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GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 8DOMESTIC ICEMAKERS8-1 ICEMAKER TYPESIcemakers are divided into two basic types; flex-tray and hard tray. September 2012 - In this installation the plumber installed a PVC vent inside of a clay lined double flue chimney. In the May 2011 issue of Plumbing Engineer magazine, I wrote a column titled, a€?Is PVC an acceptable vent material for flue gases?a€? in which I pointed out many problems and challenges associated with venting flue gases with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. AHRI is an advocate on behalf of their members; they lobby at all levels of government, including at model code hearings. Some people have asked why I am making such a big deal over using PVC for venting combustion gases. Recently, I received a call from someone on behalf of a woman who had suffered a serious debilitating illness.
In exposed locations, the PVC pipe was tan colored; above the drywall and below the second floor decking in the area of the break, it was a very dark brown. The pipe was brown and discolored in the vicinity of the two water heaters, and two yellowish fittings were cracked and completely separated. There is not much data on discoloration of PVC pipe or on ambient air cooling requirements for PVC flue pipes. There is no standard for PVC pipe for use as a flue material for combustion gases and there is no testing for these conditions. When the home was being sold, an inspector found significant water damage in the lower levels.
She was amazed to hear this, because he was describing many of the symptoms she had been experiencing for several years. PVC pipe has a temperature limit of 140 F; most water heaters and boilers have thermostats that exceed this temperature.
Plumbing engineers typically design hot water systems to store hot water about 140 F in water heaters to minimize Legionella bacteria and other organic pathogen growth in the hot water tank. If a fuel gas appliance was 100% efficient, the flue gas temperature would be the same temperature as the thermostat setting or fluid temperature in the water heater or boiler. I serve on an industry committee that is developing guidelines for minimizing Legionella in building water systems. Water heater, boiler and furnace manufacturers have gone to great lengths to promote and use PVC plastic flue pipes in applications that exceed the temperature ratings of the product. This standard specification does not include requirements for pipe and fittings intended to be used to vent combustion gases.a€?a€?The cost of PVC plastic pipe cost is a fraction of the cost of stainless steel.
There is no testing for a water heater, boiler or furnace that has a system set at the upper temperature settings with a build-up of scale on the heating surfaces or with a plugged air filter.
He said that the company has had numerous complaints about PVC pipes used for venting flue gases, and that they always point out that they do not recommend this usage and that there is no listing for it in their manual. The piping manufacturer recommends that inquiries about the suitability of plastic piping systems for venting combustion gases should be directed to the manufacturer of the water or space heating equipment being installed. Furthermore, several of the ASTM standards applicable to PVC plastic pipe and fittings that this company manufactures their pipe to include the following note: This standard specification for PVC pipe does not include requirements for pipe and fittings intended to be used to vent combustion gases.
There is no standard referenced in any of the codes in the United States for a plastic flue vent for combustion flue gas piping, although many water heater and boiler manufacturers recommend this.
The maximum temperatures listed in the ABS, PVC and CPVC pipe manufacturersa€™ technical literature are shown in the following table. Generally, for a new condensing water heater or boiler, the stack temperature will be about 20 degrees higher than the water temperature. Some boiler and water heater manufacturers offer stack or flue gas temperature gauges as a way to see whether the unit is scaling up and losing efficiency, which is helpful for monitoring the flue condition. This control would shut off the burner if the flue gas temperature exceeds the temperature rating of the flue pipe. A standard will be needed for plastic flue pipes that should include a temperature gauge and a high limit probe. Without a standard for proper use of these safety devices in combination with plastic flue gas piping or without the use of stainless steel flues, plastic flue materials can melt as flue gas temperatures rise. A family of four died in Aspen, Colorado, in 2008, of carbon monoxide poisoning from the failure of PVC plastic flue pipes on a condensing snow melting boiler system in a rental property.
I have heard arguments by many contractors that do not believe PVC flue venting for combustion gases is a problem, but I have seen melted and discolored piping in many of my investigations, so I know it is a problem. This approach seems to be a way to lessen the initial cost of installing a high efficiency boiler or water heater. Some people argue that the mechanical code allows you to follow the manufacturera€™s recommendations. Exception: Where a code provision is less restrictive than the conditions of the listing of the equipment or appliance or the manufacturera€™s installation instructions, the conditions of the listing and the manufacturera€™s installation instructions shall apply. I have not seen any testing data or an independent test report from a boiler or water heater manufacturer that shows that PVC piping has been tested and approved for the conditions it will likely see in a water heating or boiler installation. This temperature limit was intended to allow the use of PVC pipe for use as a flue gas material. This temperature limit was intended to allow the use of CPVC pipe for use as a flue gas material. This temperature limit was intended to allow the use of Polypropylene (PP) pipe for use as a flue gas material. I am not aware of any plastic pipe manufacturers that meet this sub-section of the standard. Interestingly, although the CO levels were elevated to dangerous levels, they were not high enough to trip a carbon monoxide alarm. This standard specification does not include requirements for pipe and fittings intended to be used to vent combustion gases.The cost of PVC plastic pipe cost is a fraction of the cost of stainless steel. The test does not test for long term thermal cycling of the PVC pipe where the pipe becomes discolored.
Scale on heating surfaces and higher system water temperatures that increase scale production are not extreme cases but are normal conditions expected over the life of a water heater or boiler. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, get cooked onto the heating surface and form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the water heater or boiler heat exchanger surfaces. The National Institute of Standards and Technology, Handbook 115, Supplement 1 addresses the loss of efficiency based on scale formation.
A flue pipe should not be allowed to fail and cause an injury or death from a normal system temperatures, location of a flue in a concealed space, or a normal build-up of scale on the heating surface. At the ASHRAE show in Chicago, I asked every water heater and boiler manufacturer that was exhibiting PVC flues on their equipment to show me any testing data they might have that shows the PVC material was not going to exceed 140 F.
The fuel-fired appliance manufacturers, in their quest to use PVC pipe as an inexpensive flue material, realized that no piping manufacturer was going to go out on a limb and certify their pipe for use as a flue gas material, so a proposal for a code change was submitted to the International Fuel Gas Code to allow an exception for the listing requirements for flue gas materials. The AHRI representative went on to talk about dilution air being mixed with the flue gas temperatures. Until any fuel burning appliance manufacturer can produce an independent engineering lab test report that shows that the appliance will shut down if the flue gas temperatures exceed 140 F, an engineer or the inspector has every right to reject the PVC flue materials as not being in compliance with the requirements for listed flue pipe materials in the International Fuel Gas Code.
Fuel burning appliance manufacturers should change their installation literature to prohibit PVC pipe and fittings. The manufacturers and AHRI have created an unsafe condition by lobbying for a material that is not suited for this application. Data also needs to be published showing the dilution air requirements at the maximum possible ambient air conditions. In Germany and Austria today there are signs of the seriousness with which geopathic stress is taken.
If you find time, this geopathic stress documentary is extremely interesting and compliments the work I have been doing over the last 12 years and 30 years my father before me with the same conclusions.
Please scroll down the articles on this page for a more scientific understanding of geopathic stress. There is also an interesting piece of research at the end of the page about the credibility of Vega testing for geopathic stress.
The most useful research document is below under the heading a€?Vienna Reporta€™ Read my summary and then either open up the original research document in German or the Poor English translation after the summary. The first studies that proved a link between cancer and geopathic stress were carried out in the early 20th century in Austria and Germany but, so far geopathic stress has been largely ignored in the UK. A A A  Long term exposure in combination with other types of energy such as Hartman lines, high electromagnetic fields or geological faults can give rise to optimistic abnormal cell growth and cancer. Germany has long been the seat of research in to the biological effects that pathogenic locations can have on both human and plant biochemistry.
Historic roots of the investigation are built on claims that pathogenic zones exist at certain locations and that sleeping or spending long periods of time above them are linked to cancer, debilitating diseases of the central nervous system, chronic fatigue and general ill health. The research was conducted by a team of distinguished professors, doctors, engineers, scientists and dowsers.
To test this hypothesis the research team used the services of three dowsers known for there expertise in locating earth energies. At present, these so called a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ can only be indicated by dowsers, with its presence being then verified with scientific instrumentation. The Project a€?The project involved the testing of 24 different biological parameters involving 985 trial volunteers in 6,943 investigations using 462, 421 individual measurements. Decoder Analysis of the Total Bioelectric Status a€?This investigation was significant and was carried out on a number of patients from a country medical practice. Heart Frequency Reaction (HFR) a€?In these investigations measurements from an electrocardiogram (ECG) were used in both sitting and lying down positions.
Akrale Re-warming Time a€?The temperature measurement at the finger tips revealed that after standardized cooling on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the Rewarming time is delayed significantly. Optical Flicker Fusion Frequency a€?This test measures the psycho sensory capabilities of the person. Coordinative Vegetative Rhythm a€?Passive rhythms such as breath and pulse frequency operate in balanced Coordinative rhythms especially when at rest. Muscle Frequency Analysis a€?Significant location variations in the distribution of the muscle action frequencies were found in areas of electric muscle potential. Calcium and Potassium a€?On a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ potassium levels increased with a rising significance and calcium increased significantly. Serotonin a€?Decreased by a factor of 6 on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ whilst increasing its metabolism to advance Tryptophan in compensation. The a€?Location Effecta€™ of the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ on regulatory systems of the human organism is proved without doubt and raises the question of which substratum, subsystem or system the location dependent powers primarily attack. The test results were lined up by Biometric Significance and are valued with the Serotonin and the Blood Corpuscle Decline Speed (BSG) in lead position.
Serotonin a€?Serotonin is diminished on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ and its metabolism advances the tendency for Tryptophan to be increased. The research team concluded that there was no evidence to relate a€?Location Loada€™ to a specific illness but should be rather determined as a risk factor that can reinforce the effect of different pathogenic factors.
Only rudimental evidence is available today, if such zones could be measured using accepted physical apparatus.
One of the reasons why an incontrovertible physical measurement of the assumedly existing electromagnetic fields appears to be impossible at present could be that these are very variable, broad-banded and at the same time only present in very low power strengths, a€?hiddena€? in the surrounding electromagnetic noise.
One can assume that there are many origins for the effects of different locations on humans, animals and plants. Low energy, broad-banded and dynamically changing EMFs, creating resonance with structures of the human organism, may well be part of the geopathy phenomenon. In addition, the dipolar nature of H2O-molecules can also be part of the origin of such fields. Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals and certain ceramic materials to generate electrical and magnetic signals in response to applied mechanical stress.
