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You have to discuss it with her doctor and obviously respect your mom's wishes (whether she wants to subject herself to surgery and chemo at her age).
In my experience when after 3 rounds of chemo I started getting peripheral neuropathy, my ONC reduced Taxol by 20%.
Ovarian cancer does not erode into organs and, therefore, does not cause any unusual bleeding from the colon or vagina. No pre-malignant change in the ovary has been identified (this is the case for most cancers).
As an example, consider stage 1 cancers of the ovary (the cancer has not yet spread beyond the ovary).
As another example, consider stage 3 cancers of the ovary (the cancer has grossly spread into the upper abdomen). Like most cancers there can be no “margin of error” in the proper treatment of an ovarian malignancy if these high cure rates are to be attained. Wouldn’t it be nice to have a magical test that could detect the presence of one cancer cell? You will be seen for a follow-up visit at 3 month intervals after completion of chemotherapy until you hit the 2-year anniversary of your diagnosis. After 5 years of follow-up we pass the baton to your Primary Physician (after all, you don’t want to have to see an Oncologist any longer than you absolutely have to!).
Abstract: Claudin 4 is a cellular adhesion molecule that is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer and other epithelial cancers. Abstract: The present study analyzed the expression and clinical role of the protein of regenerating liver (PRL) phosphatase family in ovarian carcinoma. Abstract: Ovarian cancer, one of the most common gynecological malignancies, has an aggressive phenotype.
Abstract: The involvement of epigenetic aberrations in the development and progression of tumors is now well established. Abstract: There is increasing evidence to suggest that extracellular matrix (ECM) components play an active role in tumor progression and are an important determinant for the growth and progression of solid tumors.
Abstract: MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) allows acquisition of mass data for metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins directly from tissue sections. Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the combined effects of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 selective inhibitors on human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cells xenograft-bearing mice. Abstract: Most scientific efforts towards early detection of ovarian cancer are commonly focused on the discovery of tumour-associated antigens (TAA).
Abstract: Recent genome-wide analysis has demonstrated that somatic mutations in ARID1A (BAF250) are the most common molecular genetic changes in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Abstract: Lewis (y) antigen is a difucosylated oligosaccharide present on the plasma membrane, and its overexpression is frequently found in human cancers and has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis.
Abstract: Lewis y (LeY) antigen is a difucosylated oligosaccharide carried by glycoconjugates on the cell surface. I am new to this board but have used this board for my sister who recently passed from a battle with colon Ca.  My Mom had a biopsy scheduled on Wednesday. The clinical trials I am aware of for elderly ovarian cancer patients are NCT01471483, that involves geriatric assessments throughout the different treatment stages and NCT01366183, that involves observation of chemotherapy toxicity influence on quality of life.  I think that clinical trials is the best option for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer patients or for those women who do not respond to conventional chemo. Most of the time a cancer is not found until it produces some type of symptom and is already fairly advanced. As it progresses ovarian cancer spreads along the surface of organs in the abdomen and does not produce any type of pain. However, if I was to take a poll of a random sample of men or women over age 50 how many would admit to these same symptoms on occasion?
One reason that yearly colonoscopies are not recommended for colo-rectal cancer screening is the cost of the procedure. Histologic confirmation of an abnormal screening test requires biopsy of the suspect organ.
Since no test is 100% sensitive and specific the predictive power of any test is far less than perfect.
A screening test with the same specificity as a pap smear would falsely predict that 250 of these women have an ovarian cancer!
The only way to prove that an ovary is not harboring an early cancer is to remove the entire ovary for histologic evaluation. Interestingly, a familial type of ovarian cancer genetic risk has been identified in some families.
We actually can determine familial risk with a blood test that can detect mutations in a gene, BRCA1 that, if present, redisposes to the development of both breast and ovarian cancer. Only 5% of ovarian cancers will be found when still stage 1 but these women can expect a 90% likelihood of cure! Everything has to be done in the right way at the right time in order to optimize cure rates.
The molecular etiology of ovarian cancer remains elusive and the attempts to develop effective early detection and treatment for ovarian cancer patients are empirical. In this study, we sought to determine whether the expression of claudin 4 is associated with outcome in ovarian cancer patients and may be involved in tumor progression. PRL1-3 mRNA expression was studied in 184 tumors (100 effusions, 57 primary carcinomas, 27 solid metastases) using RT-PCR. It is necessary to develop novel and more effective treatment strategies against advanced disease. However, most studies have focused on the epigenetic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes during tumorigenesis and little is known about the epigenetic activation of cancer-associated genes, except for the DNA hypomethylation of some genes.


Tumor cells interfere with the normal programming of ECM biosynthesis and can extensively modify the structure and composition of the matrix.
