermeable or nonporous, also known as tight sand. While conventional gas formations tend to be found in the younger Tertiary basins, tight gas formations are much older. Conventional reservoirs are those that can be produced at economic flow rates and that will produce economic volumes of oil and gas without large stimulation treatments or any special recovery process. Increase in cost and technological challenges when moving from conventional to unconventional gas recovery methods. Conventional gas picture: Thin section of a conventional sandstone reservoir that has been injected with blue epoxy. Tight-gas Sands - formed in sandstone or carbonate (called tight gas sands) with low permeability which prevents the gas from flowing naturally. Gas Shales - formed in fine-grained shale rock (called gas shales) with low permeability in which gas has been adsorbed by clay particles or is held within minute pores and microfractures.
Seismic investigation: Extensive seismic data is gathered and analyzed to determine where to drill and just what might be located below the earth's surface. Drilling: In a tight gas formation, it is important to expose as much of the reservoir as possible, making horizontal and directional drilling a must. Production Stimulation: After seismic data has illuminated the best well locations, and the wells have been drilled, production stimulation is employed on tight gas reservoirs to promote a greater rate of flow. Hydraulic Fracturing: Fracturing, also known as "fracing," a well involves breaking the rocks in the formation apart. Acidizing: Acidizing the well is employed to improve permeability and production rates of tight gas formations. Deliquification: Furthermore, deliquification of the tight gas wells can help to overcome some production challenges. During the last decade new technologies as 3-D seismic, horizontal drilling, and improved fracture stimulation have had significant impacts on natural gas production in many tight gas reservoirs in Middle East and North Africa.
Geomechanics and Sub-Surface Understanding: Fundamental to any improvement in performance is done by having a clear understanding of the sub-surface environment. Formation Evaluation Technology: The objectives of Formation Evaluation are,to ascertain if commercially producible hydrocarbons are present, determine the best means for their recovery, to derive lithology and other information on formation characteristics for use in further exploration and development. Drilling Technology: The challenge in any tight gas development is to use technology to push up the estimated ultimate recovered volume per well, and the produced volumes (flow), while simultaneously pushing down costs. Environmental Safety: Drilling of hundreds of wells represents a major environmental and safety challenge. Tight Gas: Tight gas, tight sand, tight carbonate, tight formation, tight deposit, tight strata, tight medium, impermeable formation, impermeable deposit, impermeable strata, impermeable medium, impermeable reservoir etc. All the patents obtained from the database were filtered to find out the most relevant patents, this process included going through the full text of the patent. Since the unique family retrieved from Thomson Innovation Database was downloaded by keeping US as a first priority, hence one can see that US leads in the chart. Criteria for filtering: Only those articles related to stimulation or fracturing techniques for tight gas recovery were considered as relevant. Fracturing of stress altered formation using signaling subsystem communicably coupled with injection tools installed in the well bore. US20110209868A1 titled "Fracturing a stress-altered subterranean formation" by Halliburton.
US20090288833A1 titled "System and methods for constructing and fracture stimulating multiple ultra-short radius laterals from a parent well" by Halliburton. Various companies are using or developing different techniques for performing hydraulic fracturing in different operating condition and reservoirs.
US20110024121A1 titled "Method and apparatus for multilateral multistage stimulation of a well" by Schlumberger. Performing fracturing method by combining proppant free stage and proppant ladden stage in two stages helps in reducing the conductivity damage. Hydraulic fracturing treatment by using ULW (Ultra lightweight) proppant and low viscosity slick water fracturing fluid. US7699106B2 titled "Method for reducing fluid loss during hydraulic fracturing or sand control treatment" by Baker Hughes.
Baker Hughes focused on hydraulic fracturing treatment by using ULW (Ultra lightweight) proppant and low viscosity slick water fracturing fluid.
Treating a subterranean carbonate with a fluid comprising of an acid, chelating agent, or betaine surfactant. US7380602B2 titled "Composition and method for treating a subterranean formation" by Schlumberger.


Schlumberger is using acid fracturing technique for subterranean carbonate with a fluid comprising of an acid, chelating agent, or betaine surfactant.
US5310002A titled "Gas well treatment compositions and methods" by Halliburton (Also in foam). WO2011115723A1 titled "System and method for fracturing rock in tight reservoirs" by ExxonMobil. Both Exxonmobil has worked on increasing the permeability of the formation by inducing explosive fracturing. Also this site is a participant of other affiliate programs such as eBay and other affiliate networks for advertising their products to earn advertising fees by linking their sites. The combustion of natural gas emits significantly lower levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide than does the combustion of coal or oil. Many news articles about the situation failed to highlight some key clauses in the EPA’s decision. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that there are 1,279.5 Trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically recoverable natural gas resources in the United States. As supplies increase, unless there is a corresponding increase in demand, the price will plummet until it becomes financially sound to stop productions.