Inside an ideal quartz crystal, the electrical charge of the elements silicon and oxygen cancel each other out. Another well known use of piezoelectricity is found in lighters using piezoelectric ignition: There, sudden mechanical pressure onto a synthetic quartz crystal block (containing high amounts of exactly aligned synthetic lattice crystal cells) leads to the generation of high voltage.
Another aspect of the geopathy phenomenon, which appears to be largely underestimated in its importance, could be found in the presence of a€?longitudinal scalar wavesa€? (5).
The existence of longitudinal wave proportions, as also present in the near field of a dipol antenna, could already be shown experimentally by Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) (16-16).
Proteins and most other bio-molecules are not at all a€?nonrigida€? structures; in order to fulfill their functions, they possess the ability to dynamically change their shapes within certain limits.
Huge amounts of very tiny magnetic crystals (magnetite crystals) have been found in the brain, and these could react very sensitively to the slightest changes in magnetic fields (20).
Even though in today's popular media, pseudo-scientific and quasi-medical reports on the topic of geopathy are presented to the public, no a€?peer revieweda€? medical journal indexed in MedLine had published statistically firm and sound provable evidence of geopathic effects on humans until most recently. Our first concepts how to address the geopathy phenomenon were based on the descriptions and personal discussions with the late Otto Bergsmann (a€  2004) and Alois Stacher (medical doctors, both from Vienna, Austria) and carried out in close co-operation with Adolf Wiebecke and his team (Salzburg and Oberalm, Austria). For detection geopathic stress, we have followed the design of a randomized, double-blinded non-clinical trial (54-44), following the ethical guidelines of the expanded Helsinki Declaration (56). During the experiments, the complete GDV system was mounted on a trolley, in order to measure the effects of the two different zones in the laboratory room directly a€?on sitea€? without moving the test person to another place. To gain reliable data, we paid careful attention to a number of issues influencing stability, reproducibility and safety (24, 30, 37, 45): Throughout the whole study, the very same GDV system was used.
As overlaying technical fields possibly influencing the results may have been present, we used sophisticated calibrated equipment to scan and record low and high frequency EMFs, potential acoustic noxae or vibrations during the whole study period, as well as a variety of additional physical parameters.
Further analyses were carried out for complementary medical parameters included in the GDV software package.
Those people who are already in the beginning stages of poor health may sense an added sensitivity for diseases of different kinds when staying longer on geopathic locations, as well as notice that healing processes may take longer than usual. As there are no reliable measuring instruments available so far, presently it makes sense to take advice from an experienced dowser. If constructional arrangements are not possible before erecting a building or before starting a reconstruction, which is supposedly the case in most instances, there are also other practical possibilities: provided that there is a will to do so, it should be possible to move beds or desk seats, in order to get them out of interference zones. Everyone can do something to prevent negative influences by sources that cause stress: anything that lowers stress in general also helps one deal with specific stress factors, and zones, from any origin.
Furthermore, many studies confirm that people who are a€?living healthilya€? a€“ who manage their weight, refrain from smoking, enjoy the outdoors, participate in sports, etc., - have stronger immune systems and feel definitely less stress than their a€?unhealthy livinga€? fellow men. For those who cannot (or do not want to) adopt many of the above mentioned choices, due to illness, age, or some other reasons, things could become more difficult. Our studies show that it does matter on which location you stay for a longer period of time. What is the relevance of our findings for hospitals, convalescent homes and rehabilitation centers? The term a€?wellnessa€?, which is composed of the ideals a€?well-beinga€? and a€?fitnessa€? as well as a€?life-stylea€? and a€?happinessa€?, to a modern point of view denotes a holistic concept of health.
In a pilot study (unpublished findings), we have found indications of more aggressive behavior by children living or working on geopathic locations. Naturally, the negative effects of geopathic stress zones also have considerable commercial impact. The follow-up costs associated with longer a€?chronica€? stays on geopathic interference zones are probably enormous: As said before, geopathy is a matter of a€?burdened work placesa€? leading to decreased ability of the employees to concentrate and to increased probability of employees' illnesses. So far, the present scientific evidence of effects of geopathic zones on humans has been mainly found using complementary medical methods, with the exception of the GDV a€?area-of-glowa€? parameter. At the same time, we have already started experiments above different geological zones to test such key parameters contained in saliva, using biochemical assaying well accepted by orthodox medicine: various hormones, neuropeptides and immunological relevant substances are going to be tested a€?non-invasivelya€?.
The authors extend thanks for their great help in conducting the quoted research and its essential components to this manuscript.
For their innovative and far-seeing pioneering work and active scientific exchange in the field of geopathy we thank Univ.-Doz. When it comes to the topic of earth radiation, water veins and earth dislocations a€“ the so-called geological disturbances a€“ the layperson will usually associate this with hocus-pocus concepts such as a€?Dowsers,a€? often a man with large whiskers and an ironic smile.
Many people do not believe the dowsera€™s tale, and associate it with occult illusion a€“ even if successes have been reported simply by moving a bed to a different area of the room. The most common reason for the prejudice of the person listening -- who generally considers himself to be moderna€?and intelligent -- is the fact that nowhere do we find soa€?many absurdities, contradictions and a€?silly thingsa€? as in this area.
Ten allegedly qualified dowsers generally come to ten different conclusions in the same apartment or building. I am sickened when I am told how people play tricks with the fears and hopes of seriously ill individuals. I hope to make a contribution in this area so that we may have an objective discussion of this subject. For years, sensitive electronic measuring devices have verified the old knowledge about earth radiations.
You can actually measure the natural radioactive radiation from the earth, all over the globe.
We are born amid these natural manifold-radiating processes and there is no doubt that they are appropriate, important, healthy, and life protecting. But there are also zones (areas) where radiation intensities are noticeably different from the norm.
I might measure a level of radiation along a long-line, for example, and often the intensity will change suddenly, giving me an entirely different value.
Sometimes these higher intensity zones area€?frequent and can be detected every other yarda€?or so. It is interesting to note that gifted dowsers will show swinging of rods or pendulums exactly where you would measure these significant anomalies too.
I do not like to define, prematurely, every swing of a rod by a gifted dowser or every measured peculiarity as a a€?water veina€? or a a€?dislocation.a€? I have never dug into the ground to find the object which I assumed to be in existence while I was measuring on top of the ground. It is the task of science to connect one thing with another, and to analyze these connections.
My practical experience is sufficient for me to know that concentrations of terrestrial radiation can be measured, and the findings will show noticeable differences from natural points of reference in the natural environment. What do we really measure, with our sensitive electronic instruments, if the objects are earth radiation, geological disturbances, water veins and dislocations? I refer to my own personal experiences, with different measuring approaches, and do not pretend exclusiveness.
That means: when you are above geological disturbances you can measure the distortion of the terrestrial magnetic field, similarly to that of magnetic steel.
Here the compass is not the appropriate device because the declinations are so small that they cannot generate any substantial swing.
This measurement approach is not appropriate for house and bedroom examinations, however, because the artificial distortions coming from steel used in construction, materials, metal fixtures, and even the bed itself, can cause a blur in the measurement or make a reading entirely impossible.
I think the argument is exaggerated; that these anomalies of terrestrial magnetic fields above geological disturbances are sufficient to cause biological problems. Conclusion: Though you can measure geological peculiarities, the application a€“ in rooms a€“ is rarely reliable. A second peculiarity, as far as earth radiation is concerned, is that air ions often change. Ion measurements are extremely difficult and ambiguous since many factors in your house mix up the air ions even more than the terrestrial radiation is capable of.
This measurement is just impossible under the influence of an electrically radiating wall, or an electrostatically loaded curtain. I have discovered that a plastic bag, within a five-yard distance of the measurement, can change the environment of the air ions more radically than what could be possible from the geological subsoil. Measurements of the VHF field strength often show a drop in the measurement curve when taken above disturbances. Within buildings, however, evaluations are almost impossible as the measurements within walls are highly unreliable. One has to be very critical and attentive so as not to be taken in by too rash and incorrect conclusions.
Many manuals say that locating geological disturbances by using the VHF field strength is childa€™s play. The geo-rhythmogram measures the skin resistance of a person from hand to hand with simple electrodes and a fitting ohm-meter. When the skin resistance of a test person is normal, at 40 kilo ohm (Aschoff), the values can go up to 100, 200, or even higher when you are above zones of disturbance.
Even when all pre-conditions are fulfilled some problems remain: All stimuli towards the test person will be included into the measurement. Only with enough experience can you relate anomalies of the skin resistance to geological stimuli, and totally exclude that they are not produced from radio alarms or a spring mattress. If you can do that, then the physical measurement can be reproduced and give a reliable result.
Particularly interesting is the fifth possible approach to measuring terrestrial radiation. That means: As I measure the natural radioactive radiation with a sensitive radiometer, I will get values of 100 percent or more if the measure is above a so-called disturbance zone.
Though the natural basic radioactivity of the earth has some local differences due to climate and the earth level, the base level is generally consistent. From my experience, regular and reproducible increases in radioactivity above geological stimuli areas, in the range of up to 100 percent, are profound and are significant.
If you can sleep for the next 20 years with only half the amount of radioactive disintegrations -- after a change of the bedroom position a€“ then, as a matter of caution, I see no reason to stay in the area that is doubly charged. I think it is greatly exaggerated to speak rashly of a€?cancer zonesa€? if you are referring to terrestrial radiation and other corresponding peculiarities. According to my own personal experience, and the findings of innumerable research and test reports, the healing successes after moving the bed cannot be discounted merely as psychological reaction placebo or coincidence. During a meeting in Seattle, USA, I detected this phenomenon in a 22 floor hotel, on six different levels: in the underground garage, at the first floor near the reception, and on the roof -- always the same high values, down below and at the top, on the same premises.
As you know, I have found houses in which the radioactive radiation was higher than that which could be found in playgrounds and public swimming pools near the Chernobyl accident.
The reason for this is radioactive construction materials: cinders, ashes, chemical gypsum, tiles, pumice and metallurgical stones -- all sorts of possible and impossible industry waste. Additionally, certain antiques, minerals and glazes a€“ in direct range of your body a€“ can radiate so strongly that biological risks can become immense. While visiting three patients with brain tumors, I found just beside the head of one person a very old alarm clock that was radiating radioactivity; with another, a dark green glazed image of St. For measuring terrestrial radiation, I use my most expensive instruments: highly sensitive scintillation counters.
My experiences with measurements of radioactivity soon led to the decision to build a measuring device especially well-suited for building, biological, and geo-biological work, and one that was constructed to my own specifications.