IMS is typically performed either as a multiple spot profiling experiment to generate tissue specific mass profiles, or a high resolution imaging experiment where relative spatial abundance for potentially hundreds of analytes across virtually any tissue section can be measured. Autologous antibodies against TAA, however, may serve as more sensitive diagnostic markers. ARID1A mutations, which occur in approximately half of OCCC cases, lead to deletion of the encoded protein and inactivation of the putative tumor suppressor.
Our previous studies have shown that Lewis (y) antigen plays a positive role in the process of invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells.
Overexpression of LeY is frequently observed in epithelial-derived cancers and has been correlated to the pathological staging and prognosis.
Before every chemo she will be getting anti-emetics (nausea drugs), steroids and benadryl to prevent allergic reaction.
Do not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare provider.
It is only when the volume of the cancer is great enough to cause some abdominal distension that it makes itself obvious. Pap smears are probably the best example of a screening tool that is relatively inexpensive. This downside is overcome by only using the test in a population of patients where the prevalence of the pre-malignant condition or cancer being studied is moderately high. This familial tendency induces an extremely high lifetime risk of developing an ovarian malignancy.
This means that the treatment of an ovarian cancer will almost always require an initial surgical procedure with a very simple goal……removal of all visible tumor. At each visit you will be given a pelvic exam to detect any “nodularity” in the bottom part of the pelvis (cul-de-sac). Identification and characterization of ovarian cancer-associated genes are fundamental steps toward elucidating its pathogenesis and providing new opportunity for cancer detection and therapy. We examined claudin 4 expression in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays (TMAs; n = 500), spheroids present in patients’ ascites, and spheroids formed in vitro. Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play an important role in the signal transduction pathways involved in tumorigenesis, and represent potential targets for anticancer therapies.
Recently, we reported that the overexpression of cancer-promoting genes in ovarian cancer is associated with the loss of repressive histone modifications. In ovarian cancer alterations in the extracellular environment are critical for tumor initiation and progression and intra-peritoneal dissemination. Crucially, imaging can be achieved without prior knowledge of tissue composition and without the use of antibodies.
To test the mechanism of inhibition of tumor growth by COX selective inhibitors, the index of proliferating cells in tumor tissues was determined by immunostaining and the index of apoptotic cells by the terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. They circulate in the blood before TAA and are usually more abundant than the TAAs themselves as a result of amplification through the humoral immune response.
In this study, we determined the significance of loss of ARID1A immunoreactivity with respect to several clinicopathological features in a total of 149 OCCCs. However, the mechanisms by which Lewis (y) antigen enhances the invasion and tumor metastasis are still unknown.
The idea is to have the optimal chemo dosage enough to kill cancer cell while preserving her quality of life. Please consult your healthcare provider with any questions or concerns you may have regarding your condition. Pap smears, for instance, are meant to detect changes in the cervix that precede the development of a cancer (the Pap smear is not very reliable once a cancer is already present). Let’s consider 2 examples, pre-malignant changes of the cervix and cancer of the ovary. Women in these families are encouraged to have prophylactic removal of the ovaries once childbearing is completed. To this end, many research teams over the past several years have applied several new technologies to study the molecular landscape of ovarian cancer. Claudin 4 was expressed in nearly 70% of the ovarian cancer tissues examined and was differentially expressed across ovarian cancer subtypes, with the lowest expression in clear cell subtype.
In this study, we performed cDNA subtraction following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify specifically overexpressed PTKs in ovarian cancer. This discovery suggested that epigenetic derepression may contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis by constituting a possible mechanism for the overexpression of oncogenes or cancer-promoting genes in tumors. ECM molecules including versican and hyaluronan (HA) which interacts with the HA receptor, CD44, have been shown to play critical roles in ovarian cancer metastasis.
In effect MALDI-IMS allows generation of molecular data which complement and expand upon the information provided by histology including immuno-histochemistry, making its application valuable to both cancer biomarker research and diagnostics. Accumulating evidence also suggests that a humoral response already exists during malignant transformation when aberrant gene expression is translated into premalignant cellular changes. First, we demonstrated that ARID1A immunohistochemistry showed concordance with the mutational status in 91% of cases with 100% sensitivity and 66% specificity. In this study, we established a stable cell line constitutively expressing Lewis (y) antigen (RMG-1-hFUT) by transfecting the cDNA encoding part of the human ?1,2-fucosyltransferase (?1,2-FUT) gene into the ovarian cancer cell line RMG-1, and investigated whether Lewis (y) antigen regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Previously, we transfected the ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I with the ?1,2-fucosyltransferase gene to obtain stable transfectants, RMG-I-H, that highly express LeY. At any given time 1 in 20 (5%) sexually active women will have a pre-malignant abnormality of the cervix.


