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After elementary school, Paul attended the time-honored secondary school Maria-Magdalenen-Gymnasium in Breslau, where he met Albert Neisser, who later became a professional colleague.
In 1899 his institute moved to Frankfurt am Main and was renamed the Institute of Experimental Therapy (Institut fA?r experimentelle Therapie). Among the foreign guest scientists working with Ehrlich were two Nobel Prize winners, Henry Hallett Dale and Paul Karrer. In the early 1870s, Ehrlicha€™s cousin Karl Weigert was the first person to stain bacteria with dyes in the 1870s and to introduce aniline pigments for histological studies and bacterial diagnostics. One of the most outstanding results of his dissertation investigations was the discovery of a new cell type. When a student in Breslau, the pathologist Julius Friedrich Cohnheim gave Ehrlich an opportunity to conduct extensive experiments, and also introduced him to Robert Koch, who was at the time a district physician in Wollstein, Posen Province. On 24 March 1882 Ehrlich was present when Robert Koch, working since 1880 at the Imperial Public Health Office (Kaiserliches Gesundheitsamt) in Berlin, presented the lecture in which he reported how he was able to identify the tuberculosis pathogen.
In 1887 Ehrlich became an unsalaried lecturer in internal medicine (Privatdozent fA?r Innere Medizin) at Berlin University, and in 1890 took over the tuberculosis station at a public hospital in Berlin-Moabit at Kocha€™s request.
Ehrlich had started his first experiments on immunization already in his private laboratory. Emil Behring had worked at the Berlin Institute of Infectious Diseases until 1893 on developing an antiserum for treating diphtheria and tetanus but with inconsistent results.
Since antiserums were an entirely new type of medicine whose quality was highly variable, a government system was established to guarantee their safety and effectiveness.
In order to determine the effectiveness of diphtheria antiserum, an invariable concentration of diphtheria toxin was required.
Influenced by the mayor of Frankfurt am Main, Franz Adickes, who endeavored to establish science institutions in Frankfurt in preparation of the founding of a university, Ehrlicha€™s institute moved to Frankfurt In 1899 and was renamed the Royal Prussian Institute of Experimental Therapy (KA¶niglich PreuAYisches Institut fA?r Experimentelle Therapie). In 1901 the Prussian Ministry of Finance criticized that Ehrlich had exceeded his budget and as a consequence reduced his income.
Among the results achieved by Ehrlich and his research colleagues was the insight that when tumors are cultivated by transplanting tumor cells, their malignancy increases from generation to generation. In the course of his investigations Ehrlich came across methylene blue, which he regarded as particularly suitable for staining bacteria (later, Robert Koch also used methylene blue as a dye in his research on the tuberculosis pathogen). After mid-1889, when Ehrlich was unemployed, he privately continued his research on methylene blue.
Already before the Institute of Experimental Therapy had moved to Frankfurt, Ehrlich had resumed work on methylene blue. As a model for experimental therapy Ehrlich used a guinea pig trypanosoma disease and tested out various chemical substances on laboratory animals.
Ehrlich reasoned that if a compound could be made that selectively targeted a disease-causing organism, then a toxin for that organism could be delivered along with the agent of selectivity.
West Germany issued a postage stamp in 1954 on the 100th anniversary of the births of Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854) and Emil von Behring (15 March 1854). His name is also borne by many schools and pharmacies, by the Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft fA?r Chemotherapie e.
Robinson undoubtedly had a powerful, rapid vocal delivery, of which Billy Wilder made wise use in Double Indemnity (1944). The lesser known Robinson “look” came a year after Little Caesar: his character, in an adaption of the stageplay The Honorable Mr. Ehrlich must take on the established scientific community, as his work situates him as a rebel. Wong, as a resident of Chinatown, is removed from normative culture, in an urban neighborhood orientalized by visiting white people – myths of secret passageways and other elements became part of a theme park-style performance the Chinese would present for tourism (Stanfield 2005:  242). After corrupting Chinatown and defaming Wong, Harry is deported to China for opium dealing, and takes Toya with him. Opposed by the establishment in court – where a friend eventually saves him – Ehrlich’s demise is a long time coming for the scientist exposed to infection. In Ehrlich’s death bed, Robinson looks diminutive but fresh, a glowing being, like the infant George M.