The very high sensitivity of the third prototype convinced me: more than 250 impulses per second in a normal radiation background, and more than 500 impulses per second on geologically disturbed surfaces. Besides its extreme measuring preciseness, the scintillation counter has the particular advantage of being extremely sensitive to gamma rays. With his super-sensitive measuring device (of more than 1,000 impulses per second!), he has shown that you can find water from the ground surface - guaranteed. More than 35 years of experience makes it possible for Stangle to define, with his measurements, the exact depth, the amount a€“ to the very gallon -- the mineralization, and the temperature of the localized water. The Daimler-Benz company made five expensive unsuccessful drillings before they called Jakob Stangle with his scintillation counter. In 1972 Jakob Stangle walked through Vilsbiburg with his scintillation counter and totally confirmed the work of his sensitive predecessor by exact measurements, in two absolute blind tests. An architect intended to buy and renovate a large villa at the Baldeney Lake in Essen, Germany. Another time, a doctor recommended to the manager of a concert agency to have her home examined by me.
She also looked into the geological maps and found the disturbance was mapped by the Krefeld agency. After these results, I bought several geological maps from North Rhine Westfalia, Germany, and checked ten plotted geological disturbances with my measuring devices.
The other flue in the chimney vents a fireplace, the problem we are finding is when homeowners light a fire in their fireplace the PVC in the heating system flue can melt and cause a serious carbon monoxide and flue gas danger. The school had hundreds of apartments in numerous buildings with high efficiency water heaters that were installed more than 10 years ago. Although the water heater installation manual we obtained recommended using PVC pipe as a flue material, PVC pipe manufacturers do not recommend this. He has asked every major manufacturer of boilers and water heaters for data to support the recommendations in their literature for the use of PVC pipe for combustion flue materials but has not received any replies. Just because a manufacturer recommends using PVC does not mean that it is acceptable or safe. There is a Canadian standard, ULC S636, but that standard has several flaws in that it allows flue gas temperatures that exceed the temperature limits of the pipe material manufacturers. Any temperatures above the rated temperature will allow the pipe to melt, sag and, possibly, collapse or pull apart.
The design and efficiency of the unit, along with several other factors, including water quality, will affect the stack temperature. A temperature sensor or probe with a high-limit control could be inserted into the flue at the flue connection to the boiler or water heater.
Then PVC, CPVC and polypropylene flue gas piping can be safely used on high efficiency boilers and water heaters. Not only is energy lost when this happens but flues can become blocked or disconnected, which can be a carbon monoxide or a fire danger.
The plastic pipe manufacturer was not at fault, because they had published limitations on the use of their piping, and they had not recommended PVC piping for that application. I also see the proliferation of recommendations from high efficiency, condensing boiler and water heater equipment manufacturers for the use of combustible and unlisted PVC piping products as corrosion resistant combustion flue venting.
High efficiency equipment will cost significantly more than less efficient models, so there seems to be a movement by manufacturers to promote these unlisted and, therefore, non-code-approved materials over code approved and listed stainless steel flues, which are corrosion resistant. Plastic pipe and fittings used to vent appliances shall be installed in accordance with the appliance manufacturera€™s installation instructions. Where conflicts between this code and the conditions of listing or the manufacturera€™s installation instructions occur, the provisions of this code shall apply.
The water heater manufacturera€™s installation instructions conflict with the requirement in section 802.1 that requires all vent systems to be listed and labeled for the application. The code restriction requiring all flue materials to be listed and labeled for their intended purpose is more stringent language, so the more restrictive code requirement requiring listed and labeled flue pipe materials would apply.
Any testing should include the extreme conditions when scaling occurs and flue gas temps rise, near the end of the equipmenta€™s service life.
The temperature limit for PVC pipe is 140 F, and the allowable temperature in the ULC S636 standard exceeds the temperature limits set by PVC pipe manufacturers. There is currently one manufacturer listed to this standard, but the potential for the flue gases to exceed the 230 F is still there. There are forces pulling each way, and I believe that a significant change will be coming within the next few years.
He has served as Chairman of the International Residential Plumbing & Mechanical Code Committee. In the March 2012 issue, a representative of the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) wrote a letter supporting the use of PVC pipe on behalf of their appliance manufacturer members that use PVC as an alternative to the stainless steel or high temperature plastic flue venting materials that are listed for use.
AHRIa€™s government affairs staff works closely with congressional staff on legislation that impacts the industry. I would love to tell them it is OK to use these materials, but health and safety trump saving a few bucks on pipe material.
I photographed, took temperature recordings and used a multi-gas detector to take readings.
Dark areas on the decking and floor joists indicated that high temperature flue gases had possibly cooked the sugars or sap in the wood to a dark caramel color. Testing the flue gases in this case revealed that flue gas temperatures after the dilution air was added was still much higher than the 160 F hot water temperature and far in excess of the temperature rating for PVC pipe. It appears that PVC flue pipes should not be located in concealed spaces such as the space between a ceiling and a floor deck, near insulation or floor joists or in wall cavities that have no ambient air cooling capability.
A plumbing contractor opened the drywall ceiling on the lower floor and found the two completely separated PVC flue pipes pumping carbon monoxide and moisture into the home. The combustion gases that were venting into the floor space and coming up through a floor register into the living space had oxygen levels that dropped to well below 18 percent in some areas. Furnaces can have flue temperatures well above 140 F when the air filters are dirty and the air flow drops off.
They typically use thermostatic mixing valves conforming to industry standards to reduce domestic hot water temperatures to safe delivery temperatures.
Since 100% efficiency is not really possible, all flue gas temperatures will exceed the thermostat setting. The committee includes representatives of ASHRAE, ASPE, water heater manufacturers, plumbing designers, CDC, EPA, several pathologists and microbiologists and many other experts. They cannot use traditional galvanized flues because the condensation produced is pure water and very aggressive and would corrode or rust the flue in a very short time. I am guessing that there was a meeting after the May 2011 article and that AHRI decided to defend the use of PVC plastic for venting combustible gases. According to him, the test involves setting the thermostat to the highest setting and flowing water continuously to keep the burner on.
Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. This is a serious life safety issue that the appliance manufacturers apparently would like to sweep under the carpet. Some looked at me like deer in the headlights, others rolled their eyes, and a few said they didna€™t know and suggested I talk to a€?that guy over there.a€? The guy over there did not know either. The exception allows for non-metallic flue materials to not be required to be listed for the application if the manufacturer of the equipment certifies their equipment for use with non-metallic flue materials.
This dilution air is often drawn into the water heater through openings in a hood on top of the water heater. They should require other more suitable high temperature non-metallic pipe materials or stainless steel flue materials. They should issue a recall letter to every business and every homeowner that has PVC flue pipes installed on equipment designed for non-metallic flue pipes if the equipment does not have temperature sensors or limit switches in the discharge flue that shuts down the burner if the flue gas temperatures exceed 140 F. Recent weather events in Southern states have shown that ambient air conditions can get close to 115 F or higher. He has served as chairman of the International Residential Plumbing & Mechanical Code Committee. If you continue to stay in these areas especially during sleep, then in the long term the stresses on our bodies will emerge as more serious conditions such as, diseases of the central nervous system, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), miscarriages, and cancer. Not only are the public more generally aware, but their governments funds aid and continuing research in to the matter.


Geopathic Stress is only one of them and it is becoming more difficult to gauge especially when the natural energy field is constantly changed and amplified by man-made electromagnetic fields. The phenomenon has been linked to insomnia, migraine, headaches, loss of balance, short -term memory loss, joint pain, cot death, infertility, miscarriages, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) and cancer. It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground. I have the original 134 page research document in German and a badly translated version in English. These pathogenic locations defined in the report as, a€?earth radiation's evoked by a discontinuity of the normal physical parameters on the surface of the earth,a€™ and shortened to a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ are the subject of the research.
Such locations have been termed in China and many European countries as either a€?curseda€™ or a€?cancera€™ houses. The functioning hypothesis of the research was that geophysical characteristics of the surface of the earth are not uniform and that location dependent influences exist that can have a detrimental effect on both human and plant biochemical systems. They were enlisted to independently dowse eight different locations and submit reports and diagrams of the strongest a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ found, together with a a€?Neutral Zonea€™ at the same location to enable them to carryout double blind experiments with volunteers at each selected location.
Technology does not yet exist to do this the other way round; the dowser does not yet appear to be replaceable with scientific instrumentation. However because of the high standard of the research only significant results were accepted. The stereotypical result on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ was deterioration of the electro-biological functioning in the sense of depression or blockage of bioelectric functions. In the 15 minute time exposure on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the results remained under the significance barrier. An apparatus able to discriminate such low energy broadband EMFs from noise apparently is not yet available.
Both, technical and biological systems can be influenced by EMFs, whereby numerous questions are still open, such as the concerning limits and the nature of physical interference fields (5). As an extremely dielectric medium, water favors the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly. In nature, piezoelectrical dischargings can occur in some areas of geological a€?warpsa€? containing quartz sand particles, and may be another plausible cause of geopathic stress effects (14).
When a crystal lattice cell is compressed by mechanical pressure, an imbalance is the result, manifesting itself in the development of a tiny electrical voltage (Fig. In spite of the fact that scalar waves in the field theory of Maxwell are usually neglected and set to zero, numerous experiments can lead to the conclusion that they do really exist and influence the human organism (5).
The presence of pure physical interactions and in addition also of a€?physiologic sensorsa€? located inside the body can be assumed.
Physical resonance is defined as a synchronization of two sources which vibrate with the same pulse frequency but with contrary polarity. Internal protein dynamics can potentially affect protein function through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are tautological or obvious in nature while others are subtle and remain to be fully explored and appreciated (18).
Black dots on magnetic resonance imaging pictures (MRI) of human brain tissue led researches to the idea that these could be magnetic particles. Evidence that these microscopically small magnetite particles would function for some kind of sensory perception in humans could not yet been confirmed.
Previously described effects and descriptions of the pioneers (1, 3 and others) in this area unfortunately arena€™t available in the standardized, scientifically acceptable nor reproducible format required for peer-reviewed medical journals, but rather as monographs.
Because of the lack of a€?directa€? physical measurement techniques for the doubtlessly existing a€zenergy fieldsa€? at least partly originating in the ground, we decided to use the human body as an indicator.
Being fascinated by its highly sensitive ability to detect stress effects, and also by the fact that this method is being used world-widely for manifold applications combining a€?pure physicsa€? with complimentary evaluation of apparently high accuracy, we could reproducibly show using this method that different zones above ground do exhibit different effects on the human organism. In addition to the promising data presented in numerous publications before, including our own, we are presently in the middle of an evaluation targeting a validation of GDV mean area-of-glow as a reliable measure of certain aspects of stress. All test persons had been informed about the GDV system and related safety issues, and about the fact that they may feel a slight a€?crawlinga€? in their finger tips. In practice, to capture one a€?static GDV imagea€?, a very stable high voltage (10 kV, 1.024 Hz, square pulses) is pulsed on and off every 10 ms for a duration of 0,5 s.
