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SmokingDefinitionSmoking is the inhalation of the smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. Enabling JavaScript in your browser will allow you to experience all the features of our site.
Casual smoking is the act of smoking only occasionally, usually in a social situation or to relieve stress.
Mesmer studied medicine at the University of Vienna and received his medical degree in 1766. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of altMD's terms of service and privacy policy and cookie policy and Health Disclaimer. Mesmer is believed to have been the first doctor to understand the relationship of psychological trauma to illness. The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.
He induced a trance-like state, which became known as mesmerization, in his patients to successfully treat nervous disorders. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has asserted that cigarettes and smokeless tobacco should be considered nicotine delivery devices. Nicotine, the active ingredient in tobacco, is inhaled into the lungs, where most of it stays. He later became interested in the effects of magnetism and found that magnets could have tremendous healing effects on the human body. The rest passes into the bloodstream, reaching the brain in about ten seconds and dispersing throughout the body in about 20 seconds.Depending on the circumstances and the amount consumed, nicotine can act as either a stimulant or tranquilizer. Mesmer believed that the human body contained a magnetic fluid that promoted health and well being. This can explain why some people report that smoking gives them energy and stimulates their mental activity, while others note that smoking relieves anxiety and relaxes them. The techniquewas supposed to transmit magnetic fluid from his hands to the bodies of his patients. Epinephrine causes several physiological changes—it temporarily narrows the arteries, raises the blood pressure, raises the levels of fat in the blood, and increases the heart rate and flow of blood from the heart. During this time period, there was no clear delineation between health conditions that were physical or psychological in nature. Because of all the controversy surrounding mesmerism, and because Mesmer's personality was quite eccentric, a commission was convened to investigate his techniques and procedures. Smoke from a cigarette, pipe, or cigar is made up of many additional toxic chemicals, including tar and carbon monoxide. The very distinguished panel of investigators included Benjamin Franklin, the French chemist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, and the physician Jacques Guillotin.
Tar is a sticky substance that forms into deposits in the lungs, causing lung cancer and respiratory distress. The commission acknowledged that patients did seem to obtain noticeable relief from their conditions, but the whole idea was dismissed as being medical quackery.Other pioneers in this field, such as James Braid and James Esdaile, discovered that hypnosis could be used to successfully anesthetize patients for surgeries. Carbon monoxide limits the amount of oxygen that the red blood cells can convey throughout the body.
James Braid accidentally discovered that one of his patients began to enter a hypnotic state while staring at a fixed light as he waited for his eye examination to begin. Also, it may damage the inner walls of the arteries, which allows fat to build up in them.Besides tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, tobacco smoke contains 4,000 different chemicals. Since mesmerism had fallen out of favor, Braid coined the term hypnotism, which is derived from the Greek word for sleep. Braid also used the techniques of monotony, rhythm, and imitation to assist in inducing a hypnotic state. These techniques are generally still in use.Around 1900, there were very few preoperative anesthetic drugs available. But because lungs partially cleanse the smoke, exhaled smoke contains fewer poisonous chemicals. One out of 400 patients would die, not from the surgical procedure, but from the anesthesia.
Henry Munro was one of the first physicians to use hypnotherapy to alleviate patient fears about having surgery. He would get his patients into a hypnotic state and discuss their fears with them, telling them they would feel a lot better following surgery. It is thought that some genetic variations affect the speed of nicotine metabolism in the body and the activity level of nicotinic receptors in the brain.Smoking risksSmoking is recognized as the leading preventable cause of death, causing or contributing to the deaths of approximately 430,700 Americans each year. Munro found that he was able to perform surgery using only about 10% of the usual amount of ether.It took more than 200 years for hypnotherapy to become incorporated into mainstream medical treatment. In 1955, the British Medical Association approved the use of hypnotherapy as a valid medical treatment, with the American Medical Association (AMA) giving its approval in 1958.BenefitsHypnotherapy is used in a number of fields including psychotherapy, surgery, dentistry, research, and medicine.
The risk of stroke is especially high in women who take birth control pills.Smoking can damage fertility, making it harder to conceive, and it can interfere with the growth of the fetus during pregnancy. Hypnotherapy is commonly used as an alternative treatment for a wide range of health conditions, including weight control, pain management, and smoking cessation. It is also used to control pain in a variety of such conditions as headache, facial neuralgia, arthritis, burns, musculoskeletal disorders, childbirth, and many more. Hypnotherapy is being used in place of anesthesia, particularly in patients who prove to be allergic to anesthetic drugs, for such surgeries as hysterectomies, cesarean sections, certain cardiovascular procedures, thyroidectomy, and others. Dentists use hypnotherapy with success on patients who are allergic to all types of dental anesthetics.

Hypnotherapy is also useful in helping patients overcome phobias.Hypnotherapy is used for nonmedical patients as well as those who wish to overcome bad habits.