Matthew Sorrento teaches film at Rutgers University in Camden, NJ and is the author of The New American Crime Film (McFarland, 2012).
I also want to point out that his appearance and unique voice made him perfect for gangster roles because he had that fluency and perfect, “puffy” face. He invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria, tissue made it possible to distinguish between different type of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases. His father was a distiller of liqueurs and the royal lottery collector in Strehelen, a town of some 5,000 inhabitants in the province of Lower Silesia, now in Poland. As a schoolboy (inspired by his cousin Karl Weigert, who owned one by the process of staining microscopic tissue substances. On his return he established a private medical practice and small laboratory in Berlin-Steglitz, and in 1891 received a call from Robert Koch to join the staff at his Berlin Institute of Infectious Diseases, where in 1896 a new institute was established for Ehrlicha€™s specialization, the Institute for Serum Research and Testing (Institut fA?r Serumforschung und SerumprA?fung), whose director he became. In 1914 Ehrlich signed the controversial Manifesto of the Ninety-Three which was a defense of Germanya€™s World War I politics and militarism. During his studies in Strassburg under the anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer, Ehrlich continued the interest started by his cousin in pigments and staining tissues for microsopic study. Ehrlich discovered in the protoplasm of supposed plasma cells a granulate which could be made visible with the help of an alkaline dye.
He demonstrated the existence of nucleated red blood cells, which he subdivided into normoblasts, megaloblasts, microblasts and poikiloblasts; he had discovered the precursors of erythrocytes. In 1881 he published a new urine test which could be used to distinguish various types of typhoid from simple cases of diarrhea. In his spare time, Koch had clarified the life cycle of the anthrax pathogen and contacted Ferdinand Cohn who was quickly convinced by Kocha€™s work and introduced him to his Breslau colleagues.
This was where Kocha€™s alleged tuberculosis therapeutic agent tuberculin was under study, and Ehrlich also had himself injected with it.
It was already known that in some cases after a smallpox or syphilis infection, specific immunity was transmitted from the parents to their offspring.
Ehrlich discovered that the toxin being used was perishable, in contrast to what had been assumed, which for him led to two consequences: He did not use the toxin as a standard, but instead a serum powder developed by Behring, which had to be dissolved in liquid shortly before use. The German quality-control methodology was copied by government serum institutes all over the world, and they also obtained the standard serum from Frankfurt. As he saw it, the reaction between a toxin and the operative components of a serum, as well as the effect of the toxin itself, is a chemical reaction.
In this situation Althoff arranged a contact with Georg Speyer, a Jewish philanthropist and joint owner of the bank house Lazard Speyer-Ellissen. In Ehrlicha€™s view, an added benefit was that methylene blue also stained the long appendages of nerve cells, the axons. After the death of Georg Speyer his widow Franziska Speyer desired to do something in his memory and endowed the Georg-Speyer House,[8] which was erected next door to Ehrlicha€™s institute. This was the first agent with a specific therapeutic effect to be created on the basis of theoretical considerations. On the one hand there was hostility on the part of those who feared a resulting moral break down of sexual inhibitions.
During the Third Reich, Ehrlich's achievements were ignored while Emil Adolf von Behring was stylized as the ideal Aryan scientist, and the street named after Ehrlich was given another name. A hood who embraces a Macbethian drive to kill and consume, Rico soon witnesses the betrayal of his sideman, then ponders his own death, muttering “Mother of Mercy, is this the end of Rico?” Unlike James Cagney, Robinson never overcame his typecasting as a gangster, contained by a cliched voice that’s an exaggeration of the Robinson performance.