For each test person and test phase, 50 single static measurements were performed (each finger tip was measured 5 times for 0,5 s). Before use, the GDV camera (kept inside the laboratory at constant room temperature) was switched on at least 30 minutes prior to measurement, and careful calibrations were performed.
In addition to the calculation of descriptive data (mean, median, standard deviation etc.), we carried out Gaussian normality tests and subsequently used the paired two-sample t-test for dependent variables to determine whether there are significant differences between the 4 experimental sub-period results. The two measurement areas in the laboratory used for the experiments turned out to be indistinguishable from the aspect of technical fields and acoustic background noise, and the field strength and loudness levels present were far below existing (safety) guidelines.
Statistical significance again was enormously high (p < 0,0001) when compared to the results on those zones without the a€?Wavea€? device (24). In later stages, it my not be impossible though that chronic stress caused by geopathic locations may finally even forward the development of malignant disease.
However, according to the Munich barn-experiments (66-68) and other independent investigations, only a low percentage of the people claiming to be successful dowsers are actually capable of making reproducible and reliable conclusions. This includes methods of stress-management and relaxation techniques, such as meditation, tai chi, guided imaginative journeying, and also certain hypnotherapeutic approaches (69-73). Para-scientific reports about sleeplessness or higher rates of occurrence of different diseases have been with us for many years.
In hospitals, observant physicians and nurses sometimes know from experience that there appear to be locations of sickbeds where, remarkably, many patients have a delayed recovery, or in especially blatant cases they may not recover at all.
Wellness enhancing methods and applications aim to increase physical, psychological and spiritual well-being. Individual performance on a€?interference reduceda€? zones increases, and all sides - superintendents, managers and employees - would possibly benefit. This can produce enormous costs for our social and health systems, and the hidden costs we can only suspect today.
As preliminarily presented in this book, we have already obtained data underlining the validity of GSV as a reliable instrument for measuring stress, provided that all pre-cautions are taken into account and that well-trained and experienced persons use it. Adolf WIEBECKE (Oberalm bei Salzburg), whom we want to congratulate for his most promising invention of the a€?Wavea€? device, for the possibility of doing experimental research using his device.
Seidel P, Schmidl F, Becker C, Springborn U, Biering S, Grosse V, FA¶rster T, Lorenz P, Bechstein R: Planar high-temperature superconducting dc-SQUID gradiometers for different applications.
Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ: Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice. Chen P, Yang YQ, Tao HH, Yang HC: Effects of electromagnetic fields of different frequencies on proliferation and DNA damage of gallbladder cancer cells. Nylund R, Leszczynski D: Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent. Grassi C, Da€™Ascenzo M, Torsello A, Martinotti G, Wolf F, Cittadini A, Azzena GB: Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their role in modulation of neuroendocrine cell proliferation and death.
Hecker R: Emission elektrischer und magnetischer Signale von Gestein infolge A¤uAYerer mechanischer Belastungen. Baureus Koch CL, Sommarin M, Persson BR, Salford LG, Eberhardt JL: Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes. Mathie A, Kennard LE, Veale EL: Neuronal ion channels and their sensitivity to extremely low frequency weak electric field effects. Dobson P, Oa€™Keefe E: Investigations into stress and its management using the gas discharge visualization technique.
Russo M, Choudhri AF, Whitworth G, Weinberg AD, Bickel W, Oz MC: Quantitative analysis of reproducible changes in high-voltage electrophotography. Bascom R, Buyantseva L, Zhegmin Q, Dolina M, Korotkov K: Gas discharge visualization (GDV)- bioelectrography.
Korotkov KG, Popechitelev EP: Method for gas discharge visualization and automation of the system of realizing it in clinical practice. Treugut H, Gorner C, Ludtke R, Schmid P, Fuss R: Reliabilitat der Energetischen Terminalpunktdiagnose (ETD) nach Mandel bei Kranken. Medvedev SN, Mala€™tseva AS, Popkova AM, Serov VV, Igonina NP, Tkacheva OI, Kozin AN: Possibilities of the use of Korean acupuncture Su Jok in the clinical practice. Kato M, Honma K, Shigemitsu T, Shiga Y: Circularly polarized 50-Hz magnetic field exposure reduces pineal gland and blood melatonin concentrations of Long-Evans rats. Burch JB, Reif JS, Yost MG: Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with reduced nocturnal excretion of a melatonin metabolite in humans. Jajte J, Zmyslony M: The role of melatonin in the molecular mechanism of weak, static and extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields (ELF). Torpy DJ, Chrousos GP: The three-way interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axes and the immune system. This often results in the purchase of expensive screening and de-jamming devices, for which only the unreliable producer and distributor gets any profit. We all know that the earth a€“ in fact, all of life a€“ a€?radiatesa€? as a natural process.a€?There exists a strong terrestrial magnetic field, which guarantees that the top of a compass is always drawn to the north, no matter where you are in the world. It has been known for a long time that underground watercourses and geological dislocation produce spectacular radiation intensities. Sensitive magnetometers can, however, easily make these distortions visible and can be defined as biologically effective by experts.
This method is only justified when you know that artificial fields, from say a€“ magnetic steel, are not in the area. That is hardly possible because the magnetic field of some spring mattresses equals more than a hundred water veins. The importance of these findings to the area above the disturbance is very much in dispute.
The results of these unqualified statements are that credulous laymen go over their bedrooms with a 30 dollar portable radio and assume there are water veins (and other phenomena of terrestrial radiation) whenever NBC or ABC gets bad reception, or a song by Elvis is jammed by noise.
The much more exact electro- geobioscopy measures the skin resistance between one hand and acupuncture points on the other hand. You should consider however, that every response of a human being to the stimuli of his environment is a specific one, ita€™s individual, and cannot be easily transferred to others. This radioactive electromagnetic radiation is considered the most penetrating, strongest and biologically most hazardous kind of all of the known radioactive rays. But no onea€?can deny that an avoidable risk exists undera€?long-term influence, such as sleeping every nighta€?for eight hours in the same physical position, and doing that for many years. Regardless of the kind of radiation, no sensible scientist dares to contradict this opinion. For measuring construction material, I use proportional and Geiger-Muller-counter tubes, and xenon-large-area detectors.
The rays are converted into light flashes, boosted as electrical impulses via a photo-multiplier and then calculated and displayed by sophisticated electronics.
Wust had already reported about measurements of gamma rays at a€?geopathic zones.a€? The scientists, physicists and doctors Williams, Weber, Cody, Lorenz and Bickel (the last one from California) had made similar successful experiments. He, more than anybody else, has shown that there is a relationship between subterraneous water sources and ionizing radioactive radiation.
All bells rang when the drilling machine cut the granite crack 500 yards below a€“ out of which the curative water came. There turns out to be significant relationships between these zones and cancer patients of the town, as they were sleeping exactly above these zones. My measurement of the radioactivity, with the scintillation counter, showed a 12-yard wide disturbance that could be detected in the whole house, outside the building, and in the nearby yard.
He found there was indeed a water-bearing dislocation, which was officially plotted on two geological maps made in 1911 and in 1980.
In all cases, my scintillation counter showed, for hundreds of yards, values that were well above average. Also like manual molds, when it comes time to eject (harvest) the ice from the mold, it invertsand twists, "popping" out the ice.
In these (now common) types of installations we strongly recommend the replacement of PVC vent with a chimney liner made from a stainless steel alloy such as AL29-4C which is specifically made for venting condensing heating systems and usually comes with a lifetime guaranty (from many manufacturers) against corrosion in that type of application.
A maintenance man for the university said that some really bad pipes had come apart at the fittings and melted. I called the manufacturer of the PVC pipe in this case and asked the representative a few questions about using PVC pipe as a combustion flue for fuel gases.
Just because PVC works in new installations does not mean that a condition cannot occur in which scale builds up over a short time in hard water areas and causes high flue gas temperatures. There are serious consequences with carbon monoxide asphyxiation and fire that cannot be ignored.
If a water heater is set to store water at 140 F to minimize Legionella bacteria growth, the flue gas temperature will be about 160 F when the heater is new. The boiler manufacturer that recommended using PVC pipe as flue material was a target of the liability claim by surviving family members.
PVC pipe is not listed and labeled as a combustion flue pipe material, as noted in the piping manufacturera€™s notes above, yet manufacturers of the water heaters and boilers seem to be avoiding the issue, and they continue to recommend the use of PVC flue venting in their installation instructions. The ULC S636 standard allows the material to exceed the limit for CPVC piping by 10 degrees Fahrenheit. I hope the industry can develop a standard to allow low cost, high temperature plastic materials.
In this case, it appears that they were lobbying the readers of Plumbing Engineer on behalf of the manufacturers of fuel burning appliances such as water heaters, boilers and furnaces that are recommending use of PVC pipe for venting combustible gases. The caller went over some of the comments that were addressed in the article and explained that a woman had become seriously ill and permanently disabled from what is believed to be exposure to the combustion gases from two failed PVC plastic flue vent pipes in her home. The two PVC flue vents were connected to two water heaters that were piped together in the garage of a three-story townhome. Apparently, the ambient air had a cooling effect on the pipe in exposed areas; that is why the exposed pipe was a lighter brown color.
The water heater manufacturer's literature recommended the use of PVC pipe and made no mention of system design temperature limitations or installation requirements for the PVC flues with respect to the location in a concealed space or adjacent to insulation. There was black mold throughout the floor space and on the exterior walls, where the wood structure and siding was rotted.
Low oxygen levels combined with elevated CO levels can be a deadly combination and can lead to brain damage.
The maximum temperature setting for residential water heaters is 160 F, for commercial water heaters it is 180 F and for boilers it is 200 F, all above the maximum recommended PVC temperature of 140 F. So, if a water heater is set at 160 F and the thermostat allows the fluid temperature to overshoot the set point by about 10 degrees F plus or minus, the flue gas temperatures on a very efficient residential water heater would be higher than 170 F. They have recently tentatively agreed that the minimum storage temperature for water heaters should be 140 F in order to make sure that all parts of the domestic hot water system are well above the ideal growth temperatures for Legionella. When galvanized steel flues develop rust holes, people may start suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning. He then goes on to mention that AHRI uses the ANSI Z21 series of standards for appliance testing as the basis for acceptance of PVC flue piping. In this condition, enough water can be flushed through the water heater or boiler to keep the water temperatures low enough to keep the flue gases cooled and relatively low. I would like to see a manufacturer provide a copy of testing and certification for any fuel burning appliance with PVC pipe testing for these conditions.
