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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the head can be used to detect specific areas of inflammation or bleeding in the brain caused by encephalitis. Encephalitis treatment is performed in the intensive care unit of a hospital where the vital signs of the patient are closely monitored (blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and the body fluids).
Encephalitis caused by arboviruses, which are transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks, do not respond to acyclovir or other medications.
Find out about the treatment for encephalitis, which involves reducing inflammation inside the brain while trying to prevent brain damage and complications.
Treatment: With the exception of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster encephalitis, the viral forms of encephalitis are not treatable. The types of encephalitis treatments used typically depend on the severity of each individual case. The disease can be caused by a number of different germs and therefore the viral bacterial infection can disseminate in many different ways. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with encephalitis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Other signs and symptoms of encephalitis depend on which area of the brain is most affected.
Arboviral encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) caused by infection with an arbovirus, a virus transmitted by a mosquito, tick or another arthropod. Encephalitis, West Nile: A febrile disease caused by the West Nile virus that is transmitted from birds to the common Culex mosquito and then to people.
Some doctors use valacyclovir for herpes simplex encephalitis, even though this medication has not been formally approved for the treatment of encephalitis.
Some patients may have symptoms of a cold or stomach infection before encephalitis symptoms begin. From symptoms to treatment to prevention, get the basics on encephalitis from the experts at WebMD.


Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a direct viral infection or a hypersensitivity reaction to a virus or foreign protein.
Infection of vertebrates, including humans, occurs when an infected arthropod feasts upon them for a blood meal. The virus is named after the area it was first found in Uganda. West Nile fever occurs in parts of Africa and Asia and, infrequently, in Southern Europe and the Middle East.
Another imaging test, CT (computed tomography) of the face and head can be used to see these changes in the brain. The West Nile virus had never been seen in birds or people in the Western Hemisphere prior to an outbreak in the summer of 1999 in New York City. Signs and symptoms include the sudden onset of drowsiness, headache and nausea due to encephalitis, pain in the abdomen, a rash, and swollen glands (lymphadenopathy).
Encephalitis results when the virus invades the central nervous system destroying the brain substance with accompanying inflammation. In case of encephalitis, the EEG will show an increased or decreased abnormal electrical activity. Brain biopsy is rarely used, because blood tests and cerebrospinal fluid can provide an accurate diagnosis of encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus.
Because early treatment increases the chances of recovery, it is important that therapy with acyclovir should be started as soon as encephalitis is suspected, even if we do not know the exact cause of the disease.
Those that occur in the US include LaCrosse (LAC) encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), western equine encephalitis (WEE), and St. The symptoms usually start with the common symptoms of a viral infection such as fever, headache, muscle aches, feeling tired and nausea.
Seizures can be treated with anticonvulsant medications such as phenytoin (Dilantin) or phenobarbital.
Fatal cases tend to involve infants and small children under age 5, the aged, and people with an impaired immune system. The outbreak in New York, which was entirely unexpected, reflects the reality of global travel today that can transport exotic viruses to new areas.
A ventilator (artificial breathing machine) and other supportive measures can be taken to help the patient who falls into a coma.


If a mosquito-borne virus enters a new area, the entire mosquito population may be susceptible, putting everyone living there at risk. West Nile encephalitis is also known as West Nile fever. Sometimes this disease can be caused by viruses that cause mumps, rubella, measles, influenza and mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus). Another group of viruses called arboviruses can spread encephalitis mainly by mosquitoes and ticks bites.
The arbovirus that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is usually found in Central and South American but has ventured into the US. Many other types of arboviral encephalitis occur throughout the world. Only a small number of people stung by infected ticks or mosquitoes develop symptoms of encephalitis. Most of these diseases are problems only for those individuals traveling to countries where the viruses are endemic. Disease caused by arboviruses occurs usually in summer and early fall when mosquitoes bite people who spend more time outdoors. They include Japanese encephalitis (JE), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) and, most notorious of all, the West Nile virus (WNV) which causes West Nile encephalitis, also known as West Nile fever.
However, rarely, in some people, the virus can travel in the bloodstream to attack the brain and cause encephalitis.
However, before a lumbar puncture you will often need to have a computerised tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of your brain to rule out other causes for your symptoms and also to make sure that there are no signs of raised intracranial pressure (raised pressure inside your skull). In some people, encephalitis is diagnosed when other causes for their symptoms have been excluded after tests. Therapies such as speech therapy and physiotherapy may help to improve symptoms in some people.



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