A variation of the hitman role to serve the studio’s taste for gangsters, Wong is ordered to execute his friend, Sun Yat Ming (J. Robinson’s prolonged close-up when Joe’s departure occurs, has its own fatalism, if merely a plot device to move Rico to his requite demise. Such treatment wasn’t unique to the 1930s, as the 1929 MGM melodrama, Where East is East, shows. Working in a clinic in which many are terminal, Ehrlich grows disillusioned with the policies, imagining methods to heal his patients.
Chinatown grew into a popular (if disrespected) tourist attraction while Asian themes were in demand in popular entertainment by the 1920s. When Wong learns from a letter of her bondage (on the surface tired from waiting on customers, though prostitution is implied), he rises from his role, as dispossessed coolie in a field, and reclaims his hatchets out of pawn. Erhlich’s Magic Bullet – in addition to Where East is East and numerous other Lon Chaney films – are available in the US from The Warner Archive. He has chapters forthcoming in The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to the War Film (on service comedies), The New Western (on Alex Cox), and Film, Law, Crime (on the documentary).


Though I was completely taken by how the film creates a dialog with the gangster motifs new and hot in the early 30s, and how the film, in some ways, trumps them. Robinson in “The Old Man Who Cried Wolf” and then went in reverse and saw “The Hatchet Man”, “Double Indemnity”, “The Ten Commandments”, “House of Strangers” and “All My Sons”. Search for a picture of him in black and white where he has a very serious expression and you can swear that he’s planning his next mob attack.
His laboratory discovered arsphenamine (Salvarsan), the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis, thereby initiating and also naming the concept of chemotherapy. He retained that interest during his subsequent medical studies at the universities of Breslau, Strassburg, Freiburg im Breisgau and Leipzig. In 1906 Ehrlich became the director of the Georg Speyer House in Frankfurt, a private research foundation affiliated with his institute. He thought this granulate was a sign of good nourishment and accordingly named these cells mast cells, (from the German word for an animal-fattening feed, Mast). Ehrlich thus also laid the basis for the analysis of anemias, after he had created the basis for systematizing leukemias with his investigation of white blood cells. From 30 April to 2 May 1876 Koch presented his investigations in Breslau, which the student Paul Ehrlich was able to experience.
Already the day after Kocha€™s lecture Ehrlich had made an improvement to Kocha€™s staining method, which Koch unreservedly welcomed. In the ensuing tuberculin scandal, Ehrlich tried to support Koch and stressed the value of tuberculin for diagnostic purposes.
Ehrlich rejected inheritance in the genetic sense because the offspring of a male mouse immunized against abrin and an untreated female mouse were not immune to abrin. This joint work was successful to the extent that Ehrlich was quickly able to increase the level of immunity of the laboratory animals based on his experience with mice. The testing station for diphtheria serum was provisionally housed at the Institute of Infectious Diseases. After diphtheria antiserum, tetanus serum and various bactericide serums for use in veterinary medicine were developed in rapid sequence.
The cancerous disease of Princess Victoria, the widow of the German Emperor Friedrich II, had received much public attention and prompted a collection among wealthy Frankfurt citizens, including Speyer, in support of cancer research.
One of his findings was that pigments can only be easily assimilated by living organisms if they are in granular form. He initiated a doctoral dissertation on the subject, but did not follow up the topic himself.
Since the parasite family of Plasmodiidae a€“ which includes the malaria pathogen a€“ can be stained with methylene blue, he thought it could possibly be used in the treatment of malaria. As director of the Georg Speyer House Ehrlich transferred his chemotherapeutic research there. Salvarsan proved to be amazingly effective, particularly when compared with the conventional therapy of mercury salts.