An often stated rule of thumb is that boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for each 15% reduction in excess air or 40 F reduction in the stack gas temperature.
The flue gas temperatures rise, and the burner stays on longer in order to transfer heat through the scale and the heating surface. A few said, a€?Yeah, everyonea€™s using PVC now, and I have never heard of a failure.a€? Not one manufacturer could produce any technical data or a report addressing the temperature limits that the fuel burning appliance manufacturers are required to have for non-metallic PVC flue materials. They are claiming that they have a certification test, but the test that the AHRI representative cited does not test for the proper temperature limits for PVC pipe.
It is a function of the size of the combustion air fan which, in many cases, is located on the flue outlet so there can be a negative pressure zone on top of the water heater where dilution air can be drawn into the flue.
They should also address all of the thermal expansion, ambient cooling and stress cracking issues with non-metallic systems. With combustion gases close to 200 F, you would need a pretty big combustion air opening to bring in enough 115-degree cooling air to bring the temperature down to a safe level. The only place that PVC is addressed is in Table XII, which gives the maximum allowable temperatures of typical nonmetallic vent material used in water heaters. While we are asleep our body should be resting so it can repair body cells, fight infections and absorb nutrients from food. In some schools children are moved at frequent intervals to avoid possible harmful effects. If geopathic stress is suspected, it makes sense to move away from the source or to think about dealing with the threat. Women are more likely to be at risk from geopathic stress because their hormonal systems are more susceptible. While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere. The aim of the report is to establish whether these a€?Disturbed Sitesa€™ can produce statistically significant results to support the high degree of topicality the phenomenon is having in both main stream and alternative medical practices. A number of these were rejected when illnesses (circulation interference and infections) were discovered. Three silver electrodes were used placed on the forehead, palms and soles; a microprocessor based unit automatically produced the results. All measured parameters gave reference to location dependence with the integral rake size for Systolic ventricle work showing significantly different behaviour.
It was thought however, that if the experiment allowed further time exposure the investigation may have achieved a significant result. The Biometric analysis showed that on the a€?Indifferent Zonea€™ the pulse-breath quotient remained in balance but was significantly affected on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™.
One of the main functions of Serotonin is to act as a neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic system which controls energy provision.
Gernot PAUSER: University Clinic for Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and General Intensive Care, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria. A recent technological innovation can now aid us in this quest, allowing a sophisticated physical measurability of deviations of the earth's magnetic field: the SQUIDa€“technology. In addition to the discussed weak, broadband transversal electromagnetic and magnetic fields assumed to be originated in the ground, other forms of a€?energiesa€? might exist, such as the often controversially discussed longitudinal scalar waves (5). There is growing experimental evidence that EMFs - at least those of technical origin a€“ can have significant effects on cells and the entire organism. If you turn a water molecule with its electric charge distribution, then from the moving charge a magnetic field results. The effect was already discovered in 1824 by David Brewster and then experimentally elaborated by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880.
According to Professor Konstantin Meyl (Furtwangen University, Germany), to a measurement technician scalar waves experimentally manifest as (antenna-)noise, a mixture of frequencies and wavelengths. However, an extensive discussion of the origin and effects of radioactivity from the ground would go far beyond the scope of this manuscript. In the case of resonance, information is being exchanged, energies are transmitted and, in fact, a component of balance between the sources is being formed (from personal communication, A.
Certain processes of proteins as parts of their 3-D conformation have the ability to oscillate or rotate. From post mortem brains, magnetite crystals of a size of 50 nm could be isolated, and their magnetic field could be measured. However, speculations are that the presence of magnetite crystals in brain might be understood as proof of a a€?submerged magnetic sensora€?, similar to that of carrier pigeons or whales, theoretically easing human orientation and direction a€“ thus a kind of a€?relict of evolutiona€?. Nevertheless, this doesna€™t lower their importance and relevance: Those pioneers in research on the geopathy phenomenon neither had the scientific-medical verifiability methods that are available today, nor was the time mature for such publications in the kind of medical journals we know today.
In our first approaches, we utilized methods from complementary medicine (bio-resonance, kinesiology, heart-rate variability, etc.). Petersburg, Russia), as used in that work, delivers a number of sensitive and reproducible parameters (25-46). Although not yet completed, our tests appear to show that this is indeed the case: Parallel measurements of the diurnal time courses of GDV mean area of glow and of biochemical parameters collected from saliva (50-53) indicate that the diurnal curve progressions of GDV image areas and the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) go parallel, whilst another accepted parameter of stress, saliva alpha-amylase, progresses just the opposite to IgA and GDV.
Fifty-two voluntary test persons were measured at two locations, one of which has been identified by a group of six distinguished dowsers as being a a€?geopathic zonea€? and the other a a€?neutral zonea€?. The electric field produces a visible gas discharge glow around the fingertip (Kirlian image), and such corona discharges have been recorded from each of the 10 fingertips of the test person repeatedly. In addition, we have recorded dynamic GDV images from both ring fingers, repeated 3 times during each test period. Each test person was asked to thoroughly wash their hands using a pH neutral laboratory soap (without re-fattening properties), followed by wiping the fingertips with alcohol. From the results of our studies it can be concluded that geopathic zones do cause stress in nearly all of the persons tested. Such zones might cause distress (a€?malignant stressa€?) even when present for a short time, but there are also reports that (not scientifically proven) energetically stimulating zones (a€?positive energy zonesa€?) might exist, often also referred to as a€?power placesa€?. During the planning stage in construction of new buildings, the geopathy phenomenon should be taken into account, so as to consciously design and construct buildings and rooms in a manner that, in areas where people will stay for longer periods of time, geopathic exposure should be as low as possible.
Therefore it makes sense to consult with a competent building environment engineer who has experience, skill and expertise in these matters.
Interestingly, these positive lifestyle choices may also show up indirectly and in the subconscious: even technically derived EMFs seem to have much less of a negative effect with people who prefer such an a€?awarea€? way of life. It is clear that the accumulation of different factors stress can have strong effects on humans, animals and even plants. One of the tests, taken in a care center for children displaying behavioral problems, additionally showed, among other changes, that the incidence of bedwetting [nocturnal enuresis] definitely decreased when the a€?Wavea€? was present, and that the learning ability and the quality of sleep changed for the better (unpublished findings). A serious athlete who doesna€™t sleep well before a competition is far from being as able-bodied as someone who has had a€?a good night's resta€?. When individuals feel better, they will perform better, and be healthier and happier at work too a€“ facts that would also have economic consequences.
Parameters measured in saliva in parallel to GDV, such as IgA, alpha-amylase and cortisol, appear to change in level in direct relationship to the GDV mean area of glow.
From an extended vortex and field theory to a technical, biological and historical use of longitudinal waves. Their findings usually provide shockingly different interpretations of the biological effects of natural conditions. Once I move past this zone, the striking radiation intensity can decrease, giving me a a€?normala€™ value again. In all three cases, the radioactivity coming from these items were several times higher than the law allows for workers in nuclear power plants a€“ and for a short period of time only.
Some of the well- known mineral waters exist only because he found their origin deep in the earth. They found water, which had the prophesied 17 degree hardness, and which flowed abundantly. The tray then turns back upright and refills with water for the next freeze cycle.HARD-TRAYHard-tray icemakers have a metal ice mold which is coated with a non-stick coating. We also recommend moving the intake vent out of the chimney to prevent the corrosive by-products of combustion from being drawn into the heating system intake which can actually damage the heating system over time. He was quite familiar with this issue and emailed me a link to the companya€™s technical manual, which discussed all of the physical and temperature limitations of the piping. Most boiler and water heater manufacturers list other ways of venting with stainless steel, but they seem to always recommend the cheapest way in their literature, in an attempt to make the boiler seem more affordable to consumers. I believe that we will see a few code changes on this topic in the next round of code hearings. The plumber had found that the flue pipes in separate joist spaces were completely separated and that what appeared to be carbon monoxide poisoning and oxygen deprivation may have caused the womana€™s illness; she apparently has brain damage and is now permanently disabled.
In the floor cavity, the temperature on both sides of the flue pipe wall was the flue gas temperature.
It also did not list any temperature limitations for a maximum thermostat setting on the water heater for systems using PVC flues. Boiler water temperatures are typically in the 180 to 200 degree range, because most HVAC hydronic heating coils are designed for these higher water temperatures in order to reduce the heating coil sizes and to reduce the gpm pumping requirements. The committee is also looking at minimum hot water return temperatures above the ideal growth temperatures for legionella bacteria. These standards only test for deflection at 157 F, although he claimed that they test to 158 F. The test does not allow real-world conditions in which commercial water heaters reach the shut-off temperature of 180 F. Numerous documents, research reports and papers address the insulating effects of scale formation on the heat transfer surfaces and the waste of energy associated with scale on heating surfaces. Energy losses and increased flue gas temperatures are a function of scale thickness and composition. There are acceptable non-metallic flue materials such as high temperature polypropylene and new, high temperature plastics that have higher temperature ratings than PVC.
The dilution air imposes an additional CFM demand on the unit that is not covered in the manufacturera€™s installation data. A consensus standard for non-metallic flue venting systems is really needed now if they are going to continue to promote the PVC material.
As scale builds up and the heater efficiency falls off, the flue gas temperatures can easily increase to over 350 degrees F. There is no justification for the 157-degree temperature, which exceeds the piping manufacturera€™s temperature rating. The decision to use PVC pipe for venting flue gases is purely a monetary decision; it totally disregards public health and safety.
However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all its energy just to keep its vital organs going. Reports from other countries such as Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Scandinavia indicate that they too have been taking notice.
Geopathic stress - or harmful earth rays - is natural radiation that rises up through the earth and is distorted by weak electromagnetic fields created by underground streams, certain mineral concentrations and fault lines. Foresight, the pre-conception care organisation, even suggests that couples trying for a baby should get their homes checked for geopathic stress and ensure that electrical equipment is not located under their beds as this can cause electromagnetic stress and deplete the immune system.a€?For many of us who fall sick and seek the help of a doctor a few minutes is spent discussing symptoms and lifestyle quickly followed by the doctor scribbling on a proscription pad. In order to rule out possible influences of man made electromagnetic or microwave disturbances at each location an independent report from an electromechanical engineer was requested for each chosen site. Other participants were also used from the Outpatients Department for Physical Therapy in the Rehabilitation Centre, Grobming and from the Surgery of Dr.
This deterioration of the HFR was thought to be due to a€?Location loada€™ from the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™.