T Converting coal-fired to natural gas-fired electricity generation plant is on a relative basis a no brainer. As a sustainabilist would say, it supports the triple bottom line of people, planet and profit. Barry Stevens, an accomplished business developer and entrepreneur in technology-driven enterprises. As more nations are switching to environmentally cleaner fuels to maintain the economic growth and reducing the impact of increasing high oil price.
Energy Information Agency (EIA) latest report the global demand for natural gas is expected to grow significantly as more nations are switching to environmentally cleaner fuels such as Natural Gas. Figure 3 Shows the global conventional gas distribution of the world’s, conventional gas that has been consumed (dark shading), and the currently discovered reserves (light colour). The global peak in all hydrocarbons (oil plus gas) is likely to be in about 10 or so years.
Energy Information Administration’s preview of its 2012 Annual Energy Outlook is the forecast for natural gas.
In other words, the pores in the rock formation in which the gas is trapped are either irregularly distributed or badly connected with overly narrow capillaries, lessening permeability or the ability of the gas to travel through the rock. Deposited some 248 million years ago, tight gas formations are typically found in Paleozoic formations. Conventional reservoir is essentially a high to medium permeability reservoir in which one can drill a vertical well, perforate the pay interval, and then produce the well at commercial flow rates and recover economic volumes of oil and gas. Typical unconventional reservoirs are tight-gas sands, coal-bed methane, heavy oil, and gas shales. Here, the well can run along the formation, opening up more opportunities for the natural gas to enter the wellbore.A common technique for developing tight gas reserves includes drilling more wells. Production stimulation can be achieved on tight gas reservoirs through both fracturing and acidizing the wells.
Performed after the well has been drilled and completed, hydraulic fracturing is achieved by pumping the well full of frac fluids under high pressure to break the rocks in the reservoir apart and improve permeability, or the ability of the gas to flow through the formation. Acidation involves pumping the well with acids that dissolve the limestone, dolomite and calcite cement between the sediment grains of the reservoir rocks.
Understanding permeability, although at very low values compared to conventional reservoirs, is a key to maximizing productive capabilities.
Specialized drilling practices, application of drill bits for less wellbore damage , Specialized drilling fluids are few challenges that is to be overcomed. This provides the gas molecules with a passage to move more easily through the reservoir to the wellbore.
Shell is tackling this challenge and is focused on improving well performance and surface engineering, which will push the business forward in a sustainable manner. Keywords were obtained from some relevant patents, journal articles, company websites and other thesauri.
Here we have covered the patents and articles which are focusing on the application of fracturing technique for the development of the tight gas reservoir.
It employs a continuous multistage fracturing of lateral wells by wellbore isolation and focused fracturing placement. In hydraulic and acid fracturing, a first, viscous fluid called a "pad" is typically injected into the formation to initiate and propagate the fracture and often to contribute to fluid loss control and mainly consist of polymers.
Conventional hydraulic and slickwater fracturing leads to the problem of fluid leak off, well damage and water blocks. Fracturing fluids must provide an optimal balance between minimizing fluid leakage, filtercake buildup thickness and filtercake removal as it impairs the permeability and conductivity of the formation. Treatment fluids or fracturing fluids remaining in the pores of the formation and water blocks leads to kind of damage that impairs subsequent hydrocarbon production from the formation. It's also investing in solar energy, This energy science fair project will help you figure excellent for classroom use and for science fair projects. Natural gas for the simple reason that it is one of the quickest ways to achieve a future in which an oil importing nation is no longer held hostage by foreign oil and carbon and other harmful emissions are sharply curtailed. When used in efficient combined-cycle power plants, natural gas combustion can emit less than half as much CO2 as coal combustion, per unit of electricity output. The fracturing slurry is a mixture of 99% water and sand in combination with a proprietary mix of 1% chemical additives. However, the transportation sector is somewhat more problematic in terms of converting vehicles internal combustion energy from gasoline to natural gas. Natural gas is emerged as an excellent environmentally clean fuel as it emits 43% fewer carbon emissions the coal and 30% fewer emissions than oil for each energy delivered.
Majority of the rapidly growing gas markets are in emerging economies in Asia, particularly India and China, the Middle East and South America.