Ehrlich was also accused, with clearly anti-Semitic undertones, of excessively enriching himself. Shortly after the end of the war the name Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse was reinstated and today numerous German cities have streets named after Paul Ehrlich. Wong’s promise to Sun shows their bond and a commitment to maintain Toya’s cultural tradition. Tod Browning’s film, the last of his collaborations with Lon Chaney, features the actor as a Tiger Haynes, a wild animal trapper in the Orient. With little knowledge of the details, he knows that the big time is in the city, where dreams become real and are greater than taking a roadside gas station. One commits suicide after learning his diagnosis; hence, Ehrlich, like earlier Robinson roles, deals in death, with no means of escape. An outsider who invades then tops the criminal networks of 1920s Chicago, Rico Bandello is always prey to the official and unofficial establishment.
This trend, obviously, created some of the worst orientialism, with “no tickee, no washee” stereotypes of Chinese laundrymen appearing in Roscoe Arbuckle comic shorts of the teens.
Wong, departing a house of sin with his wife back with him, escapes the vengeance of the Hays Office by not experiencing punishment for his murders. Erhlich shows all the glory that his discoveries have brought and the hope he will inspire in other doctors after him.
Robinson proved that he was able to play something else than mob bosses and he delivered a perfect performance as the old man that was blatantly ignored. Here he discovered in 1909 the first drug to be targeted against a specific pathogen: Salvarsan, a treatment for syphilis, which was at that time one of the most lethal and infectious diseases in Europe. In 1891 Koch invited Ehrlich to work at the newly founded Institute of Infectious Diseases (Institut fA?r Infektionskrankheiten a€“ now the Robert Koch Institute)[4] at Friedrich-Wilhelms-UniversitA¤t (now Humboldt University) in Berlin. Ehrlich interpreted this as immunization and observed that it was abruptly initiated after a few days and was still in existence after several months, but mice immunized against ricin were just as sensitive to abrin as untreated animals. He concluded that the fetus was supplied with antibodies via the pulmonary circulation of the mother. Clinical tests with diphtheria serum early in 1894 were successful and in August the chemical company Hoechst started to market Behringa€™s a€?Diphtheria Remedy synthesized by Behring-Ehrlicha€?. On the initiative of Friedrich Althoff,[7] an Institute of Serum Research and Testing (Institut fA?r Serumforschung und SerumprA?fung) was established in 1896 in Berlin-Steglitz, with Paul Ehrlich as director (which required him to cancel all his contracts with Hoechst). These were also evaluated at the institute, as was tuberculin and later on various vaccines. Cell protoplasm contains special side chains (todaya€™s term is macromolecules) to which the toxin binds, thereby affecting how they function. Ehrlich had also received from the German Emperor Wilhelm II a personal request to devote all his energy to cancer research. In analogy to vaccination he attempted to generate immunity to cancer by injecting weakened cancer cells. He injected the dyes alizarin blue and indophenol blue into laboratory animals and established that after their death various organs had been colored to different degrees.
It was the opinion of the neurologist Ludwig Edinger that Ehrlich had thereby opened up a major new topic in the field of neurology. In the case of two patients so treated at the city hospital in Berlin-Moabit, their fever indeed subsided and the malaria plasmodia disappeared from their blood. He was looking for an agent which was as good as methylene blue but without its side effects. Although the name literally means a€?nonpoisonousa€?, atoxyl damages especially the optic nerve. The Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize is the most distinguished German award for biomedical research. Set up by Chinese immigrants facing persecution by whites, the Tongs were halls that hosted brotherhoods. Understanding devotion to the code, his friend forgives Wong for the act he must commit, the victim’s only wish that Wong take in his six-year-old daughter, Toya. When she matures, both she and Wong have adopted the culture of the West, an irony that questions the strength of Wong and Toya’s relationship. His wife long gone, he alone raises his daughter, Toyo (Lupe Velez), now of age and engaged to Bobby Bailey (Lloyd Hughes), the son of a circus owner and affiliate of Tiger. The path of the real-life hoods on the run, post-Volstead, like Bonnie and Clyde and “Baby Face” Nelson – who, like other popular bandits already at work, hit the roads once booze was legalized again – is inverted in Rico. As a young doctor, he breaks the rules by abandoning his duties to attend a lecture, where he impresses Dr. Ironically, his side man becomes a most severe foe, as his betrayal leaves Rico broken, destitute in a flop house. He must return to his Eastern roots by embracing the hatchet to avenge the crime against Toya.