Hacker: Head, IGGMB - Research Institute for Frontier Questions of Medicine and Biotechnology, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria.
In recent years, the expressions a€?geopathic stressa€? and a€?geopathic interference zonesa€? have been accepted internationally to describe the phenomenon. At present, for most aspects contained herein, only hypotheses can be formed - and there are many of them.
With Super-Conducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID), it is possible to quantify variations of one ten billionth [American English] of the earth's magnetic field. Certain ions and metals moved by water can a€“ depending on concentration, composition and flow rate a€“ can indeed lead to geoelectricity.
If thus in a pipe a hydrodynamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and a magnetic vortex, the potential vortex and the eddy current, are the result (5). Although also present in tourmaline, topaz, cane sugar and Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate), the effect became particularly known for quartz. Vice versa, quartz can be triggered to oscillate by applying a voltage to it (a€?quartz oscillator crystala€?; in use for example in crystal controlled clocks). In the case of plasma waves, they are charged particles, and in the case of sound waves, they are air particles. Inside our body, there are the a€?intrinsica€? (internal) structures and molecules of the organism, which are either a€?resonatinga€? because of their physical nature (as with stringed instruments: compare the vibration of the string alone versus string with resonator sound box), or create a certain frequency themselves.
Such only a few nanometers sized processes have been discussed as possible sites of resonance induced by external EMFs, acting as a€?protein-antennasa€? (19). The research was done in a special laboratory room that was completely shielded from the natural magnetic field of the earth by tons of steel. But, if it would really be a relict, those particles would not exist in such a high quantity anymore.
Nonetheless, what these people achieved, and their courage, as well as of the publishers who rightly published their works, deserve high credits.
Although successful in some areas addressed, the effects found had not the high statistical significance required, and the methodology used was not a generally accepted one, guaranteeing medical relevance and reproducibility. For us, the mean a€?area-of-glowa€? was the best possible means for sensitively indicate stress. In other words, a higher GDV mean area of glow value corresponds to a higher IgA level (to be understood as an sign for lower stress or relaxation), and a lower GDV mean area of glow value can be understood as an indication for higher levels of alpha-amylase, i.e.
In the specific setup for the static GDV images used in our study, the overall GDV image area values calculated are to be understood as mean values of 50 single finger GDV images in total, per test period.
A number of further statistical analyses were performed, also including distribution-independent tests. Such areas have been dowsed within some churches and other buildings constructed centuries or often thousands of years ago. Mental components are just as important: the more someone lives consciously, and even optimistically, in a state of positive thought, the less external stress factors can influence the person somatically. Possibilities to minimize the effects of geopathy on our organism in general have already been discussed above.
Thus, for this practical reason it may be worth considering installing a device that has a balancing effect here.
The results of our research are of great relevance for a€?wellness-centersa€? too: sustainable success in relaxation and stress management methods is essentially dependent upon the particular location of sleeping and of therapy beds.
The number of staff on sick leave will probably decrease in the long run, when all employees work at geopathically (and otherwise also) more balanced work places. Soon, we shall have completed those experiments testing a number of test persons sufficiently high for good-practice statistical examination.
Petersburg Division of the Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing Unit a€?Kulturaa€™, Petersburg, pp 58a€“83 (1999). After hundreds of tests, I can say: With special ion meters (electronic instruments that measure the number of small ions in the air) you can detect increased measurement values above the area of a disturbance a€“ particularly in the range of positive air ions. My electro-geobioscopic measurements use test devices that are well tested in medicine: Aschoff, MORA, and Vega. Even though PVC pipe should not be confused with other non-metal (plastic) vent products that some companies are manufacturing such as polypropyIene vent systems, these other non-metal (plastic) vent products should still never be put in a multi flue chimney that vents a fireplace or solid flue appliance because those types of non-metal vent products are still not designed for use near such high temperatures and this is an application that manufacturers dona€™t even test. The water heater had scaled up due to minerals in the water supply; this caused the flue gas temperatures to rise, which created the noted problems.


Even if someone had their water heater set at 120 F, with scaling, the flue gas temperatures can rise well above 300 F. Wherever the pipe was near a floor joist or near insulation, the piping appeared to be darker in color. The PVC flue pipe separations above the drywall ceiling allowed products of combustion, including carbon monoxide and water vapor, to vent under positive pressure into the house over several years.
The broken PVC flue pipes caused the plumbing contractor to wonder whether the building occupants had experienced any symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning. When this standard is published, storage type water heaters will have minimum storage temperatures of 140 F or higher; flue gases are typically much hotter than the water temperature.
Stainless steel flues are an option but, compared to galvanized steel or PVC plastic, they are very expensive. The insulating effect of scale on water heater and boiler heating surfaces results in increased flue gas temperatures. The result is overheating of the water heater or boiler tube metal, tube failures and loss of energy efficiency, which is commonly diagnosed by an increase in flue gas temperature.
There is rarely manufacturera€™s data on what the fan CFM is and how that affects the combustion air requirements for the water heater or appliance.
The International Fuel Gas Code exemption for non-metallic flue pipe materials is not safe and, in my opinion, should be repealed as an emergency code change. To be accurate, just enough hot water should be flowed to cause cold water to enter the bottom of the heater and cause the burner to come on; then the flow of water should be shut off until the burner shuts off. As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it has difficulty in absorbing nutrients or fighting off infections as efficiently as it should. Claims and counter claims abound regarding devises to achieve this, leaving the public in total confusion. The wave lengths of the disturbed natural radiation can seriously affect our health, causing cancer, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) infertility and miscarriage. It may surprise you therefore, that in many European countries, Germany and Austria in particular, one ofA  the first questions the doctor may ask is about theA  location of your bed and how long have you been sleeping there. Most explanations tried concentrate on the existence of natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs) present at particular locations, a€?interferinga€? with the organisms. Overlapping, or a a€?build upa€? of resonance effects are also part of the geopathic phenomenon. With a proportion of 12 % of the upper eartha€™s crust, quartz is the most frequent mineral after feldspar.
In the case of resonance, both sources attract each other, which can be explained and calculated by the occurrence of field changes during that process (5).
When experimentally irradiated by EMFs of frequencies in between about 1-2 GHz, they displayed a changing of conformation, respectively changing in their manner of oscillation, even when only very low field strengths had been applied (19). Magnetic particles in the brain could turn out to be one of the reasons why dowsing can work. Furthermore, one can acquire a€?corona diagramsa€? in the manner of complementary medicine from the individual allocation of the a€?coronaa€? gas discharge from the different fingertips, following the principles of the energya€“meridian theory and of acupuncture. The exact test design, as well as the way how dowsers independently labeled the different zones in the laboratory test room, have been described in detail (24).
The glass plate surface of the GDV camera was cleaned using alcohol frequently, and it was taken care that none of the test persons had wet hands. The corona diagrams directed into a weakening of the energies of the immune system and the pineal organ (which might be understood as an indication of possible changes of the melatonin production) (compare to: 57-60), the cardiovascular and the urinary system in many of the test persons.
The a€?Wavea€? device investigated in our study could therefore, by its balancing effect, not only aid in lowering of stress, but also be understood as a tool for disease prevention.
Concerning the a€?Wavea€? device especially interesting is the fact, that it substantially reduces stress in people on a€?neutral zonesa€? too, a finding which indicates that there is no real a€?neutral zonea€? existing.
In the following, we will briefly show what addressing geopathy do affect health care facilities, public places, and economy. By inference, if these results are applied to public facilities in general, the a€?Wavea€? could probably have a number of desirable effects in schools, offices, banks, supermarkets, etc.
Contrarily, at a€?highly burdeneda€? workplaces, performance will decrease, discontentment grows, and the vulnerability to diseases and the resulting rise of employees' illnesses will be greater. Ursula DEMARMELS-HACKER, for her love and support, and for abandoning many evenings and weekends of togetherness to find time for investigation and creation of this manuscript. For more information on whether PVC should even be used at all to vent flue gases (never mind in a double flue chimney) I suggest reading the following two articles from Plumbing Engineer Magazine, which is a leading publication in the heating industry. Boiler thermostats or burner controls are generally limited to 200 F, commercial water heater thermostats or burner controls to 180 F and residential water heater burner controls to 160 F, and all can overshoot by several degrees. These symptoms include the following: headaches, dizziness, nausea, flu-like symptoms, fatigue, shortness of breath, impaired judgment, chest pain, confusion, depression, hallucinations, agitation, vomiting, abdominal pain, drowsiness, visual changes, fainting, seizures, memory and walking problems.
High-temperature plastic flues were used briefly in Canada but were recalled after a series of flue failures. If there are two appliances located in the same closet and both rely on cooling air mixing with the combustion gases, where are the additional requirements for combustion air openings and dilution air requirements? I also feel that manufacturers should immediately discontinue recommending the use of PVC pipe for venting combustible gases. From an incredible range of gadgets offered there are many tales about their ineffectiveness or of making the receiver feel much worse. These questions are routinely asked not only by several thousand doctors, but also many cancer specialist hospitals will recommend a Geopathic Surveyor or Geobiologist as they are often called to investigate your home before deciding on a course of therapy or reaching for the prescription pad. It was reckoned with over 95 a€“ percentile certainty that there is a location influence on the governing system of the circulation. Many a€?specialistsa€? presume that the origin to be in the ground a€“ below the earth surface.
Furthermore, technically generated EMFs are present on every place on earth; their likely influence on our health is presently the subject of intensive worldwide research. Whittaker already in 1904 showed mathematically that the known and accepted Laplace Wave Equation of the year 1787, besides indicating transversal electro-magnetic waves, also describes longitudinal scalar waves (15). The magnetite-particles could also be visualized and further analyzed using a high-definition transmission electron microscope. In any case, magnetite crystals in the brain could possibly be a hint to explain how (certain qualities of) geopathic zones may affect the body: Magnetite reacts more than one million times stronger to an external magnetic field than every other biological material.
Using that particular aspect, we were able to indicate which organ systems of the body might be affected by geopathic stress. A third marker, saliva cortisol, although displaying its very own rhythmicity, also appears to fit into the concept that GDV could be reliably used for biophysical stress measurement (Hacker and Augner, unpublished results). Altogether, more than 137,000 individual fingertip GDV corona images were captured, interpreted by means of computer-aided image analysis and analyzed in detail using bio-statistics. For further calculations and analyses, the GDV Meridian Analysis and the GDV Diagram software (both with version no. The latter device had been mounted or de-mounted in another room at an upper floor, and neither the test persons nor the examiners could see if the device was present or not.
