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Partial mastectomy: Surgery to remove the part of the breast that has cancer and some normal tissue around it. Patients who are treated with breast-conserving surgery may also have some of the lymph nodes under the arm removed for biopsy.
Please note: only your personal physician or other health professional you consult can best advise you on matters of your health based on your medical history, your family medical history, your medication history, and how information from any of these databases may apply to you. Breast cancer is considered invasive when the cancer cells have penetrated the lining of the ducts or lobules. Invasive ductal carcinoma – This type of breast cancer, which accounts for three-quarters of cases, develops in the milk ducts. Medullary, mucinous, and tubular carcinomas – These slow-growing breast cancers account for about 8% of breast cancers. As more women have regular mammograms, doctors are detecting many noninvasive or precancerous conditions before they become cancer. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) – This occurs when cancer cells fill the ducts but haven't spread through the walls into fatty tissue. A woman's risk of developing breast cancer increases with age; more than three out of four breast cancer cases occur in women over age 50. Although breast cancer is about 100 times more common in women than in men, men can develop the disease. Your doctor will ask whether you have any risk factors for breast cancer, especially whether the disease runs in your family.
If your doctor discovers a lump or your screening mammogram detects an area of abnormal breast tissue, your doctor recommend additional tests for breast cancer. Ultrasound can confirm whether the lump is a solid tumor or a fluid-filled, noncancerous cyst. Although it is not routinely performed, MRI is used to assess abnormalities on a mammogram, get a more accurate estimate of a cancer's size, and check for other cancers. The type of biopsy your doctor chooses will depend on the location of the lump, its size, and other factors. A specialist called a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope determine whether the tissue contains cancer cells.
Depending on the type of biopsy and whether neighboring lymph nodes were removed, the biopsy report may include additional information.
Another important step is to determine whether the cancer cells are "hormone-receptor positive" for estrogen and progesterone. Women who believe they may be at high risk of hereditary breast cancer should consider talking to a genetic counselor. A mastectomy removes the entire breast, usually with removal of some of the lymph nodes located in the axilla or arm pit.
After surgery, your doctor may recommend radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of therapies.


The need for chemotherapy depends on how much the cancer has spread and the molecular characteristics of the cancer. Drugs that target specific genetic changes to attack cancer cells are called targeted therapies. Other drugs are being developed that help in the treatment of women who carry a genetic trait that exposes them to a type of breast or ovarian cancer that runs in families.
In most cases, LCIS has a lower likelihood of progressing to invasive cancer, so little or no treatment is required.
Based on your genetic markers, your doctor can choose the drugs that are most likely to attack your cancer. Cancer in one breast puts you at higher than average risk of developing cancer in the other breast.
Disclaimer: This content should not be considered complete and should not be used in place of a call or visit to a health professional. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records.
When given before surgery, chemotherapy will shrink the tumor and reduce the amount of tissue that needs to be removed during surgery. Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.
Neither University of Cincinnati (NetWellness) nor any party involved in creating, producing or delivering this web site shall be liable for any damages arising out of access to or use of this web site, or any errors or omissions in the content thereof. That means the cancer cells can be found in the surrounding tissues, such as fatty and connective tissues or the skin. It starts in the milk ducts of the nipple and can spread to the dark circle around the nipple (areola). He or she will then examine your breasts, looking for any signs and symptoms of breast cancer. For example, women with HER2-positive cancers are likely to benefit from drugs that target the HER2 protein. Experts differ on whether women at average risk for breast cancer should start screening at age 45 or age 50.
These genetic mutations put them at very high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. A lumpectomy removes only the cancerous tumor and a small amount of healthy tissue around it.
This can include looking for certain molecular and genetic characteristics that sometimes influence decisions regarding additional therapy. In some cases, chemotherapy is recommended before surgery to shrink a large tumor so that it can be removed more easily.
These drugs decrease the amount of estrogen in the body by blocking estrogen production in all other tissues except the ovaries.


For example, if you breast cancer is HER2-positive, your doctor may offer you trastuzumab (Herceptin). However, women with this condition are more likely to develop cancer in other areas of the same breast or other breast.
He or she may look to genetic markers to determine the chances that your breast cancer will spread to another site. If the tumor is small and confined to the breast, more than 90% of women survive five years or longer. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm may be removed for biopsy at the same time as the breast surgery or after.
Noninvasive breast cancer (in situ) occurs when cancer cells fill the ducts or lobules but haven't spread into surrounding tissue. It can then spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Women who get Paget's disease usually have a history of nipple crusting, scaling, itching, or inflammation. Without treatment, about 20% of DCIS cases will lead to invasive breast cancer within 10 years. LCIS doesn't require treatment, but it does increase a woman's risk of developing cancer in other areas of both breasts. These include a lump or thickening in your breast, nipple inversion or discharge, swelling or changes in breast contour, redness or dimpling of breast skin, and enlarged lymph nodes under your arm. A lower grade means that the cancer is slower-growing and less likely to spread; a higher grade means that the cancer is aggressive and likely to spread. In addition, the results may provide information relevant to cancer risk in family members. Radiation therapy usually is recommended after a lumpectomy to destroy any cancer cells left behind and to prevent the cancer from returning. Aromatase inhibitors are most useful in menopausal women, because the ovaries stop making estrogen after menopause. However, if the disease spreads throughout the body before diagnosis, that rate drops to less than 20%.
Because it spreads quickly, inflammatory carcinoma is the most aggressive and difficult to treat of all breast cancers. In rare cases, the doctor may recommend mastectomy if DCIS occurs in more than one location or if the tumor cells look especially worrisome on biopsy.




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