If a smoker switches to a low-tar cigarette, he is likely to inhale longer and more deeply to get the chemicals his body craves. Hypnotherapy has been shown to help those who suffer from performance anxiety in such activities as sports and speaking in public.
A smoker has to quit the habit entirely in order to improve his health and decrease the chance of disease.Though some people believe chewing tobacco is safer, it also carries health risks. People who chew tobacco have an increased risk of heart disease and mouth and throat cancer. FRANZ MESMER 1734–1815Franz Mesmer was born on May 23, 1734, in the village of Itznang, Switzerland. Pipe and cigar smokers have increased health risks as well, even though these smokers generally do not inhale as deeply as cigarette smokers do. At age 15 he entered the Jesuit College at Dillingen in Bavaria, and from there he went in 1752 to the University of Ingolstadt, where he studied philosophy, theology, music, and mathematics. A Swedish study published in 2001 found that people who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as children were both more likely to develop asthma as adults, and to become smokers themselves. In 1759 he entered the University of Vienna, receiving a medical degree in 1766.Mesmer settled in Vienna and began to develop his concept of an invisible fluid in the body that affected health. In the fall of 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) partnered with the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) to educate parents about the risks to their children of secondhand smoke, and to persuade parents to sign a Smoke Free Home Pledge. At first he used magnets to manipulate this fluid but gradually came to believe these were unnecessary; that, in fact, anything he touched became magnetized and that a health-giving fluid emanated from his own body. The AAAAI reported that many parents cut down on or gave up smoking when they recognized the damage that smoking was causing to their children's lungs.
Mesmer believed a rapport with his patients was essential for cure and achieved it with diverse trappings. A study of secondhand smoke in the workplace done by the European Union found that it can affect workers as severely as smoke in the home can affect children. On the basis of medical opinion, repeated efforts were made by the French government to discredit Mesmer.
Other symptoms include shortness of breath, wheezing, and frequent occurrences of respiratory illness, such as bronchitis. Smokers are more likely to develop poor circulation, with cold hands and feet and premature wrinkles.Sometimes the illnesses that result from smoking come on silently with little warning. At other times, there will be warning signs, such as bloody discharge from a woman's vagina, a sign of cancer of the cervix. Liebeault and Hippolyte Bernheim attributed hypnotic phenomena to psychological forces, particularly suggestion. While undergoing this scientific transformation in the nineteenth century, mesmerism in other quarters became more closely associated with occultism, spiritualism, and faith healing, providing in the last instance the basis for Christian Science.DescriptionHypnotherapy involves achieving a psychological state of awareness that is different from the ordinary state of consciousness. For the greatest success in quitting and to help with the withdrawal symptoms, the smoker should talk over a treatment plan with his doctor or alternative practitioner.
He should have a general physical examination to gauge his general health and uncover any deficiencies. These phenomena include alterations in memory, heightened susceptibility to suggestion, paralysis, sweating, and blushing. He should also have a thorough evaluation for some of the serious diseases that smoking can cause.TreatmentThere are a wide range of alternative treatments that can help a smoker quit the habit, including hypnotherapy, herbs, acupuncture, and meditation. For example, a controlled trial demonstrated that self-massage can help smokers crave less intensely, smoke fewer cigarettes, and in some cases give them up completely.HypnotherapyHypnotherapy helps the smoker achieve a trance-like state, during which the deepest levels of the mind are accessed. A session with a hypnotherapist may begin with a discussion of whether the smoker really wants to and truly has the motivation to stop smoking. Many smokers are convinced they can't quit, and the therapist can help persuade them that they can change this behavior.
When used as entertainment, people have been hypnotized to say or do things that would normally embarrass them. There have been instances where people already dangerously close to psychological breakdown have been pushed into an emotional crisis during what was supposed to be a harmless demonstration of hypnosis.
The therapist may also suggest while the smoker is under hypnosis that his feelings of worry, anxiety, and irritability will decrease.In a review of 17 studies of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy, the percentage of people treated by hypnosis who still were not smoking after six months ranged from 4% to 8%. A statement from the World Hypnosis Organization (WHO) warns against performing hypnosis on patients suffering from psychosis, organic psychiatric conditions, or antisocial personality disorders. In programs that included several hours of treatment, intense interpersonal interaction, individualized suggestions, and follow-up treatment, success rates were above 50%.AromatherapyOne study demonstrated that inhaling the vapor from black pepper extract can reduce symptoms associated with smoking withdrawal.
Because there are no standard licensing requirements, there is a risk that the hypnotist will have difficulty in controlling or ending a hypnotic state that has been induced in the patient.There is a commonly held belief that a person cannot be coerced into doing things that he or she would not normally do while under hypnosis.