The test persons were advised to keep their fingers still and relaxed during measurements and not to apply undue pressure when putting their fingers onto the glass plate at an angle of approximately 30-degrees to the instrument axis (28). If present for a prolonged time, however, eustress may soon turn to distress and thereby suppress the immune system. We would therefore suggest using a terminology towards a a€?more geopathica€? and a€?geologically more neutrala€? zone in this context. Johanns-Hospital, so far, more than 50 a€?Wavea€? devices have been installed to harmonize critical locations - especially in the intensive care unit and in the entire surgical ward), and at other major hospitals (e.g.
Thus, especially in already existing establishments, the purposeful placement of a€?Wavea€? devices can be of great benefit.
The aggregate economic success of a company or institution can very well be in the balance; responsible (and visionary) managers should take heed of the results of our studies in their plans and act accordingly. Petersburg Division of Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing nit, a€?Kulturaa€™, pp 84a€“108 (1999). The amount of time spent in the freeze cycle is controlled by a number of factors depending on the individual design, but it is best explained by knowing how the harvest cycle is triggered.HARVEST CYCLEThe harvest cycle occurs when the ice is ejected from the ice mold.
It is my hope that the building code will soon ban the use of PVC and plastic vents in multiple flue chimneys where melting of the heating system vent pipe by the use of another flue is a possibility. As scale builds up on the heating surfaces, the scale insulates the flue gases from the hot water in the system, causing the flue gas temperatures to increase. Not knowing her condition, the plumber contacted the homeowner and asked whether she had experienced any of these symptoms. In the beginning, flues were cobbled together out of whatever flue materials they could find and PVC was included even though it is not rated for the system temperatures commonly experienced in flues.
Each time the water heater cycles, the hot water rises to the top of the heater; each consecutive cycle overheats the water in the top of the heater and, with each consecutive stacking cycle, the water temperature will be 5 to 10 degrees hotter.
If a closet or space is designed for only enough air for the combustion requirements, and the hood is drawing many times more cubic feet of air than the combustion air requirement from the same space, the burner can starve, and improper combustion can cause soot conditions that will increase flue temperatures.
There are many products on the market that claim to cure some or all geopathic zones of its noxious energy. However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all ita€™s energy just to keepA  vital organs going. The search, using both dowsing methods to locate geopathic energies and scientific instruments to detect man made electromagnetic energies willA  determine whether your illness is linked to geopathic stress electromagnetic stress or both. Frequencies in between about 0,1 Hz up to the GHz-range are being suggested in public literature. The most exciting result of those experiments was that, most of the regions of the brain appear to contain about five million biogenous a€?single-domaina€? magnetite crystals per gram wet weight on average, and the meninges (pia and dura mater) contain even more than 100 million. Recently, in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, an article describes possible roles that magnetic ferrous amalgamations could play in neurological disease (21).
The accordant calculations and projections were done interactively using specific software for analysis, based on the energy-emission-analysis according to Mandel (47-48), the Su-Jok-System of acupuncture (49) and clinical data of thousands of test persons from the St.
In order to minimize chronobiologic influences to a sensible degree, the experiments were carried out only in forenoons, and also in that respect, phase randomization in time was an important prerequisite (24).
As already stated above, technical fields and noxae [nocent influences] of different kinds are present everywhere on earth. In the workplace and in the home: this is only part of the whole picture, because a€?ready to goa€? or rested and productive employers and employees should also be able to benefit at peace and harmony at home. Water heater and boiler manufacturers began listing the ASTM standard numbers for PVC DWV pipe and PVC water pipe as the material to use for venting their appliances. Improper airflow to the closet or room containing the high efficiency equipment can starve the dilution air ports reducing the cooling capability of the dilution air that is intended to help cool the combustion gases. Most of these claims are quite dubious and do not stand up to the most rudimental scientific testing.
As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it doesna€™t absorb nutrients or fight off infections effectively.
If so, you will be advised how to avoid or eliminate these harmful energies from your home so you stand a better chance of responding to any treatment given.
In our following attempts at explanation, we will concentrate on natural sources possibly originating from the a€?grounda€?, i.e.
As we could show, the a€?Wavea€? device in fact can help, and its exceptional promise as a preventive measure is of great interest. Gerfried BRANDSTETTER (manager of the science department of the Salzburg federal government); Landeshauptfrau Mag. Fortunately there are now a growing number of dowsers that are equipped with scientific monitoring instruments that can test such claims. To locate geopathic stress dowsers visit land, offices and homes where theyA  seekA  the location of underground streams, geological faults or the eartha€™s natural grid lines. However, for thousands of years people from all over the world have been finding underground water for wells and mineral deposits to mine by dowsing methods. However, it should be noted that the accumulation of "run" time is, in one way or another, thermostatically controlled.
Remember ita€™s the energy from the water and other artefacts that they first respond to as it rises from deep beneath the ground to the surface. For example, Admiral-type flex-tray machines have a thermostat in line with the icemaker timing and drive motor that opens at 19 degrees, and doesn't close again till the freezer temperature drops to 15 degrees. A thermostat pressed against the ice mold senses that it is cold enough to ensure that the ice is frozen.
When the harvest mechanism contacts the ice, it stalls until the ice melts enough to release it from the mold. Cubes in the bin might occasionally stick together a little bit because of this liquefication, but they should be easy to separate.In a hard-tray icemaker, the thermostatstartsthe harvest cycle, but it does notendthe cycle.
The mold heater would open the thermostat and end the cycle way too early; long before the mold was refilled. When the thermostat begins the harvest cycle, a cam attached to the drive motor closes a "holding" switch. This switch keeps the drive motor turning until the ice is harvested and the mold refills with water.
When the ejection mechanism is reset, the mold is refilled and the cam reaches the proper position, the cam allows the holding switch to open.
This ends the fill cycle and begins the freeze cycle.FILL CYCLE AND FILL VALVETowards the end of the harvest cycle, a cam on the drive mechanism closes the fill switch.
This switch opens a fill solenoid valve, usually located on the back of the fridge, at the bottom.
The shape of the cam that closes the fill switch controls the length of time the valve stays open. A flow control washer within the valve adjusts the flow for variations in house water pressure, so that the same amount of water flows through the valve regardless of water pressure. After a repair, you can't stand there with the freezer door open, waiting for the next harvest cycle, to make sure the machine is working properly. Most icemakers are temperature-sensitive, and as the freezer temperature rises and falls, this sensitivity can cause symptoms to be intermittent.Icemakers can behave erratically, and be difficult to diagnose because of it.
But a basic understanding of how a particular design operates can go a long way towards removing the mystery of intermittent malfunctions. Knowing how the icemakershouldoperate may point you towards whatisn'toperating correctly.Has the fridge or freezer seemed warmer or colder than usual? This can point towards refrigerator problems other than the icemaker, such as defrost or sealed system problems. Any higher, and the ice may not freeze fast enough or the thermostat may not trigger a harvest cycle.
Any lower, and the cold may migrate into the refrigerator compartment.Has the freezer or refrigerator door been opened a lot? In some circumstances, this can keep the freezer temperature too high and cause slow or no ice production, or "shelling," where the cube has not frozen completely before the harvest cycle begins.Do not yet discard any "slabbed" ice. The ice cubes are "shelling," or not freezing completely before the harvest cycle tries to eject them from the mold. See section 8-2(b).D) The fill tube keeps filling with ice and blocking the flow of fill water.
See section 8-4.8-2(a) SLABBINGThis generally occurs when the ice is not ejecting from the ice mold properly.
If there are cubes left in the ice mold after a harvest cycle, the new waterfill will overfill the mold for the next batch.
Depending on the design, this may cause the mold to overflow, or it may just cause a thick sheet of ice to fuse together the tops of the cubes too solidly. In this case, the icemaker can jam and the problem can compound itself rapidly.This can be caused by a number of factors. This can simply prevent the ice from dropping into the bin, (Figure S-1) or it can interfere with the ice level sensor arm, preventing the icemaker from shutting off when the bin is full. Both hard-tray and flex-tray machines are prone to this problem; it is caused by impurities in the fill water. The problem can get so bad that you may see black or gray flakes and sediment in the cubes.
In both hard- and flex-tray machines, the solution is usually to replace the ice mold, or just the entire icemaker.
If you do this, rinse the mold with a weak chlorine bleach solution and flush with copious amounts of water before you put the mold back into service.
The next fill will then cause overfill, and slabbing symptoms may develop.Low water pressure can also cause the valve to leak, sometimes badly enough to overfill or overflow the ice mold. See Section 8-2(c), section 8-3 and Figure S-4.8-2(b) SHELLINGHollow cubes, or "shelling" can occur if the ice cubes are not fully frozen when the harvest cycle begins. Depending on the design, either the harvest cycle is being triggered prematurely, or the cube is not freezing in the allotted time.Shelling may be an early sign of defrost, sealed system or other cooling problems of the refrigerator itself, especially in flex-tray machines. The freezer vents in flex-tray machines must direct cold air directly at the surface of the water or the mold, to insure that it will freeze in the alloted time. Check that nothing is blocking the airstream and that the freezer vent directing air over the icemaker is not damaged, missing or misdirected.In hard-tray machines with shelling symptoms, ice or water left in the mold after harvest may cause overfill and slabbing problems. Shelling is usually a sign of low waterfill, which allows the mold to get colder faster, triggering the thermostat into a harvest cycle too quickly. Check and adjust the water level (sections 8-5 thru 8-8) or check for low water pressure or the incorrect water valve. Over time it will freeze the tube completely shut.To melt the ice from the tube and clear it, you can use a blow dryer, or blow hot water into the tube with a turkey baster.
Sediment from improper installation or low water pressure may prevent the valve from closing fully.
If you have this symptom, especially if it returns after clearing the ice blockage once, start checking for water supply pressure or sediment problems. I've seen people tap into hot water pipes, but the piping should be long enough so that water does not fill the icemaker while hot, or the water may not freeze fast enough. It is far better to use a cold water line if possible."Saddle valves" are often used on a new installation to pierce into an existing pipe, (Figure F-1) and generally work pretty well. However, you must be careful of using dissimilar metals; for example a copper valve on a galvanized steel pipe. A water supply drawn from a saddle valve on a galvanized pipe is an invitation to scale and sediment problems.Similarly, a saddle valve installed too close to a hot water tank can pick up calcium sediments from the tank itself.
Scale and sediments can block the saddle valve and cause low water flow.Low water flow through the saddle valve may cause the same symptoms as low water pressure at the solenoid valve inlet. They can also get into the solenoid valve seat and prevent the valve from closing fully, causing symptoms from fill tube freeze to slabbing. However, the only long term solution is to secure a better supply, directly from a copper cold-water pipe if possible. It's a little cheaper, easier to cut and install, and less prone to leakage when you have to move the refrigerator.