We will talk to you about this test if other members of your family had had either of these cancers. This special issue timely honors these new advances and cordially invites the publications of new ovarian cancer-associated molecules and the pathways that may shed new light into the pathogenesis of this devastating disease. No association was found between claudin 4 expression and disease-specific survival in any subtype. Three PTKs, janus kinase 1, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, and discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), were identified and only DDR1 was overexpressed in all ovarian cancer tissues examined for the validation by quantitative real-time PCR.
The emerging importance of epigenetic aberrations in tumor initiation and in the regulation of cancer-initiating cells, suggests that epigenetically regulated genes may be promising therapeutic targets and biomarkers.
This review focuses on versican, HA, and CD44 and their potential as therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. The current state of MALDI-IMS, key biological applications to ovarian cancer research and practical considerations for analysis of peptides and proteins on ovarian tissue are presented in this review.
This article reviews the current knowledge about autoantibodies against TAA in ovarian cancer and presents current immunoproteomic approaches for their detection. Specifically, among 12 OCCC cases for which ARIDA mutational status was known, ARIDIA immunoreactivity was undetectable in all 9 cases harboring ARID1A mutations and was undetectable in one of 3 cases with wild-type ARID1A. We found that RMG-1-hFUT cells exhibited higher invasive capacities than their control cells. In the present study, we examined the proliferation, tumorigenesis, adhesion and invasion of the cell lines with treatment of LeY monoclonal antibody (mAb).
A pap smear performed on these 20 women will detect the 1 woman with a real abnormality and will falsely predict that an additional 2 women have pre-malignant abnormality (90% specificity). At regular intervals, usually about every 6 months, you will get a series of CT scans (chest, abdomen and pelvis). Specifically, we welcome the manuscripts that report molecules and pathways that i) may be involved in molecular etiology, ii) could be used as potential biomarkers for detections and diagnosis, and iii) may be served as promising molecular targets for new therapeutics in ovarian cancer. Claudin 4 expression was also observed in multicellular spheroids obtained from patients’ ascites. Given that the current challenges in ovarian cancer include the identification of biomarkers for early cancer detection and the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for patients with recurrent malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, understanding the epigenetic changes that occur in ovarian cancer is crucial.
With respect to the entire cohort, ARID1A immunoreactivity was undetectable in 88 (59%) of 149 OCCCs. In addition, expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was down-regulated and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was up-regulated.
We always hope that  the results of a biopsy accurately predict what is happening in the organ being biopsied but this is not always the case. Review articles that succinctly summarize recent advances in the fields as mentioned above are also very welcome. DDR1 was expressed significantly more frequently in high-grade (79%) and advanced stage (77%) tumors compared to low-grade (50%) and early stage (43%) tumors. This review looks at epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of cancer-associated genes, including the contribution of epigenetic derepression to the activation of cancer-associated genes in ovarian cancer. There was no significant difference between ARID1A negative and positive cases in terms of histopathologic features, age, clinical stage, or overall survival. Anti-Lewis (y) antigen antibody treatment significantly reversed the expression of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9.
The results showed that the proliferation and adhesion in vitro were significantly inhibited by treatment of RMG-I-H cells with LeY mAb. I belive the chemo regimen before any talks of surgery will consist of Carboplatin and Paclitaxel. After this point the likelihood of a recurrence is small enough to stop routine surveillance CT scanning.
Translational research such as applications of markers of ovarian cancer for differential diagnosis and prognostic prediction is also the focus in this special issue.
The inability of the NIH:OVCAR5 cells treated with claudin 4 shRNA to form compact spheroids was verified by FITC-dextran exclusion. The expression of the DDR1 protein significantly correlated with poor disease-free survival. In addition, possible epigenetic therapies targeting epigenetically dysregulated genes are discussed. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that down-regulation of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 and up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 represents one of the mechanisms by which Lewis (y) antigen promotes cell invasion. When subcutaneously inoculated in nude mice, RMG-I-H cells produced large tumors, while mock-transfected cells RMG-I-C and the parental cells RMG-I produced small tumors. These results demonstrate a role for claudin 4 and tight junctions in spheroid formation and integrity. Although its functional role and clinical utility remain to be examined in future studies, our results suggest that the expression of DDR1 may serve as both a potential biomarker and a molecular target for advanced ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the epigenetic changes in ovarian cancer will contribute to the improvement of patient outcomes.
Moreover, the tumor formation by RMG-I-H cells was inhibited by preincubating the cells with LeY mAb.
In conclusion, LeY plays an important role in promoting cell proliferation, tumorigenecity and adhesion, and these effects may be related to increased levels of growth factors.



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