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Gastroenteritis is irritation and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that involves the stomach and the small intestines.
The severity of gastroenteritis mainly depends on an individual's immune system's ability to fight with the infection. Gastroenteritis can be classified into different categories based on the cause of the infection. Viral Gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis is highly contagious in nature and is most common form of gastroenteritis.
Bacterial Gastroenteritis: Bacterial gastroenteritis is uncommon and generally very serious in nature.
Cryptosporidiosis Gastroenteritis: Cryptosporidiosis gastroenteritis is caused by the parasite named Cryptosporidium. Rotavirus in children under the age of 5 causes about 110 million cases of gastroenteritis worldwide every year and nearly half a million deaths. The incidence in the developed countries is about 1 to 2.5 cases per child per year and this has been a major cause for hospitalization. There are different bacterial species that cause gastroenteritis and they will act on the gastrointestinal system in different ways.
There are bacteria, which enter the gastrointestinal tract and attach themselves to the intestinal mucosa or lining where they begin to secrete toxins.
This gastrointestinal inflammation and irritation causes the typical signs and symptoms like fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea that are seen in cases of bacterial gastroenteritis. The main cause of gastroenteritis is bacteria and virus that again are the most common forms of infection. Gastroenteritis caused by viruses are milder than those caused by bacteria and may last up to a day or two, but bacterial gastroenteritis can last for up to a week or more.
Salmonella - Typhoid fever, handling reptiles such as turtles or poultry that carry the germs. Escherichia coli - Traveler's diarrhea, dysentery, colitis, food poisoning, or uremic syndrome. Parasites: The most common reason for getting infected with parasites is contaminated water, most commonly through swimming pools. Other Causes: Food allergies, heavy metals, certain chemical toxins often found in seafood, antibiotics, and other medications may also be responsible for bouts of gastroenteritis though these may not be infectious to others.
Gastroenteritis symptoms may generally result in stomach spasms or pain, diarrhea or vomiting, with inflammatory infections of the colon or noninflammatory infection of the upper small bowel. Poor feeding habits in infants leading to frequent watery stools caused with viral diarrhea. Children should be given rehydration solutions through oral route such as Rehydrate, Pedialyte, Resol, and Rice-Lyte. Fruit juice, tea, cola and sports drinks may not be able to replace fluid or electrolytes lost from vomiting or diarrhea correctly nor will the plain water.

Following each loose stool, children less than two years of age should be given one to three ounces of rehydration solution. In regions where pediatric drinks are not available, a common homemade recipe for rehydration is being used where two tablespoons of sugar mixed with a quarter teaspoon of table salt and quarter teaspoon of baking soda or table salt is mixed in 1 liter of clean or already boiled water. For adults, initial intake of ice chips and clear, nondairy, noncaffeinated liquids such as fruit juices, ginger ale, Gatorade, and Kool-Aid or other commercial drink mixes.
Medical Treatment: If the patient is not able to take fluids by mouth because of vomiting, an IV may be inserted to restore fluids back into the body for rehydration.
Antibiotics are generally not given until a specific bacteria has been identified as using wrong antibiotics can worsen some of the infections or prolong their life. Simple gastroenteritis is easy to diagnose with just the symptoms and there are no specific diagnostic tests required. If the symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and bloody stool are persistent for two weeks or more then examination of stool for Clostridium difficile is advised. Noroviruses are a group of viruses (Norwalk) that causes an infection of the stomach and intestines, also called viral gastroenteritis or stomach flu, although the disease is not caused by influenza virus. Norwalk virus symptoms usually starts after 24-48 hours after exposure to the virus, but can occur even 12 hours after ingestion. Prevention of outbreaks of infection in communities, depends on maintaining a good hygiene level at the staff who handle food. Healthcare professionals caring for patients suffering with norovirus, must wear gown and glows.
Doctor will diagnose the disease based on symptoms, which will improve after 2-3 days of onset. It could spread with close interaction with infected people, contaminated food, contaminated water, the sharing of eating utensils, poor hygiene habits, the elderly living in nursing homes, students living in student halls and even children in nurseries and preschools all may be at higher risk of developing viral gastroenteritis due to the close proximity in which they breathe and interact.
The infection in bacterial gastroenteritis could spread through poor hygiene habits, contact with infected people, the sharing of eating utensils, contaminated water and contaminated food. The reason behind Cryptosporidiosis could be the parasites taken in by mouth through infected water and food, or from individual to individual or animal to individual. This leads to inflammatory diarrhea, which is coupled with bloody diarrhea sometimes and the patient also has significant abdominal pain. These infectious agents can enter the gastrointestinal tract from outside the body through contaminated food or water, or can grow internally from some abnormal condition within. Fluid replacement helps in correcting electrolyte imbalance, which in turn may aid to stop vomiting. Intestines irritated due to gastroenteritis do not even absorb plain water quite well, also that fact that plain water will not aid in replacing electrolytes. Older children should drink as much as three to eight ounces of rehydration solution and adults as much as possible.
A soft bland diet such as the BRAT diet may be started after successful 24 hours of fluid diet without vomiting.

A surgeon, toxicologist, gastroenterologist, or other specialist's evaluation may be required for severe symptoms. Also blood cultures are recommended to identify if bacteria such as Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Enterotoxic Escherichia coli are the causes of the disease. Like the common cold, norovirus has different strains, which makes it difficult for a person’s body to develop lasting immunity. Many people recover easily by drinking fluids and going back to a normal diet, but recovery may not be easy in infants and elderly people sometimes leading to life-threatening illness unless fluids are restored and condition is treated. This virus is truly responsible for the infection and could easily spread through the air or through close contact.
The reason behind parasitic infections could spread through a contact with infected human or animal wastes, drinking of contaminated water and ingestion of raw seafood. The signs of this gastroenteritis are inclusion of other organs in the body aside from the gastrointestinal tract, lack of known cause for eosinophilia, and pain in the abdomen.
Most cases of gastroenteritis occur during summer in the tropics and in the temperate climates during winter. The toxins secreted by them have an impact on nutrient absorption leading to malabsorption and cause the mucosal cells to secrete electrolytes and water.
Manifestations of the virus infection can be unpleasant, symptoms including stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and sometimes fever and chills or headache and muscles pain. Therefore it is very important to follow simple hygiene rules even after the recovery period. Major sources of cryptosporidiosis could be contaminated water supplies, public swimming pools and child care centers. This will be seen as profuse watery diarrhea with vomiting that generally starts within 12 to 48 hours of ingestion. This infections were most frequently in communities, nurseries, schools, cruise ships, camps, hostels, restaurants and other places where groups can gather. In addition, some people are more likely to become infected and develop more sever illness due to genetic susceptibility factors. Maintaining an adequate intake of fluids to fill the needs of your organism, lost from vomiting or diarrhea is very important.
If diarrhea contains blood, accompanied by high fever or symptoms lasting more the 72 hours, could be involved another virus than norovirus.

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