However, some people feel it's more prone to leakage than copper simply because the material is stronger.
That's not been my experience, but it's your call.If you do use plastic, make sure you insert the brass sleeves into the ends (Figure F-2) before installing the compression fittings.
Without them, the ends of the plastic could collapse and leak.HOT WATER OR COLD?I've seen people tap into hot water lines to feed the icemaker, but I highly recommendagainstit.
But when the temperature of the water drops, the heat flow slows to the same rate as if you had just filled it with cool water in the first place. Common complaints and contaminants are chlorine, rust, sand, dirt, sediment, dissolved calcium, organic substances such as PCB's, THM's, herbicides and pesticides, chloramines and detergents, causing bad taste, odors or even health hazards. This book is not intended to be a primer on water filtration; I would in no waybegin to try to pretendto be able advise you what contaminants you need to guard against in your area. For that, you need to hire a water chemist, or talk to your water company or neighbors who might have been through this already. These contaminants you can pick up independent of what your water company supplies you, through old or inadequate water piping or other house conditions.
You don't think the pipefitters washed all the bugs and dirt out of the tubing before they brazed it in place, do you?INLINE AND UNDER-SINK (CARTRIDGE) FILTERS(Figures F-3 and F-4)In my opinion, about the only good thing about inline filters (vs. Being behind the fridge instead of under the sink, they are harder to get to, and easier toforgetto change.Cartridge-type filters, on the other hand, have replacable cartridges which are relatively easy to get to and change. Some even have water shutoff valves built right into them to make filter changing even faster and easier.
They are little, if any, more difficult to install initially, and replacement cartridges usually cost less than a new inline filter. When the new membrane is new, probably half of the water that enters the RO system goes down the drain to flush themembrane.
If you don't change the elements frequently, then when the membrane gets older and plugged with contaminants, as much as 15 to 20timesas much water goes down the drain as comes out the faucet. Also, water flows through the RO membrane very slowly, so it can drop water pressure at the tap considerably.Most manufacturers recommend AGAINST an icemaker water supply coming from an RO system. I have been personally using an RO system on my Whirlpool crescent cube icemaker for two years now and I am tickled with the results; ice as clear and clean tasting as our drinking water, and no scale or calcium deposits.
But if you understand the risks, and the RO system doesn't drop the water pressure too low, it can be done.8-3(b) FILL SOLENOID VALVEWater fill volume is controlled by a couple of things.
For one, the length of time the valve stays open, which is usually controlled by a cam in the icemaker head, which closes a switch for the proper amount of time.
Aflow control washerwithin the valve adjusts the flow for variations in house water pressure. However, if the water pressure is below about 20 psi at the solenoid valve inlet, problems can occur.
If the cube is too small, it may not eject properly, and the next fill may cause overfill.Water solenoids operate using a pressure diaphragm with pressure on both sides of the diaphragm. Different icemakers require a wide variety of fill volumes, from about 3 ounces in certain GE units to as much as 8 ounces in Admiral-type machines. The valve bodies might look the same from the outside, but you must make sure the valve is the correct one (has the correct flow control washer) for the icemaker you're working on.
If someone has previously replaced the solenoid valve, and you experience low flow problems or slabbing in an icemaker, double check that the valve is the correct one.
This is acriticallyimportant point.8-3(c) TESTING AND ADJUSTING FILL VOLUMETo test fill volume, remove the icemaker from its freezer wall mounting (but leave it plugged in) and initiate a harvest cycle if possible. Baby bottles are generally just about the right size for testing fill volume; most are graduated in both cc's and ounces.
A good rule of thumb is that one fluid ounce equals about 30 cc's.Water fill level can be adjusted onsomeicemakers. See sections 8-5 thru 8-8 about your design.8-4 SLOW OR NO ICE PRODUCTIONThere are a number of things that will slow or stop the production of ice. If you are working on an icemaker where you can do so, a good start is to try to manually trigger a harvest cycle and watch what happens. However, there a few common causes.8-4(a) FREEZER TEMPERATURECheck the freezer temperature. In most icemakers, a freezer temperature above about 15 degrees may cause icemakers not to harvest or to have other ice production problems. If the freezer temperature is hovering right around the thermostat temperature setting, the icemaker's thermostat may open and close, causing slow or intermittent ice production. If the freezer temperature is not low enough, check the refrigerator's temperature settings.High freezer temperatures may also mean that therefrigeratorhas cooling problems such as defrost or sealed system malfunctions. If adjusting the controls doesn't lower the freezer temperature, see Chapters 4 and 5.8-4(b) POWER SUPPLYCheck that the icemaker is getting power. Unplug it from the freezer wall socket and see if you have power between at least two of the terminals.8-4(c) WATER SUPPLYCheck also that the icemaker is getting water.
If possible, unmount the icemaker from the freezer wall and manually initiate a harvest cycle.
The electronic one has a circuit board and an on-off rocker switch on the right side of the icemaker head.Most of the symptoms and the malfunctions between the three designs are similar. However, the internal differences between them are pretty pronounced, so testing and troubleshooting are quite different.8-5(a) MODULAR CRESCENT CUBE DESIGN OPERATIONThe harvest cycle on these icemakers is thermostatically triggered. Very shortly thereafter, a cam on the drive shaft closes the holding switch, keeping the motor circuit energized even after the thermostat opens back up. The motor then stalls, with the ejection fingers applying pressure to the ice, until the mold heats up enough for the cubes to separate from the mold. If the ice level in the bin is too high, or if you raise the arm to the shutoff position, this switch opens and interrupts the thermostat circuit. The icemaker then will not enter a harvest cycle until the sensor arm is allowed to return to its full down position. During the harvest cycle, a cam raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch keeps the motor turning. There is an adjustment screw on the right side of the icemaker head; one full turn equals 40cc's. Some models have water level adjustment dials on the right side of the plastic icemaker head cover that attach to this screw. This screw simply moves the fill switch closer to the cam on the drive shaft, keeping it open longer, or vice-versa. The maximum adjustment on these machines is one full turn in either direction; any more will damage the icemaker head. When adjusting the level, do it gently and do not attempt to force it AT ALL.TROUBLESHOOTINGAside from water supply problems, what usually goes wrong with these machines is that the thermostat (bimetal) fails.
To jump the thermostat and trigger a harvest cycle, just jumper between the T and H test point holes. In this case, you would see the ejection fingers pressed against the ice, trying to eject it, but it would not eject. Under power, test for line voltage between the L and H test point holes; if it is energized, then power is going to the heater. Unplug and test for resistance between the same test points; the heater should test 72 ohms. If not, replace the mold.If the drive motor isn't turning at a time when it should be, test for 110 volts between L and M to see if the motor is energized.
Some have water level adjustment dials on the right side of the plastic icemaker head cover.The harvest cycle on these icemakers is thermostatically triggered. Very shortly thereafter, a cam on the drive shaft closes the holding switch, keeping the motor circuit energized and turning even after the thermostat opens back up. The fingers then continue pushing the ice out of the mold.The thermostat stays closed throughout the first rotation of the ejection fingers. Near the completion of the first rotation, another cam attached to the driveshaft closes the fill switch, butwater fill does not occur. The shutoff switch is closed, and offers a lot less resistance than the water valve circuit.
Near the completion of the second rotation, the fill switch closes again for about 7-8 seconds, and this time the mold fills with water.
During the harvest cycle, a cam raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch is still closed, which keeps the motor turning. When you remove the plastic cover, you will see the motor gear turning and disengaged from the larger ejection drive gear.
The motor gear can be pressed back on and glued with superglue.Some of these machines have a "chiclet"-type thermal fuse (figure X-8) attached to the underside of the ice mold, near the icemaker head. If this fuse blows, the icemaker will not harvest, nor will the motor start when you try to manually initiate a harvest cycle.
The other two microswitches are the waterfill switch and the holding switch, both cam-operated.
Fortunately, they're pretty much commodity items at this point, and can be replaced for well under a hundred bucks.8-6 GE "BULLET" OR "BARREL" CUBE MACHINESThese machines produce five cylindrical cubes per harvest.
If there is an ice dispenser in the door, you may need to turn down the crescent cube size a little to get the cubes to go through the door properly.OPERATIONThe harvest cycle begins thermostatically at about 16 degrees. An ejection shaft through the bottom of the ice mold is attached to an ejection pad, which pushes the cubes vertically from the mold.
During the harvest cycle, the mechanism raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch keeps the motor turning. The icemaker will not be producing ice, and you're sure the freezer is cold enough, but manually jumping the thermostat produces a harvest.There are two test connections on the underside of the icemaker head. In both, a small rectangular plug in the bottom of the icemaker head can be removed to reveal two small holes. When the harvest cycle is initiated, it takes about eight minutes for the tray to rotate completely around and refill. Above 19 degrees, it will not produce ice at all.You can tell if the motor is turning by looking at the end of the motor shaft as shown on the illustration. There is an adjustment screw on the right side of the head, but the factory glues it in place during construction.
In fact, the factory doesn't want you messing with these machines at all; if they malfunction, the solution is to replace them. I have had a couple of these icemakers apart and I'd have to agree with the factory in this case. After you replace your old one, try pulling it apart and reassembling it and you'll see what I mean.A conversion kit is available to convert the refrigerator to a crescent-cube design, and I would highly recommend it. Instructions will be included in the conversion kit.During the harvest cycle in this design, the twisting action of the ice tray ends with a relatively violent SNAP! Over time this can have several adverse effects.The icemaker can begin to pull its wall mounts out of the freezer wall. Cubes on the high side of the mold may be too small, while cubes on the low side may be too large or even slab together, and fail to eject.The plastic mold (tray) can crack, especially around the hub.
If it is, there are a number of things that could be causing the icemaker to stop making cubes, but the solution to all of them seems to be to throw a new gear and pin set in both the front and back of the icemaker head.
Gear alignment instructions are included with the new gears.There is no way to manually initiate a harvest cycle in these machines.
When you replace and realign the gears and reinstall the icemaker, it will immediately enter a harvest cycle and fill with water.Time only accumulates on these icemakers when the cold control (the refrigerator's thermostat) is closed and the compressor is running. If the doors remain closed, the ambient air temperature (outside of the fridge) is low, and the compressor doesn't run much, you may experience low ice production.
Thus, the icemaker must be plugged in at all times, even if it's not being used to make ice. If you no longer use the icemaker and wish to remove it from your machine, a module is available that replaces the icemaker with a smaller "box" unit that just performs the defrost function.



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