The figure uses industry (proved and probable) data for reserves (not public domain ’proved’ reserves), and excludes oil yet to- find. Thus there is do or die situation for development of unconventional reservoir across the globe for avoiding the situation of energy crisis in the world.
EIA says that gas from shale and tight gas will account for 70 percent of the United States’ overall natural gas supply in 2035. Without secondary production methods, gas from a tight formation would flow at very slow rates, making production uneconomical.
Over time, the rock formations have been compacted and have undergone cementation and recrystallisation, which all reduce the level of permeability in the rock.
Unlike conventional reservoirs, which are small in volume but easy to develop, unconventional reservoirs are large in volume but difficult to develop. The pore space can be seen to be interconnected so gas is able to flow easily from the rock. The pores are irregularly distributed through the reservoir and the porosity of the rock can be seen to be much less than the conventional reservoir. Not only providing operators with the best locations for drilling wells into tight gas formations, extensive seismic surveys can help drilling engineers determine where and to what extent drilling directions should be deviated. This form of production stimulation helps to reinvigorate permeability by reestablishing the natural fissures that were present in the formation before compaction and cementation.
Subtle differences in tight gas reservoir properties can result in large changes in permeability, and mark the difference between productive and non-productive intervals.Geomechanics and subsurface understanding is a critical component in understanding the nature of the formation. There are strong limits to the application of NMR logging in low porosity, low permeability gas bearing formation. Fracturing techniques use a significant amount of energy to create the pressure used to crack the rock open.
Class-codes were obtained from the background reading and citation check of few relevant patents and from different other databases like USPTO, WIPO and Espacenet.
Stimulation and fracturing of Morrow formation in south eastern New Mexico was performed with binary foam fracturing fluid.
An experimental test was performed using In Fracture Explosive Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid (IFEHFF) which is a combination of hydraulic fracturing fluid properties and an explosion fluid (TNT). The cost of conversion can range from $12,000 for light-duty to over $35,000 for heavy-duty vehicles. In this role, he is responsible for leading the development of emerging and mature technology driven enterprises in the shale gas, natural gas, renewable energy and sustainability industries.
In order to fulfill the increasing demand of energy requirement and reducing greenhouse gas emission. The major concluding points are Europe has a little way to go before its gas peak, and the world as a whole is about halfway to its gas peak. It is clearly visible from the Figure 5 that there’s been a surge in shale gas production since roughly 2005.
Increasing price and the improved technology are the key to their development and the future. This can be achieved through drilling myriad directional wells from one location, lessening the operator's footprint and lowering costs. Deliquification is achieved in this instance through artificial lift techniques, such as using a beam pumping system to remove the water from the reservoir, although this has not proven the most effective way to overcome this challenge.
The first hydraulic fracturing job to be run commercially in the 1940s required just a few hundred horsepower. Class-codes related to drilling of boreholes and well development was taken into consideration.
All the patents were analyzed to capture the focus of the patent, stimulation technique described in the invention and the fracturing ingredients used in the invention. Massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) is a primary candidate for stimulating production from the tight gas reservoirs in the U.S. According to simulator calculation, the system can generate fractures with desired geometry and suspend explosive evenly in the fractures.
This is because the sum of conventional oil production from all countries in the world, except the five main Middle-East suppliers, is near the maximum set by physical resource limits.
When the ’clocks’ on this figure tick round to perhaps 8 or 9 o’clock, gas decline sets in with the decline likely to be fairly steep. The major reason for this surge in shale gas production is due to surge in new hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques, which helps in unlocking vast shale gas formations in states including Pennsylvania, North Dakota and Texas. Unconventional resources are probably very large, but their character and distribution are not yet well understood.
More recently, in examples such as the Pinedale field, power requirements can be as high as 25,000 horsepower, and costs can represent up to 30% of the well costs. Comprehensive search strategy was made using the combination of different keywords and complimentary class-codes in order to obtain all the relevant patents and at the same time keep away from irrelevant records. The other concern is the potential for water and air contamination by fugitive leakage of natural gas during extraction and delivery.
The gas-bearing rock being fractured in Wyoming was only about 1,220 feet deep and some water wells reached as far as 800 feet.
It is known to exist in large quantity but does not flow easily toward existing wells for economic recovery. Natural gas is a potent greenhouse gas with the ability to trap heat almost 21 times more effectively than carbon dioxide. With so many major geologic differences between the fracked wells near Pavillion and those in shale basins, industry experts caution against extrapolating any conclusions from the Wyoming study.



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