Other essential oils can be used for relieving the anxiety a smoker often experiences while quitting.HerbsA variety of herbs can help smokers reduce their cravings for nicotine, calm their irritability, and even reverse the oxidative cellular damage done by smoking.
Lobelia, sometimes called Indian tobacco, has historically been used as a substitute for tobacco. Leaders of the Jehovah's Witnesses and Christian Science religions oppose the use of hypnotherapy and advise their members to avoid it completely, whether for entertainment or therapy. It contains a substance called lobeline, which decreases the craving for nicotine by bolstering the nervous system and calming the smoker. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints approves it for medical purposes, but cautions members against allowing themselves to be hypnotized for entertainment or demonstration purposes.In 1985, the AMA convened a commission that warned against using hypnotherapy to aid in recollection of events. The commission cited studies that showed the possibility of hypnotic recall resulting in confabulation or an artificial sense of certainty about the course of events.

Licorice is good for the liver, which is a major player in the body's detoxification process.
As a result, many states limit or prohibit testimony of hypnotized witnesses or victims.Side effectsExperiments have been conducted to determine any side effects of hypnotherapy.
Some subjects have reported side effects such as headache, stiff neck, drowsiness, cognitive distortion or confusion, dizziness, and anxiety. The acupuncturist will use hair-thin needles to stimulate the body's qi, or healthy energy. Acupuncture is a sophisticated treatment system based on revitalizing qi, which supposedly flows through the body in defined pathways called meridians.
Children are particularly good candidates for hypnotherapy because their lack of worldly experience enables them to move easily between the rational world and their imagination.
Often the acupuncturist will recommend keeping the needles in for five to seven days to calm the smoker and keep him balanced.VitaminsSmoking seriously depletes vitamin C in the body and leaves it more susceptible to infections.
One recent study evaluated how self-hypnosis relieved pain and anxiety in patients undergoing angioplasty with local anesthesia. Vitamin C can prevent or reduce free-radical damage by acting as an antioxidant in the lungs. Another study found that pregnant adolescents counseled in hypnosis needed less anesthesia during delivery and less pain medication afterward.
Fish in the diet supplies Omega-3 fatty acids, which are associated with a reduced risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema or chronic bronchitis) in smokers.
They also left the hospital sooner.The use of hypnotherapy with cancer patients is another area being investigated.
A meta-analysis of 116 studies showed positive results of using hypnotherapy with cancer patients. Vitamin therapy doesn't reduce craving but it can help beat some of the damage created by smoking. Vitamin B12 and folic acid may help protect against smoking-induced cancer.Allopathic treatmentResearch shows that most smokers who want to quit benefit from the support of other people. It helps to quit with a friend or to join a group such as those organized by the American Cancer Society. It is very easy to learn how to hypnotize someone, and the fact that hypnotism dates back to ancient times proves the ease with which a trance can be induced.
These groups provide support and teach behavior modification methods that can help the smoker quit.
There are no licensing procedures in place that limit the practice of hypnotherapy to medical professionals. They slowly release a small amount of nicotine into the bloodstream, satisfying the smoker's physical craving. Over time, the amount of gum the smoker chews is decreased and the amount of time between applying the patches is increased.
This tapering helps wean the smoker from nicotine slowly, eventually beating his addiction to the drug.
A five-year study of bupropion reported in 2003 that the drug has a very good record for safety and effectiveness in treating tobacco dependence. The position of the American Society of Clinical Hypnotists (ASCH) is that the training of lay hypnotists is unethical. Its most common side effect is insomnia, which can also result from nicotine withdrawal.Researchers are investigating two new types of drugs as possible treatments for tobacco dependence as of 2003. This organization supports only the training of those persons who are pursuing an advanced degree in the health sciences.
The first is an alkaloid known as 18-methoxy-coronaridine (18-MC), which selectively blocks the nicotinic receptors in brain tissue.
ASCH further believes that hypnotherapy is a treatment modality to be used in conjunction with other forms of treatment, not a treatment that stands alone.
Medical professionals believe that lay hypnotists keep the view of hypnotherapy in low esteem by the general public. But smoking is so addictive that fewer than 20% of the people who try ever successfully kick the habit. They also believe that their practices are impacted economically by the lay hypnotists.ASCH and the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (SCEH) are two organizations that are trying to set up formal screening, training, and accrediting standards.
Both of these organizations offer formal training to medical professionals at their annual meetings.ResourcesBOOKSElman, Dave.
Professional Hypnotism Manual: Introducing Physical and Emotional Suggestibility and Sexuality.
Doing so helps make quitting a matter of pride.Chew sugarless gum or eat sugar-free hard candy to redirect the oral fixation that comes with smoking.
This will prevent weight gain, too.Eat as much as you want, but only low-calorie foods and drinks. Devon Avenue, Des Plaines, IL 60018.International Council for Medical and Clinical Therapists.

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