Still marginalized as a member of Chinatown, Wong sneaks into the streets toward a ship port, on which will commence his journey. And yet, a coda, spoken by Robinson, notes that the “Buddha will find you no matter where you are on the face of this earth,” and thus his punishment may be due soon.
His team of scientists with him, they offer him the natural center of the composition, not the domineering focus of Rico. He also made a decisive contribution to the development of an antiserum to combat diphtheria and conceived a methodology for standardizing therapeutic serums.
Paul Ehrlich did not convert away from Judaism, but was rather indifferent to Jewish customs and traditions.


In it Ehrlich presented the entire spectrum of known staining techniques and the chemistry of the pigments employed. Ehrlicha€™s great achievement, but also a source of problems during his further career, was that he had initiated a new field of study interrelating chemistry, biology and medicine. Koch was unable to give him any remuneration, but did offer him full access to laboratory staff, patients, chemicals and laboratory animals, which Ehrlich always remembered with gratitude. This idea was supported by the fact that this a€?inherited immunitya€? decreased after a few months. The two discoverers had originally agreed to share any profits after the Hoechst share had been subtracted.
In this function and as honorary professor at Berliner University he had annual earnings of 6000 marks, approximately the salary of a university professor. For the test itself, toxin and serum were mixed in a ratio so that their effects just cancelled each other when injected into a guinea pig. Ehrlicha€™s most important colleague at the institute was the Jewish doctor and biologist Julius Morgenroth. If the organism survives the effects of the toxin, the blocked side-chains are replaced by new ones. Such efforts led to the founding of a department for cancer research affiliated with the Institute of Experimental Therapy; the chemist Gustav Embden, among others worked there. Both in cancer research and chemotherapy research (see below) he introduced the methodologies of Big Science. In organs with high oxygen saturation indophenol was retained; in organs with medium saturation indophenol was reduced, but not Alizarin blue. Ehrlich obtained methylene blue from the company Meister Lucius & BrA?ning AG (later renamed Hoechst AG), which started a long collaboration with this company. His model was on the one hand the impact of quinine on malaria, and on the other hand, in analogy to serum therapy, he thought there must also be chemical pharmaceuticals which would have just as specific an effect on individual diseases. Ehrlich elaborated the systematic testing of chemical compounds in the sense of a€?screeninga€?, as now practiced in the pharmaceutical industry. It was the most effective drug for treating syphilis until penicillin became available in the 1940s.[10] Salvarsan required improvement as to side effects and solubility and was replaced in 1911 with Neosalvarsan. With many having bare financial support, Tongs often housed gambling, prostitution, and the opium trade (Dillon 1962). Wong acts on command, as his emotions veer elsewhere, when Robinson looks upon the personal bond that collectivism will sever. Darryl Zanuck’s insistence on form offers an astute turn in that the hitman – through his offspring and hence, in spirit – remains with his friend.
On a boat trip, Bobby becomes drawn to Madame de Sylva (Estelle Taylor, as an alluring if hissable vamp), who channels the West’s sexualization of the East. Ehrlich broke ground by identifying blood diseases and creating a treatment for syphilis, only to be denied his significance by the Nazis in the 1930s.
Aligned to an element of the American city, the Chinatown district, he’s a foe to a culture proud of its pluralism though not above racism against Asians. The style was so omnipotent that New York Times critic Mordaunt Hall found the makeup of the many cliched Asian roles in Hatchet, with passive postures and squinting eyes, to be convincing. On board he shovels coal to wage his trip, each pierce and toss of the black continuing his marginalization to the whites, but actually fuelling his focus and drive to avenge. Ehrlich has purified the mind of men by fighting ills of the body – his intellectual pursuit noting that the glory of Robinson’s lost narratives stem from mastery of character.
In 1908, he received a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contributions to immunology. Much of his work was rejected by the medical profession, which lacked the requisite chemical knowledge. Their contract was changed several times and finally Ehrlich was eventually pressured into accepting a profit share of only eight percent.
But as there was a large margin in determining whether symptoms of illness were present, Ehrlich established an unambiguous target: the death of the animal.
Ehrlich informed his sponsors that cancer research meant basic research, and that a cure could not be expected soon. He discovered that Compound 418, Arsenophenylglycine, had an impressive therapeutic effect and had it likewise tested in Africa. Since the Nazi government was opposed to this tribute to a Jewish scientist, attempts were made to keep the film a secret in Germany.
What reads as perversion from afar becomes fuel for a devotional tale, even if called “delirious” in Bertrand Tavernier’s account.
The role would bring redemption to a Hollywood outcast locked out of lead roles in prestige productions. He handles the dangerous matter to see how it can be stained and identified and, thus, removed. The mice which were nursed by the treated females were protected from the poison, providing the proof that antibodies can also be conveyed in breast milk. Ehrlich resented what he considered as unfair treatment and his relationship with Behring was thereafter problematic, a situation which later escalated over the issue of the valency[5] of tetanus serum.
If there is a surplus of side chains they can also be released into the blood as antibodies.
With this work Ehrlich also formulated the conviction which guided his research: that all life processes can be traced to processes of physical chemistry occurring in the cell. His casting came after Paul Muni rejected the role, abiding by a personal rule to never play Jews onscreen (though one himself) (Gansberg 2004: 82). Ironic from the outset, his assassination of a friend is honorable, until Wong must face Harry En Hai (Leslie Fenton), the loathsome east coast American hood who brings Toya to slavery in China. Wong seeks a place where only rich men are welcome, a den of dancing and smoking the pipe of “golden dreams.” An outsider still, he walks towards his mark, arms fixed to his sides, with an inversion of the forlornness he showed for Ming, by reflecting a meek acceptance of his own desire, the antithesis of one following the Buddha. A drop of blood placed between two glass slides and heated over a Bunsen burner fixed the blood cells but enabled them still to be stained.
Ehrlich recognized that the principle of serum therapy had been developed by Behring and Kitasato.
In the following years Ehrlich expanded his side chain theory using concepts (a€?amboceptorsa€?, a€?receptors of the first, second and third ordera€?, etc.) which are no longer customary.
A haunted Robinson cocks back his arm, which cuts to Wong’s shadow: the ghostly rendition of his hatchet throw reflects an unsure if swift decision, a sideman departure of yet another kind. Robinson, proud of his heritage which would later make him a target for the HUAC, was thrilled for the role and to honor a great man. There he treats a boy infected with a snake bite, while the boy’s father is, curiously, not affected by the same snake. Wu (opposite Anna May Wong, to boot!), a style he cultivated in his pre-stardom roles Outside the Law (1920) and Shadows (1922). But he was of the opinion that he had been the first to develop a serum which could also be used on humans and that his role in developing the diphtheria serum had been insufficiently acknowledged.
Ehrlich claimed to have made the determination of the valency of serum as accurate as it would be with chemical titration.
Between the antigen and the antibody he assumed there was an additional immune molecule, which he called an a€?additivea€? or a a€?complementa€?.
For the first time this made it possible to differentiate the lymphocytes among the leucocytes (white blood cells). Behring on his part schemed against Ehrlich at the Prussian Ministry of Culture, and from 1900 Ehrlich refused to collaborate with him.
He accumulates knowledge much like an investigator, for him an oppositional role he’d later take for Wilder in Double Indemnity. By studying their granulation he could distinguish between nongranular lymphocytes, mono- and poly-nuclear leucocytes, eosinophil granulocytes, and mast cells. For providing a theoretical basis for immunology as well as for his work on serum valency, Ehrlich was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1908 together with A‰lie Metchnikoff. Metchnikoff, who had researched the cellular branch of immunity, Phagocytosis, at the Pasteur Institute had previously sharply attacked Ehrlich.



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